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No.  1.  CHARLEMAGNE,  though  unable  to  write  his  own  name,  pro- 
moted schools,  arts,  civilization,  and  was  the  most  powerful  and  enter- 
prising monarch  of  his  day. 

No.  2.  JAMES  BOSWELL,  the  celebrated  biographer  of  Dr.  Samuel 
Johnson.  He  resembled  Johnson  as  a  fly  does  an  elephant,  while  his  self- 
assurance  and  impudence  have  rarely  been  equalled. 

No.  3.  CINGHALESE,  a  gentleman  from  the  mountains  of  Ceylon. 
No.  4.  JOHN  LOCKE,  a  distinguished  philosopher. 

No.  5.  TASMANIAN,  an  aboriginee  of  Tasmania.  His  head  does  not, 
while  his  face  does,  manifest  his  cruel  and  cannibal  habits. 

No.  6.  LOUD  BYRON,  a  poet  of  marvellous  genius. 

No.  7.  CASSIOS,  a  famous  Roman  general,  described  in  Shakespeare's 
"Julius  Caesar." 

No.  8.  REV.  ROWLAND  HILL,  an  English  clergyman. 

No.  9.  LAVATER,  an  eloquent  Swiss  preacher,  poet,  and  physiognomist. 

No.  10.  PAUL  I.,  Emperor  of  Russia,  as  his  feeble  face  indicates,  he 
was  one  of  the  weakest  rulers  in  Europe. 



NATURE'S  /,;,,fj.(| 










Complete  in  One  Uolumc 


'  In  Mystic  Characters,  our  Features  bear  the  Motto  of  our  Souls."— SIB  THOMAS  BROWNE. 


NEW   YORK  : 


129  EAST  28xn  STREET. 

Entered  according  to  act  of  Congress  In  the  year  1872  by  J.  Slmms,  M.D.,  In  the 
office  of  the  Librarian  of  Congress  at  Washington,  U.  8.  A. 

Entered  according  to  act  of  Parliament  In  the  year  1872  by  J.  Simms,  M.D.,  In 
Stationers'  Hall,  London,  England. 

J.  SIMMS.  M.D. 


W~  I 



THE  work  here  given  to  the  public  in  the  fruit  of  nearly 
twenty  years'  observation  and  study,  in  the  course  of 
which  the  discoveries  have  been  made  which  are  herein 
revealed  and  formed  into  a  new  system  of  Physiognomy, 
strictly  in  accordance  with  the  anatomical  structure  of 
the  human  body.  While  I  am  convinced  cf  the  vast 
importance  of  the  study  of  Physiognomy,  I  am  further 
persuaded  that  if  these  principles  were  fully  understood 
and  practised,  the  consequence  would  be,  not  only  a  regene- 
ration of  the  human  beings  now  living  in  the  world,  but 
the  generation  of  others  far  superior  to  those  who  now 
inhabit  the  earth,  and  many  of  whom  have  come  upon  it 
as  unwelcome  guests.  Vice,  easily  detected,  would  hide 
its  head,  and  gradually  disappear;  while  the  human  race 
would  become  refined  and  ennobled,  mentally,  morally, 
and  physically,  by  a  true  understanding  of  that  which 
improves  it  on  the  one  hand,  and  deteriorates  it  on  the 
other.  The  love  which  I  bear  towards  my  species,  my 
intense  desire  to  see  the  human  race  what  it  ought  to  be, 
and  is  capable  of  becoming,  has  prompted  me  to  give  this 
publicity  to  these  discoveries  in  Physiognomy.  They 



include  the  mental,  moral,  and  volitive  dispositions  of 
mankind,  as  manifested  in  the  human  form  and  counten- 
ance, together  with  the  signs  and  principles  of  each 
faculty;  and  they  are  illustrated  by  two  hundred  and  fifty 

It  has  been  necessary  to  coin  a  number  of  new  words 
to  designate  newly  discovered  faculties,  seeing  that  the 
English  language  contained  no  single  terms  to  express 
them.  To  Americans  it  is  necessary  also  to  explain  that 
the  work  having  been  printed  and  stereotyped  in  Britain, 
the  old  style  of  spelling  used  in  that  country  has  necessarily 
been  employed. 


THE  large  sale  of  the  present  work,  which  has  been  before  the  public  since 
1874,  has  encouraged  me  to  issue  a  new  edition  to  meet  the  demand. 

It  need  scarcely  be  told  that  the  physiogmonical  system  of  Lavater,  taking 
cognizance  only  of  the  facial  developments  and  the  head,  is  quite  exploded ; 
and  that  phrenology,  founded  on  the  structure  of  the  cranium  according  to 
Lavater' s  ideas  has  proved  fallacious.  It  is  my  undoubted  claim  that  the 
system  which  I  have  elaborated  is  the  only  one  now  extant  that  finds  any  favor 
among  scientific  men;  proceeding  as  it  does,  on  the  principle  that  the  soul, 
pervading  the  human  frame  throughout,  manifests  itself  in  the  face,  hands, 
neck,  cars,  hair,  voice,  all  parts  and  every  habitual  movement.  These  I  have 
been  observing  and  comparing  during  thirty  years  of  travel  in  Europe,  Asia, 
Africa,  America,  Great  Britain,  and  Australasia,  where  I  have  successfully 
laboured  as  a  lecturer  and  examiner  of  character.  Many  of  the  results  are  em- 
bodied in  the  present  work  ;  but  I  have  in  preparation  another  to  contain  sev- 
eral new  discoveries,  which,  however,  cannot  be  ready  for  publication  for  two 
or  more  years.  I  am  also  preparing  a  resume  of  some  recent  discoveries  respect- 
ing the  human  skull  and  its  connection  with  the  brain  and  the  mental  powers, 
the  design  being  to  correct  the  fallacies  which  have  been  taught  by  men  ignorant 
of  anatomy  and  guided  by  partial  observations  to  some  lucky  guesses  amid 
numerous  mistakes. 



The  term  Physiognomy— Earliest  Conditions  of  the  Science — Its  Progress- 
Greek  Philosophers— Roman  Authors— Middle  Ages— Authors  of  the 
16th,  17th,  and  18th  Centuries— La vater — Act  against  Physiognomists 
in  George  the  Second's  Reign — Surnames  taken  from  Physiognomical 
Peculiarities — Interest  Attaching  to  the  Science— Every  Variation  of 
Bodily  Form  or  Colour  corresponds  to  some  Mental  Characteristic — 
The  Variety  contributes  to  Unity — Causes  of  Physiological  Phenomena 
— Development  in  an  Infant — Effects  of  Various  Tempers  on  Feature — 
Physiognomy,  a  sure  and  cheap  Science,  slightly  understood  by  all, 
thoroughly  to  few — Its  Benefits — Importance  to  the  Merchant -The 
Clever  Shopman  instinctively  a  Physiognomist — how  it  leads  him  to 
act  towards  various  customers — Hairdressers — Anecdote  of  a  Clever 
Shopman— Universal  Application  of  the  Science — Evil  Results  from 
Ignoring  it— The  Pleasure  it  Affords— The  Moral  Results  of  its  Culti- 
vation,    .  .  3-38 


Question  of  Human  Responsibility— Ancient  Classification— Author's  Clas- 
sification and  Nomenclature:  Abdominal  Form;  Thoracic;  Muscular 
and  Fibrous ;  Osseous  or  Bony;  Brain  and  Nerve — Possibility  of  Change 
from  one  to  the  other, 39-44 


The  Facts  of  Nature  Obvious,  but  the  Reasons  Obscure— Earliest  Geolo- 
gical Animals  Abdominal— so  were  the  Earliest  Men— Characteristics  of 
the  Abdominal  Form — Its  Disadvantages — Anecdote — Food  Indisposes 
to  Mental  Activity — How  to  Cultivate  the  Abdominal  Tendency,  or 
Repress  it,  . 45-53 


The  Thorax,  What— Signs  of  the  Thoracic  -Mountainous  Regions  Favour- 
able to  it,  and  why— Its  Advantages  and  Disadvantages,  .  54-59 


Not  Dependent  on  Size— All  Art  is  an  Imitation  of  Nature — Two  Sets  of 
Muscles — Exercise  th#  Great  Developer  —  Dr.  Windship — Pure  Air 


Needful  -Eminent  Men  who  were  Muscular — Legitimate  Rest  Need- 
ful— Examples  of  Life  begun  in  Poverty — Modern  Aversion  to  Labour — 
Old  English  Runners — Gymnastics  among  the  Ancitmts  —  Causes  of 
Muscular  Degeneracy — Signs  of  Muscular  Force,  .  .  .  60-74 


Bony  Structure  gives  Firmness — Causes;  Food,  Exercise — Honesty  allied  to 
the  Bony,  Examples — Signs  of  this  Build — Same  holds  good  in  Animals 
— Structure  Hereditary — Early  Culture  of  Bone — Men  of  Genius  who 
combined  the  Bony  and  Brain  Forms, 75-82 


Its  Relation  to  the  Others — Signs — Dr.  Spraker — Changed  Appearance  of  a 
Boy  through  Study — Brain  Form  Exhausting— Is  Restored  by  Sleep — 
and  Physical  Labour— Injured  by  Stimulants  or  Accidents — Astley 
Cooper's  Anecdote  —  Brain  Injured  by  Overfeeding— Authors  of  the 
18th  Century  Abstemious  from  Poverty — Overworking  the  Brain — 
Hugh  Miller — Children  Overtasked  by  Teachers,  .  .  .  83-95 


Demolitiousness  and  Concealativeness  in  Nature — Not  Localized — Tendency 
to  Ascribe  Locality  to  Faculties — Ancient— Modern — So  with  Deity — 
Meaning  of  the  term  Faculty— Human  Faculties  are  not  Localized,  but 
their  Signs  are, 96-102 

Matter  and  Mind  Distinct — Mind  gives  Greatness  to  Matter —No  Certain 
Number  of  Mental  Faculties  -  Higher  Faculties  are  Products  of  Cultiva- 
tion— Prayer—  Christianity— Music — Language— Faculties  Propagate — 
Are  not  alike  in  All — Newton,  Columbus,  Davy,  Stepheuson— New 
Faculties  may  be  Discovered  in  Future  Times,  .  .  .  103-109 



A  Faculty,  What?— Variety  in  Strength  rather  than  Number— Every  Faculty 
Two-fold— Five  Classes  Dependent  on  Bodily  Structure  :  The  Selfish 
Will ;  the  Active  and  Courageous  ;  the  Opposing  ;  the  Stedfast ;  the 
Opinionative — Mental  Faculties  derive  Support  from  Corresponding 
Bodily  Materials — Appetite— Imitation — A  Man  can  Perform  Nothing 
but  from  Elements  in  Himself— Square,  Round,  Coloured,  &c. — Limit 
to  the  Cultivation  of  Faculties,  .  .  .  .  .  .  110-122 


Underlying  Principles —  Indications  of  A  cqnieaciveness— Causes,   .     123-125 


Mouth  the  Principal  Seat, »     •  •  12fl 

Its  Use — Cause  and  Operation— Signs,  ......  127 

Signs — How  Produced, .  128 

Signs — Cause, •  129 

Signs— Necessary  Bodily  Conditions, 130 

Signs— Reason 131 


Signs— Examples — It  Returns  Good  as  well  as  Evil— Requires  the  Muscular 

as  well  as  Abdominal — Nature  of  Fluids  to  be  Reflective,       .    132,  133 



Signs— How  Developed 134 

Signs— Developed  from  the  Thorax,  and  manifested  in  the  Nose,  .  135 

Signs— Origin  Twofold— Growth  Upward  and  Outward,        .         .  136 

Signs — Reaching  Powers  of  the  Nose,  how  increased— Telescope,  .  137 

Signs — Combative  Animals 138 

Sign  —A  Bow-shaped  Nose, 139 

Signs, 139 


Signs— Crow  a  good  Example— Owl  the  contrary-  How  the  Mental  Watch- 
fulness Works  the  Outward  Sign, 140 


blgns— Greyhound,   Pike,    Sloth— Long-shaped    Animals    Swift,    and    vie* 

versa,      . 141 


Skjns — Wedge-shaped  Pace  and  Protruding  Nose  indicative  of  a  Prying 
Disposition, 142 

Coarse,  Strong,  Well-defined  Features — Napoleon  the  Great,         .  142 


Disposition  to  Draw  the  Head  Backwards  and  Upwards  —Beau  Brummel  — 
Immanuel  Kant, 143-143 




The  Heavenly  Bodies  Circular  in  their  Forms  and  Motions  -  Good  Judges  of 
Time  round-faced,  .         .         .        .         .        .         .        .  146 

Signs — Lion — Giraffe  and   Rabbit  — An  English  Pugilist — A   Professor  of 

Belles  Lettres, 147,  148 

Signs, 149 


Signs — How  Developed, 150 


How  Manifested, 151 


Signs  —Locative  Habits,  how  produced, 151 


Round,  Outstanding  Ear — Roundness  of  Musical  Sounds,      .  152,  153 


Signs— Flexor  or  Closing  Muscles, 164 


Signs— Franklin,   , >        .    ,    .        •  155 


Signs  —The  Curved  Principle  Inherent, 156 


Signs— Earthy  Construction, 157 


Signs  -How  Res ol ting,          ........  158 



Signs— George  IIL — How  Developed, 159 

Signs— And  the  Principles  of  its  Manifestation,     ....  160 

Signs— How  Originating— and  Demonstrated,        ....  161 

Signs — Hog— Hottentot — Napoleon  I.  —  Distinguished   from  Voluntative- 

ness, 162 


Signs— Belongs  to  a  Low  Nature, 163 


Signs, 164 


Signs — Colour-blind  People— Eeason, 164,  165 

Signs — Strength  Necessary — Carnivorous  Animals— Broad  Make,      166,  167 


Signs  —  Produced    by    Frequent    Exercise  --  Abundance    of    the    Vital 
Fluids,   .  168 


Signs— Dependent  on  the  Size,  &c.,  of  the  Organs,        .        .  169,  170 


Signs— How  Produced, 171 


Signs -A  Transference  of  Vital  Energy, 172 

Signs — Sensitive  to  External  Influences, 173 

Signs —How  Developed, 173 


Appears  in  Permanent  Wrinkles,  where, 174,  175 

.    Signs— Chiefly  in  the  Mouth, 176 

Signs— In  the  Eyes  and  Eyebrows, 177,  178 

Signs — In  ths  Eye,  Forehead,  and  Carriage  of  the  Head,       .  179 

Signs -In  the  Neck -Napoleon  1 180,181 


Signs— In  the  Jaw  and  General  Configuration,       ....    l'<2,  183 

Signs— In  the  Chin, 184 



Signs— In  the  Eye  and  Nose-Tip, 185 


Shewn  in  Squareness  of  Face  -  Complexion  Suited  for  Iron- Working,        186 


General  Signs, 187 


Signs, 188 

Signs— In  the  Forehead,  Nose,  and  Length  of  Face,      .        .        .  189 

Signs— In  the  Features, 190 

Signs— In  the  Eyebrows— Darwin, 191 

Chief  Sign—  In  the  Jaw, 192-194 


Signs— In  the  Squareness  of  Structure, 195 


Signs— In  the  Eyebrows — How  Produced, 196 


Signs — In  the  Gait  and  Eyes, 197 


Signs -Chiefly  in  the  Nose— Squat-Build— Selfish,        ...  197 


Signs— In  the  Frontal  Bone  and  Nose —Why,        ....    198,199 


Signs— In  the  Forehead  and  Eyes, 200 


Siiewn  in  Coarse  Features— Why, 201,  202 

Signs— In  the  Lower  Forehead  and  Eyebrows,      ....  203 



Shewn  in  the  Jaw, 204 


Combination  of  Two  Faculties  and  their  Signs— Duke  of  Wellington,        S05 



Shewn  in  the  Forehead, 206 

Signs — Submissive  and  Unsubmissive  Animals,     ....    207,  208 



Signs -In  Harmonious  Structure, 209 


Evinced  in  the  Dreamy  Eye  and  Forward  Bend,    ....  210 


Signs, 211 


Chief  Sign— In  the  Forehead, 212 


Evinced  chiefly  by  the  Length  of  Neck, 213 


Shewn  in  a  Pear-Shaped  Face 214 


Evinced  by  the  Shape  of  Face  and  General  Organization,       .         .  215 


General  Appearance  -  How  Produced, 216 


Sign— In  the  Nose— Reason, 217 


Sign — In  the  Nose — Elephant, 218 


Faculty  Explained— How  Developed  in  the  Body,        .        .        .219,  220 

General  Signs, 221 


Signs  -  In  the  Forehead  and  Eyes, 222 



Full  Forehead  aiid  Pyriform  Face, 223 


Evinced  in  the  Uare,  Rabbit,  Hog, 224 


Signs  in  the  Eye,  and  Position  of  the  Head, 225 


Whence  Arising— How  Evinced, 226,  227 


Memory  of  Facts— How  Shewn  in  the  Forehead — Remarkable  Examples  of 
Memory— What  Impairs  Memory — Instances — Directions  for  Improving 

it— Danger  of  Over-taxing, 228,  234 

How    Evinced    in    the    Eyes — Signs    of   Imprudence    in    the    Nose    and 

Mouth, 234 

Disposition   to   Believe— The    Sensational   Department   analogous   to  this 

Faculty 235 


Medium  Construction  Necessary  to  this  Faculty,  ....  230 


Evinced  in  the  Position  of  the  Head, 2? 

Numerous  Signs—Qualities  Necessary  for  this  Faculty,     .  .   238,  23t 




Developed  in  a  Slim  and  Pliable  Structure— Inconsistent  with  the  Pre- 
dominance of  Bone  or  Nerve,  .  .  ,  .  .  .  240,241 

Shewn  in  Certain  Curves  about  the  Mouth, 242 



The  Indication  in  the  Man  Himself  exhibiting  a  Harmonious  Combination 
of  Material, 243 


General  Conditions, 244,  245 


—  Incompatible  with  a  Low  Flat  Nose— Requires  a  Well-balanced 
Structure, 246,  247 


European — American — Many  Races— Early  Giants— Physical  Causes  of 
Diminished  Stature  and  Improved  Mind,  ....  248-261 


Unchangeable  Colour  found  with  Incapability  of  Improvement — Darkness 
and  Barbarism  Synonymous— The  Darkest  Races  the  Oldest,  262-269 

No  Spontaneous  Generation — Signs  of  this  Capacity,     .        .        .     270-275 


Clothing— Food  — Lessons :  Obedience,  Love,  Observation,  Politeness, 
Gentleness,  Patience,  Commingling  of  Sexes,  Trade,  Perseverance, 

Vices, 276-294 

Lower  Animals— Signs  of  Quick    Temper    and   Slow   Revenge— Of  good 
Digestion — Of  weak  Kidneys— Of  base  or  Platonic  Love— Significance 

of  Eyes, .         .  295-301 


The  Milk  Sucked  in  Infancy — Food  of  English,  French,  and  Scotch  produc- 
ing Distinctive  Character, 302-309 

Smooth  and  Rough  Faces— Lines  Incident  to  each  of  the  Five  Structures, 

as  Abdominal,  &c. 310-315 


The  Atmosphere— Physical  Man  most  Perfect  in  Western  Asia — Degenera- 
tion as  He  Recedes  from  this  Centre — Structure  of  Continents — How 
Influencing  Civilization — Local  Causes  Affecting  Mind — Swamps  and 
Low  Lands — Hilly  Regions  Favourable,  ....  316-333 


Responsibility — Hereditary  Good  and  Evil  never  wholly  Eradicated  — 
Children,  unlike  their  Parents,  are  the  least  Susceptible  of  Culture — 
Examples  of  Inherited  Talent— And  Physical  Conformation,  .  334-338 

Variety  of  Face  —  Changing  with  the  Ages  of  the  World— And  the  Individual 

— Emineut  Men  most  Distinguishable, 339-344 

Definition— Idiots  and  Lunatics— Enthusiasts  and  Preachers,        .     345-350 

How  Recognized  by  the  Physiognomist — Examples :  Lincoln,  Webster, 

351  356 



Roundness  of  Vegetable  and  Animal  Lines — Influence  of  Large  Towns- 
Dispositions  of  Curly-Lined  Animals — Children  and  Negroes — Students 
—Mechanics  -British  Statesmen—  And  American,  .  .  357-303 


Principles— Tall  and  Short  Men — Different  Kinds  of  Step.  WALK  OR  GAIT— 
The  Natural :  Toddling,  Striding,  Lurching,  Sweeping,  Firm,  Shuffling, 
In-toed,  Splay-footed,  Plunging,  Fatuous — Artificial :  Military,  Clerical, 
Legal,  Medical,  Mechanical,  Tradesman,  ....  364-387 


Modes  of  Different  Nations— Hand  shaking— Varieties,         .        .  388-395 


Only  Human --  Not  necessarily  Vulgar— Varieties,         .        .         .  396-399 

Described — Various  Colours   Indicative  of  Temper — Texture— Quantity — 

Baldness, 400-408 


Cause    of  — Not     Found    in    the    Large    Boned— Character    of  Dimpled 

People, 409-413 


Origin  of  the  Word   Miser— General  Configuration— Niggards  sometimes 

Reputed  Liberal— Examples — Wrinkles,         ....  414-423 


Parental  Influences— Unbalanced  Minds,  how  indicated— Examples— How 
to  Cultivate  Harmony— Music, 424-433 


Sex  of  Soul — Masculine  Women— Uterine  Influences — Attraction  of  Mascu- 
line for  Feminine  Natures, 434-439 

Hardness  in  Minerals  and  Trees— Broad  and  Massive  Structure  in  Animals 

—And  Men, 440-445 


Arabia  the  Anti-industrial  Centre — Industrious  Nations —Signs  of  Indus- 
trious Disposition— Modern  Aversion  to  Labour —Physical  Training 
among  the  Ancients— Modern  Physical  Education, .  .  446-455 

Smooth  Faces— Boy  and  Man — Rogue's  Photographs,     .         .  456-460 

Hardness — Bony  Structures —The  Camel  and  Ass — Lincoln,  Westou,  Jsick- 

son,  Wellington, 461  4U-1 


British  Association— Signs  of  Longevity,  and  Causes— Long-lived  Animals 
and  Men— Term  of  Seventy  Yeara, 465-47  J 



Few  Persons  Perfectly  Formed— Causes— One-sided  Theology  and  Politics- 
Mammon -Worship,         .         .        .         .        .        .        .         .     474-481 

Animals  which  Vary  in  Colour  are  Capable  of  Improvement  -  So  Vegetables 

—The  Apple— The  Dog,  Horse,  Ox 482-484 

Plan  for  Speed  is  Length— For  Strength  is  Breadth —Examples  of  Men — 

Animals, 485-489 

Principles    of     Proportion     in     Animals     and    Trees  —  Windship    and 

Weston, 490-494 


Definition  of  Penetrate — Part  of  Speech — Perception  of  Character — Sharp- 
ness of  Features  denote  Astuteness  of  Intellect— Crow — Greyhound — 

Sharp  Noses,  Eye-bones,  Chins, '   495-496 


Ravages  of  Disease  —  Its  Causes  aud  Reasons  —  Signs  of  Cor  sumption, 
Dyspepsia,  Scrofula,  liver  Disease,  Chronic  Rheumatism,  Kidney 
Disease,  Love  Sickness — Anecdote — Private  Diseases —Medical  Practi- 
tioners,    497-504 

Beautiful  Human  Forms — Various  Disfigurements,  their  motives— Heads 
how  Disfigured — Noses— Ear-rings  and  Nose-rings — Mouths — Teeth — 
Tongues — Hands  and  Feet — Nails —Tight-lacing — Lorig  Feet — Pointed 
Shoes — Stocks  and  Collars— Hair— Tattooing — Widow's  Disfigurement — 
Face-patching — Freckles  and  Pimples — Tobacco  and  Alcohol —Tea  and 

Coffee-drinking, 505-536 

Rules  for  Discerning  Intelligence— The  Pointer  and  the  Bear — The  Hog, 
Opossum,    Rhinoceros,    compared  with  the   Ox— Human   Intelligence 

how  Evinced, 537-539 


Only  a  Few  Predominent  Men — Shakespeare— Napoleon— Outward  Marks — 
Examples  —  Children  not  Originators,  but  Imitators  —  Monkeys  and 
Sheep — Politics  and  Religion  produce  few  Originators,  many  Followers, 

why?— Despotic  Governments, 540-545 


Savages  Averse  to  all  Labour — Machinery  vermts  Hand  Labour-  Mental 
Labour  Exhausting — Slow  Development  of  some  Minds— A  European 
House  and  a  Pyramid  contrasted— Mental  Industry  in  Races— Signs 

of  it, 546-550 


Every  Faculty  has  its  Object  and  Enjoyment  in  it — Mental  Faculties  may 
be  Used  to  Excess — In  Moderation,  Intellectual  Pleasures  are  Superior, 
Lasting,  and  Cheap — Physical  Signs, 551-55* 



Some  Born  to  Govern -Signs  of  Leading  Men — Men  Distinguished  fo! 
Vigorous  Writing, 564-556 


Importance  of  Character — Reading  to  Employers  —Wavering  Characters  - 
Rousseau  and  Hume— Scotch  and  English — Gladstone — Anecdote  ol 
Scotch  Decision  —  Principles  underlying  Decision  —  Demosthenes- 
Caesar — Napoleon  I. — Franklin  —  Lincoln  —  Wellington  —  French  and 
Germans — Physical  Signs— Causes  —Strong  Bone— Influence  of  Food — 
Jackson— a  Thief— Decision,  not  Dependent  on  Bulk — Mechanics 
seldom  Thieves— Dr.  Pritchard— Dr.  Beecher— John  Locke — Work, 
the  Foundation  of  Noble  Character, 557-667 


Humility  towards  God,  Wise  —Towards  Men,  indicates  Want  of  True  Dignity 

— Few  People  Love  to  be  Humble  to  All— Many  Bow  to  some  One 

Master — Sign  in  the  Carriage  of  the  Head — Moderate  Humility  gives 

Engaging  Manners— Affectation  of  Humility,          .        .        .     668-571 


Nature  Teems  with  Life  — First  Men  were  Coarse  and  Dark — Whiter  Races 
Produced  when  the  Earth  became  Cooler —  Still  Superior  may  Yet 
Come  Forth— First  Men  had  Little  Mind  —Affliction  Refines  Mind — 
Butterfly— Human  Species  might  be  Improved  by  More  Careful 
Breeding — Signs  of  a  Large  Soul— Future  Life  will  be  a  Development  of 

Mind  and  Soul, 572-577 


Dependent  on  Parentage  —  Influence  of  Consanguinity  on  Offspring — 
Harmony  rather  than  Beauty,  Desirable— Importance  of  Suitable  Mating 
— How  to  Ensure  it  -  Fair-haired  People  should  Marry  Black-haired 
—a  Large  Mouth,  a  Small  One,  &c. — We  cannot  Destroy  any  Faculty, 
but  Restrain  or  Cultivate— By  Food,  Study,  Self-control,  and  Well- 
directed  Love, 678-5S6 

Symmetry  and  Proportion  contrasted— Beauty  in  Sentiment  and  Love  — 
Edmund  Burke's   Analysis  of -Beauty  in  Form  and  Colour  — Sign  - 

Manner  of  Culture, 687-^91 


The  Father  of  Sir  Robert  Peel— Culture  of  Sir  Robert— Advantages  of— 
Sign— Success  somewhat  Dependent  upon  Attention,  .  .  592-5J4 

Falsity  of  Ideas  based  on  Fashion— All  Life  tends  to  Reproduction— Si^bt 
more  likely  to  Deceive  than  Reason  -Examples— Nothing  in  Nature 
is  Annihilated— Change  is  the  Law  of  Nature— The  Desire  of  Future 
Life  an  Evidence  that  there  will  be  Oiie— Use  of  us  here  as  BricKS  in  a 
Building — Will  be  similarly  Wanted  for  a  Future  Life,  ,  .  595  C(i3 




Tbc  Abdominal  Form  Large— The  Claimant  for  the  Tichborne 

Estate,    ........  46 

The  Abdominal  Form  Small— Wallace  of  Kelly,     ...  46 

The  Thoracic  Form  Large— William  III.,    ....  66 

„            „      Small,    ......  66 

The  Muscular  Form  Large — S.  Judas  Thadetts,       ...  61 

„             ,,      Small — Princess  Anne,             ...  6- 

The  Osseous  or  Bony  Form  Large — Lowrie  Coulter,            .            .  76 

„          „        „      Small-G.  W.  M.  Nutt,   ...  77 

The  Brain  and  Nerve  Form  Large  —  John  Price,      ...  83 

„                „          „        „     —Dr.  Spraker,    ...  84 

„          „     Small -George  III.,     ...  84 

„                „          „     Large— R«v.  S.  H.Tyng,         .            .  85 

,,                ,,          „     Small  -Thomas  Cribb,            .            .  86 

Welsh  Woman,         .......  124 

Mrs.  Bachus,             .......  124 

A  Fort  Rupert  Indian,          .            .            .            .            .            .  126 

Horace  Greeley,        .            .            .            .            .            .            .  126 

George  Morland,       .            .            .            .            .            .            .  127 

Nicholas  Coj  lernicus,             ......  127 

Robert  Gregson,        .......  129 

Nana  Narian,             .......  129 

Samuel  R.  Ward, .130 

David  Duncan,  a  Hermit  of  Michigta,         .            .            .            .  130 

David  Hume,             .......  131 

Gustavus  III.,           .......  131 

Thomas  Becon,          .            .            .            .            .            .            .  135 

Thomas  Molineanz,  .            .            .            •            •            •            .  135 

Lavater,         ........  137 

Chinese  Woman,        .            .            .            •            .            .            .  137 

Owl, 140 

Crow,             ........  140 

Beau  Brummel,  a' noted  Fop  of  England,     ....  144 

Immanuel  Kant,       .            .            .            .            .            .            .  144 

Bach,             ........  146 

An  Indian  of  Callam  B»y,    .                        „  146 

John  Broughton,                                  •            «  148 

Joseph  Justus  Scalliger,        .             •           .            •            ,            .  148 



A  Lion, '    .  148 

A  Giraffe, 148 

A  Squirrel,    ........  150 

J.  H.  Newman,  D.D.,           ......  152 

Tamberlik 152 

The  Unmusical  Ear,              ......  153 

The  Ear  of  Adeline  Patti,     ......  153 

Mr.  E.  F.  Simms,      .......  155 

Miss  Stuart,  ........  155 

Miss  Harriet  C.  Hosmer,       .            .            .            .            .            .  156 

Jim,  a  I 'in to  Indian,              .            .            .            .            .            .  156 

Commodore  Vanderbilt,        .            .            .  157 

A  Squanderer,  .....                         .  157 

Mrs.  Margaret  Fuller  Osoli,              ...  158 

Brigham  Young,        .......  158 

A  Chinese  Woman,  .            .            .            .            .             .            .  159 

George  III.,  ........  159 

Thomas  C.  Haliburton  (Sam  Slick),             ....  161 

Charles  I., 161 

Napoleon  I.,  .             .            .            .            .            .            .            .  162 

The  Eye  of  Mrs.  Margaret  F.  Osoli, .....  163 

The  Eye  of  Brighara  Young,             .            .            .            .            .  163 

The  Head  of  a  Hog,  .            ......  163 

The  Head  of  a  Turtle-Dove  (Turtur  Auritus),         ...  163 
William   Ross,    employed   in   Chambers's   Publishing   House  in 

Edinburgh,         .......  165 

Antonio  Allegri,  or  Corregio,            .....  165 

B.  Gosse,  Esq.,          .......  166 

John  R,  Webster,      .            .            .            .            .            .            .  166 

The  Head  of  a  Hare,             ......  167 

The  Head  of  a  Tiger,             ......  167 

A  Loving  Italian  Mother,     ......  168 

John  B.  Gough,         .......  170 

Deaf  and  Dumb  Girl  of  Illinois        .....  170 

A  Parrot,       ........  170 

Marchioness  of  Hertford,      .            .            .            .            .            .  171 

Henry  VIII.,                          ......  171 

An  Irish  woman  of  Edinburgh,        .....  174 

Mary  F.  Scott  Siddons,         .            .            .            .            .            .  174 

CJyrus  W.  Field, 175 

A  Selfish  Cat,            .......  175 

An  Irish  Peasant,     .......  176 

Parepa    Rosa,            .......  176 

A  Duck, 177 

A  Canary,      ........  177 

A  Digger,  an  Indian  of  California,   .            .            .            .            .  178 

The  Chetah,  or  Hunting  Leopard,    .            .            .            .            .  179 

Thomas  Pair,            .......  180 


P   Gl 

A  Chimpanzee,  taken  from  life,  in  the  Zoological  Garden*  of  London,      181 

An  Ostrich,   ........  181 

An  Asiatic  Elephant,            ......  181 

Jacob  Strawn,  an  extensive  farmer  and  cattle  dealer  of  Illinois,     .  182 

Mr.  T.  Glover,  a  Dry  Goods  merchant  of  Quebec,  .            .            .  183 

Thomas  Cook  and  Wife  (Avarice),  .....  184 

Linnaeus,       ........  185 

A  Chinese  Woman,  .......  185 

James  Watt, ........  186 

P.  T.  Barnum,          .......  186 

Edwin  Booth,           .......  188 

A  Disorderly  Flat-head  Indian,       .....  188 

Edward  V., 189 

An  Old  Cardinal,       .......  189 

Peter  Cooper,            .......  190 

An  Australian  Man,             ......  190 

Montesquieu,             ........  191 

Louis  W.  Jackson,    .......  191 

Charles  Darwin,        .......  192 

Persistenacity  very  Large,   ......  193 

Johnny,  Persistenacity  very  Small, .....  193 

A  Prairie  Wolf,  or  Coyote,    ......  193 

A  Bull-dog, 193 

John  Tetzel,  the  dishonest  face,        .            .            .            .            .  194 

Andrew  Jackson,  the  honest  face,     .....  194 

Lizzie  Smith,  a  pickpocket,  .            .            .            .            .            .  195 

William  Tyndale,  a  martyr,              .....  195 

Lord  George  Lyttleton,  who  was  unable  to  learn  the  common 

rules  of  Arithmetic,       ......  196 

Thos.  Allen,  the  first  Mathematician  of  his  day,     .            .            .  196 

Mr.  Holcraft,  of  California— Suggestiveness  Large,             .            .  198 

J.  B.  Porta,  the  Inventor  of  the  Camera  Obscura  and  Physiognomist,  199 

Hev.  J.  G.  Lavater,  Poet  and  Physiognomist,          .            .            .  199 

Mrs.  Lydia  H.  Sigourney,     ......  200 

Catharine  II.,            .......  200 

Prof.  S.  F.  B.  Morse, 201 

Geo.  IV., 202 

J.  Q.  A.  Ward,  Sculptor,      ......  203 

Charles  XIL,  of  Sweden,      ......  204 

Ristori,  Actress,       .......  204 

The  Head  of  a  Hunting  Horse,         .....  205 

The  Head  of  an  Ass,             ......  205 

A  Chinese  Girl,         .......  205 

The  Duke  of  Wellington, 205 

Thomas  D' Urfey,  an  impractical  English  Poet,       ...  206 

C.  M.  Wieland,  a  practical  Poet  of  Germany,          .            .            .  206 

Ambrose  Pare,  a  distinguished  French  Surgeon,     .            .            .  209 

Ratasse,  Prince  of  Madagascar,                     ....  209 



Charles  James  Fox,  .            *           .            .            .            .            •  21 1 

John  El  wes,  a  noted  Miser  of  London,        .            .            .            .  211 

Elizabeth  Canning — Meutiinitativenesa  Large,        .            .            .  212 

Mary  Squires,  the  Gipsy,      .                      * .            .            .            .  212 

Pviilof,  a  murderer,    .            .            .            .            .            .            .  213 

Mrs.  Josephine  A.  Prosch,  of  New  York,    .            .            .            .  213 

Ute  Indian,  of  Salt  Lake,     .            .            .            .            .            .  215 

Samuel  L.  Clemens  (Mark  Twain),  Author  of  Innocents  Abroad.    .  215 

Kettle,  a  Selfish  Indian  Chief,  of  Washington  Territory,    .            .  217 

Charlemagne— ^Estheticalness  Large,          ....  217 

Flavins  Josephus — Carefulness  Large,         .            .            .            .  219 

Thomas  Hudson,  notoriously  Unfortunate,              .            .            .  219 

James  Fisk,  jr.,  of  Erie  Railroad  notoriety,            .            .            .  220 

John  Milton — Spementality  Large, .....  220 

A  Patagonian — Puritati  veness  Small,          ....  221 

Lucretia  Mott,  a  Quakeress  Preacher,          ....  221 

Simon  Fraser  Lovit— Intuiti veness  Small,  .            .            .            .  222 

Giuseppe  Mazzini,  a  talented  Italian  Patriot,          .            .            .  222 

Mr.  Thos.  Rogerson — Literativeness  Small,             .            .            .  223 

John  Rnskin,  a  brilliant  Author  and  Art  Critic,    .            .            .  223 

The  Duchess  of  Kent,  the  Mother  of  Her  Majesty,  Queen  Victoria,  224 

Nathaniel  Bently,  the  dirtest  Man  in  England,      .            .            .  224 

Nero— Pitifulness  very  Small,          .....  226 

Baroness  Angela  Georgina  Burdett-Coutta,              .            .            .  226 

Lamartine  -  Imaginativeness  Large,             ....  227 

A  Babbler —Imaginativeness  Small,             .        /    .            .            .  227 

Frederick  H.  A.  Baron  von  Hurnboldt,        ....  228 

Miss  Catharine  Dunn,  whose  weight  is  425  Pounds,           .            .  228 

A  Saucy  Boy,  of  Jacksonville,  Illinois,        ....  234 

John  Sherman,  U.S.,  a  Senator  from  Illinois,          .            .            .  234 

Voltciire— Credulousness  Small,        .....  235 

Wm.  Harvey.  M.D.,  who  discovered  the  Circulation  of  the  Blood,  235 

D.  Fernando  VII.,  a  Tyrant,             ....  237 

Count  D'Orsay— Courteousness  Large,         ....  237 

Abbey  Kelley  Foster — Attentiveness  Large,           .            .            .  238 

His  Majesty  Pomarre,  King  of  Taheite,       ....  238 

Robespierre,  a  Bloody  Tyrant,          .....  239 

Eustache — Sympatheticalness  Large,           ....  239 

A  Swan -Graceful  ness  Lart/e,           .....  240 

A  Male  Hippopotamus,  taken  from  lifo,  in  the  Zoological  Gardens 

in  London,         .......  2tl 

Caius  Julius  Caesar,  the  Dictator,    .....  242 

A  Kyast  Banian  Man,  of  Surat,  in  India,    ....  242 

Cut  Nose,  an  Indian,            ......  243 

G.  F.  Handel— Physioharmoniti veness  Large,          .            .            .  243 

Sarah  and  John  Rovin,  aged  164  and  172  respectively,       .            .  244 

Petrarch  Zortan,  185  years  of  age,   .            .            .                         .  245 

A  Flat  Head  Indian, 24? 



A  Quatsino  Indian,   ......  245 

Dr.  John  Hunter,      .            .                                      ...  24i 

Foolish  Sam— Deductivenesa  Small,             ....  246 

John  Locke— Deducti veness  Large,*.            ....  246 

King  William,  of  Prussia,     ......  248 

A  Flat-head  Indian,  Front  and  Profile,        ....  249 

A.  Quatsino,  of  the  N.  W.  Coast  of  Vancouver  Island,         .            .  20 

A  murderous  Indian  of  Minnesota,  .....  250 

A  Digger  Indian,  of  California  (full  length),            .            •.            .  251 

Orison  J.  Stone,  of  Boston,  ......  282 

Negro  Boy,    .......  282 

John  Wyckli  fife,         .            .            .                         .            .            .  290 

John  Broughton,  a  bloodthirsty  Pugilist.     ....  291 

Love  and  Obedience,             .......  292 

Hate  and  Disobedience,        ..».-.  292 

David  Hume,             .......  296 

Gustavus  III.,           .......  2% 

Vitellius,  a  good  Digestion,  .            .                         ....  297 

Charles  VI.,  Emperor  of  West  Austria,       .  .298 

Aulus  Vitellius,  Emperor  of  Rome.              .            .            .            .  311 

Foolish  Sam,              .......  348 

Major,  a  Lunatic  of  Glasgow,       .     .            .            .            ,            .  349 

Curly  Face,  ...  .  .359 

Straight  Face,            .            .            .            .            .            .            .  359 

Systematic  and  Straightforward  Gentleman,            .            .            .  360 

Surly  and  Deceptive  Scamp,             .....  360 

A  Curly,  Ambitious,  and  Jealous  Dog;        ....  363 

Foolish  Mary,            .            .            .            .            .            .            .  368 

Bob  Dreghorn— The  Striding  Gait,  .            ....  370 

Blind  Alick— The  Sweeping  Gait,    .....  374 

Captain  Paton,  of  Glasgow, ......  3SO 

David  Dale,  a  Good  Man,     ......  384 

Filament  of  Wool,     .......  403 

Negro  Hair,  .........  403 

Love,  Faith,  Intuition,  and  Innocence,       ....  409 

Miss  Margaret  Clephne,        .            .            .            .            .            .  417 

John  Elwes,       ........  419 

Daniel  Dancer,  a  Miser  and  Hermit,            ...            .            .  420 

David  Duncan,  Hermit  of  Michigan,              ....  426 

Washington  Irving,  .......  426 

Rev.  John  Summerfield,                   .             ....  435 

Miss  Rosa  Bouheur,                                       ....  436 

Egbert,  Kin?  of  the  West  Saxons,    .....  439 

Diogenes,  '  Jynic  Philosopher,        .....  457 

Lucitii  A.r.n»us  Seneca,  a  celebrated  Roman  Philosopher, .            .  458 

A  Scotchman,  of  Edinburgh,            .....  459 

Greyfriar's  Bobby,     .            .            .            .            .            .            .  481 

A.  Macrone,    ........  507 

3mv  1LL17STRATIOW. 


A  Quatsino,  Indian  Girl,      ......  608 

A  Cnmaua  Woman,  .......  508 

A  Welsh  Woman,     .......  609 

An  Egyptian  Man,    ...  ...  609 

A  Muscovite  Man,    .......  610 

A  Flat-head  Indian,  ......  610 

A  West  India  Man,  .......  510 

A  Greek  Man,  .......  510 

A  Scythian  Man,      .  .  .  .  .  .  .  511 

A  Belini  Man,  .......  512 

A  Woman  of  Zanzibar,         .  .  .  .  .  .  513 

A  Woman  of  Scatia,  .  .  .  ...  .  513 

A  Peruvian  Man,      .......  513 

A  Persian  Man,         .......  513 

A  Kyast  Banian  Woman,  of  Surat,  in  Western  India,        .  .  514 

A  Flat-head  Indian,  .  .  .  .  .  514 

A  Cornori  Woman,  .......  515 

A  Cochi  Woman,      .......  515 

A  Woman  of  Turkey,  ......  516 

An  Ethiopian,  .......  516 

A  ParieMan,  .......  517 

A  Macus  Man,          .......  517 

A  Tanibalian,  .......  517 

A  Portuguese  Woman,         .  .  .  .  .  .  518 

A  Chinese  Man,        .......  518 

Miss  Tight-laced,      .......  519 

Natural  Waist,         .......  519 

A  Chinese  Woman,  .......  521 

A  Sciopede  Man,       .......  521 

A  China  Man,  .......  523 

Captain  Staddon,  of  Fan  Francisco,  ....  524 

Rev.  Henry  Ward  Beechcr, .....  525 

Fashionable  Head  dress  of  U.  S.  A.  in  I860,  .  .  528 

A  Digger  Indian,  attired  for  an  annual  War  Dance,  .  .  529 

An  Indian  of  Arizona,  ......  630 

A  Samian  Man,         .......  530 

A  Digger  Indian,  of  Califi  r/.ia,         .....  5..1 

Hon.  Daniel  Webster,  ......  532 

An  Irish  Peasant,     ....  633 

Upwards  of  40  portraits  have  been  added  to  this  book  since  this  list 
of  illustrations  was  compiled. 


The  pronunciation  is  given  immediately  after  each  word  in  the  following 

list,  by  the  word  being  spelt  anew  phonetically.     The  number  of  the  page 

where  the  literal  meaning  of  the  word  may  be  found  is  given  opposite  each 
word  respectively. 


Arquieaciveness,  5k'-kwI-e1s"-sKv-iie's           ..         ..  ..  ..  ..  123 

Animalimitationality,  an'-l-mal-inu-ta'-shun-aT-I-ty  .,  .,  ..  126 

Aquasorbitiveness,  ak'-kwa-sor'-bit-lv-ne's  ..          ..  ..  . .  . .  127 

Puyaioelpidicity,  fiz'-l-6-eT-pi-dls"-i-ty      .,         . .  ,.  ,.  ..  128 

Graspativenesa,  gras'-pa't-iv-ne's         129 

Associativeneaa,  as-so-see-a'-tiv-nes              .*          , .  . .  ..  ..  130 

Appetitiveness,  Sp'-pe'-ti'-tiv-ne's       ..         ..         ,.  . .  ..  ..  131 

Eetaliativeness,  re-tal-H-a'-tiv-ne's     ..         ..         ..  ..  . .  ..  132 

Seutinelitiveness,  sgn'-ti-ner'-i-tiv-nea         ..          ..  . .  ,.  ..134 

Morivalorosity,  mo'ri-val-o  ros"-i-ty            ..         ..  ..  ..  ..  13-5 

Elevativeneas,  el-e-va'-tiv-nea           ..          ..          . .  ..  ..  . .  136 

Olfactiveness,  o'l-fak'-tiv-ne's             137 

Resistativeness,  re-zis'-ta-tiv-ne's      ..          ..         ..  ..  ..  ..  138 

Assaultativeneas,  as-sauU'-ta'-tiv-ne'a            ..          ..  ..  ..  ..  139 

Watchfulness,  watch'ful-nea              ..          ..          ..  ..  ..  ,,  139 

Suspiciousness,  sus-pish'-iis-ne's         ..          ..         ..  ..  ..  ,.  140 

Locomotivity,  lo'-ko-mo-tlv'-i-ty      ..          ..         ..  ..  ..  ..  141 

Inqnisitiveuess,  iM-k\viz'-it-iv-nea     ..          ..          ..  ..  ..  ..  142 

Am  biliousness,  atn-i'ish'-us-nSs         ..         ..          ..  ..  ..  ..  142 

Autohegemony,  aw'-to-he-^Sm"-6-ny          ..          ..  ..  ..  ..  143 

Teinporinaturalitivene -s,  tem'-po-ri-nat'-u-ral'-t-tiv-nes  ..  ..  ..  146 

Physiovalorosity,  tiz'-i-6-val'-'>-ios"-i-ty      ..          ..  ..  ..  ..  147 

Sophisticalness,  so-fis'-ti-kal-ne'd       ..          ..          ..  ..  ..  ..  149 

P.ayfulness,  pla'-lul-nes         ..          ..          ..          ..  ..  ..  ..  150 

Intermutativeness,  in-te'r-mu'-ta-tTv-ne's      ..          ..  ..  ,,  ,.  151 

Philomonotopicalness,  fi'-lo-mon'  o-top-i-kal-nSs  ..  ..  ..  ..  151 

Tonireceptionality,  toV-f-re-sep'-shun-ai'-i-ty         ..  ..  ..  ..  152 

Concealativeness,  koa-see'-la-tiv-n£a             ..          ..  ..  ..  ..  154 

Eionomosity,  e-kon'-6-mos"-slty       ..         ..         ..  ..  ..  ..  155 

Curativeness,  ku'ra-liv-ne's     ..          ..          ..          ..  ..  ..  ..  156 

Actumulativeness,  ak'-ku-nm-la"-tiv-nes    ..          ..  ..  ..  ..  157 

Monoeroticity,  m8n'-6-Sr'-6-tis"-i-ty            ..         ..  ..  ..  ..158 

Voluntativeness,  v6'-liin-ta"-tiAr-ne3             . .          . .  . .  . .  . .  169 

Merriness,  meV-i  nSs  ..          ..         ..         ..         ..  ..  ..  ..  160 

Providentness,  pro'v'-i-de'nt-ne's          ..         ..          ..  ..  ..  ..     161 

Contrativeness,  kSn'-tra-tiv-n^s         ..         ..          ..  ..  ..  ,.  162 

Polyeroticity,  pol'-i-Sr-6-ti8"-i-ty      ..          ..          ..  ..  ..  ..  163 

Mnemoniconominality,  ne-m8n'-i-k8n-8m-i-n^l"-i-ly  ,.  ,.  ,,  164 

Chromaticalness,  kro-mat'-T-kal-ngs  ..          ..          ..  ,,  ..  ..  164 

Demolitiousness,  de-mo-lish'-iis-ne's              ..          ..  ..  ..  ..  166 

Philonepionality,  fi'-lo-ne'-pe-o-nal"-Y-ty    ..          ..  ..  .  ..  168 

Linguist! ven ess,  llng-gwist'-iv-nes 
Physiodelectatiousness,  fiz'-i-6-de-le'k-ta"-shu8-ne's 
Curativeness,  ku'-ra-tlv-nea    . .          . .          . .          . . 

Solicitireputativeness,  so-lis'-T-ti-re'p-n-ta"-  tiv-n£s 
Inexorableness,  in-e'gz'-o-rab-e'l-ne'a  ..          ., 

Conaecutiveuesa  kfin-sSk'-u-tiv-nes  ..          ..          .. 

Sonidiffusitiveness,  ao-ni-dlf-fu'-ai-tfv-ne's  .. 

..  169 

..  171 

..  172 

..  173 

..  173 

..  174 

..  176 

Decorativeness,  dek-6-ra'-tiv-n£a      ..         ..          . .          ..          ..         ..  177 




HuntativeneB!",  hunf-B-tiv-nSs           ..         .,         ;           179 

Sagacitiveness,  sa-gas-i-tlv-ng*         ..         ..         ..          ,.         ,,         ..  180 

Tradativeness,  trad'-a-tiv-ne'a             ..         ..         ,.         .,         .,          ,.  182 

Adaptativenesa,  a-dap'-tS-tiv-nes       ..         ..         ,.           .         ..         ..  183 

Discriminativeness,  uIs'kiiiu-T-na"-tiv-ne's  ..         ..           .          ..          ..  185 

Structurodt'iterity,  8truk/-tu-r6-d«x-ter"-I-ty         186 

Ordiniphysicality,  8r'-din-ii-tiz-i-kal"-I-ty   ..         ..           .         .,         ..  187 

Angularitiveness,  ang-gu-lar'-i-tiv-n&         ..         ..           188 

Beneficentness,  be-nef-i-sSat-nSs       ..         .,         ,.         ..         ..         ..  189 

Decisiveness,  de-  ai'-siv-nes      ..         ..         ..         .,         ..         .,         ..  190 

Observativeness,  6b-zer'-va-tiv-n§8    ..         ..         ..         ..         ..         ..  191 

Peraistenacity,  per-zis-ten-a'-ai-ty      ..         ..         ..         ..         ..         . .  192 

Rectituditiveneas,  rek-ti-tu'-di-tiv-ne's          194 

Computationumericality,  k&m-pu-ta'-ab.o-nu-me'i-f-kal-Y-ty           . .         *.  196 

Solidativeneas,  sfil-l-da'-tiv-nes          ..          ..          ..         ,.         .,         ..  197 

Suggeativeneaa,  auj-jeV-tiv-nea          ..         ..         .,         .,         .,         .*.  197 

Chttracterioscopicity,  kar-ak-tSr'-i-6-skd-pia3"-I-ty            . .         ..         . .  198 

Amicitiveneas,  am-i-si'-tiv-n^a           ..          ..          ..          ..          ..         ..  200 

Originativeness,  o-rij-m-a'-tiv-nSa    ..         ..         . .         ..         ..         . .  201 

Mensurativeness,  m£n-su-ra'-tiv-nea . .          . .         .            . .           .         ..  203 

Pertinaciousness,  pcr-ti-na'-shus-nes ..          ..          .           .  t           •         • .  20 1 

Temporimfchanicality,  tem'-po-ri-m^-kan-i-kal'-I-ty        ..           .         ..  205 

Practicalitiveness,  prak-tl-kal'-i-tiv-n^s       ..         .           . .           .         ..  206 

Reverentialness,  rev'-gr-gn"-ahal-nes            ..         .           ,,           .         ..  207 

Ordinimentality,  8r'-dia-i-men-tal"-l-ty      ..         .           ..           .         ..  209 

Presrience,  pre'-thens  ..          ..          ..          . .          . .         . .          . .          ..210 

Susceptibleneas,  sus-s^p'-tible-nes     ..          ..         ..         ..         ..          ..211 

Mentimitaliveness,  ment-im-i-ta-tiv-nSs      ..         ..         ..         ..         ..212 

Affdblenesa,  af-able-n«a         21? 

Salitiveness,  sal'-i-tiv-n^s ..  214 

Sublimitasity,  siib  llm-K-tas'-i-ty ..215 

Futuritiveness,  fu-ture'-i-tiv-nes      ..          ..          ..          . .          . .         ..  216 

j&atheticalneas,  ace-thet'-i-kal-ngs 217 

Carefulness,  kair'-fttl-ngs        218 

Spementality,  ape-m^n-tal'-i-ty         21f 

Puritativeness,  pu-ri-ta'-tiv-ngj         ..         ..         ..         ..         ..         ..  221 

Intuitiveneas,  In-tu'-Tt-Tv-nes            ..         ..         ..         ..         ..         ..  22? 

Literativeness,  Ift'-tgr-a-tiT-ngs         223 

Cleanness,  kleen'-nea  ..          ..         ..          ..          ..          ..          ..          ..  224 

Pitifulness,  plf-I-ful-c^s         225 

Imaginativeness,  Im-maj'-in- a- tiv-n£s          ..         ..         ..         ..         ,.  22P 

Faclimemoriativenes^,  fak'-ti-ni^in-6"-ri-S-tiv-n28..          ..          ..          ..  228 

Prudentiality,  prii  dgn-ahe-al'-ll-ty 234 

Credulousness,  kr&T-u-lus-ne'a           ..          . .          ..         ..          ..         ..  23i 

Courteousness,  kort'-yiis-nes  ..          ..          ..          . .          ..          .,          ..  236 

Attentivenesa,  at-t^n'-tlv-ne's  . .         ..         ..         ..                    ..         ..  237 

Sympatheticalness,  slm-pa-the't'-T-kal-iie'a    ..         ..                    ..         ..  238 

Gracefulness,  graisa'-f til- He's ..         ..  240 

PrOiperativeness,  prSs-speY-a-tlv-ne's           ..          ..                     ..          ..  242 

Phyaioharmonitiveness,  liz-i-o-har-mon'-i-ttv  nSs..                      ,.          ,.  248 

Proportionativen^ss,  pro  por'-ahiia-ate-Iv-nes          ..                      »t         ..  214 

Deduct! veneaa,  de-duk'-tiv-nea          . .         ..  2i6 

Nor*. — Prone unce  a  as  a  in  fate ;  a  an  in  fat;  a  as  in  father. 

„         e  as  e  in  me;  in  m£t. 

w         i  as  i  in  fine ;  t  as  in  fin. 

„         obaoinno;  o  as  in  i5t. 

„         a  as  u  in  pure  ;  u  as  in  >ut ;  (i  aa  u  in  rxile. 


FOR  the  science  upon  which  we  propose  to  treat,  a  science 
so  comprehensive  in  its  grasp,  and  embracing,  as  it  does, 
those  mysterious  principles  of  nature  itself,  which  are  so 
apparent  in  their  manifestations,  and  yet,  in  the  eternal 
conditions  of  their  origin,  so  impervious  hitherto  to  the  most 
indefatigable  and  unwearied  researches  of  master  minds,  we 
have  no  more  fitting  a  term  than  that  of  "Physiognomy;" 
a  designation  all  too  inadequate  in  the  poverty  and  con- 
tractedness  of  its  literal  significance,  to  draw  together,  and 
fully  to  shadow  forth  in  one  word,  the  infinity  of  meaning 
which  has  its  abode  within  the  range  of  the  subject. 
Adopted  at  an  epoch  when  little  more  than  the  merest 
outline  of  facial  peculiarity  was  wanted  to  be  expressed, 
when  comparatively  little  importance  was  attached  to  these 
peculiarities,  and  when,  it  need  scarcely  be  said,  the  subse- 
quent importance  to  which  this  department  of  Nature's 
mystic  operations  was  destined  to  attain,  was  never  so 
much  as  thought  or  dreamed  of,  the  term  "  Physiognomy  " 
performed  its  indicative  functions  passably  well.  As,  how- 
ever, through  the  slow  course  of  centuries,  the  importance  of 
the  science  became  better  appreciated,  and  its  ultimate  com- 
prehensiveness began  to  be  faintly  shadowed  forth,  the 
poverty  of  the  term  fell  further  and  further  short  of  the 
widened  signification  which  it  was  called  upra  to  do  duty 


for;  and  but  for  this  slow  and  almost  imperceptible  ripening 
into  maturity  to  which  we  have  alluded,  the  term  would 
have  been  left  far  astern  and  become  disused,  as  all  too 
insufficient  for  its  purpose.  Had  the  science,  for  instance^ 
through  some  intellect  far  in  advance  of  its  times  during  the 
middle  ages,  advanced  with  giant  strides  into  broad  day,  and 
made  as  much  progress  in  ten  years  as  hardly  ten  long 
centuries  have  sufficed  to  achieve,  then  would  the  term 
"  Physiognomy  "  have  been  doomed ;  but,  until  very  recently, 
no  such  sudden  advance  has  been  made,  and  the  word  has 
been  retained  with  a  gradually  increasing  significance  to 
keep  pace  with  the  duties  which  it  has  to  perform,  until 
now  it  may  be  said  truly  the  widening  of  its  meaning  has 
been  co-eval  and  co-extensive  with  the  evolution  of  the 
science  itself.  That  science  has  now  attained  to  such  vast 
proportions  in  its  intimate  connection  with  everything 
human,  and  has  become  so  universally  recognized  and 
established,  that  it  can.  well  afford  to  disregard  any  little 
shortcoming  on  the  part  of  a  word,  which  has  to  perform  no 
more  vital  function  than  that  of  its  signboard.  We  are 


content,  therefore,  to  leave  it  in  undisturbed  possession  of 
the  place  of  honour  to  which  it  has  been  elevated  in  virtue 
of  length  of  servitude;  and  this  much  may  at  all  events  be 
said  in  its  praise,  that  it  is  readily  understood  by  the 
meanest  capacity,  and  offers  no  bar  of  high  sounding  nomen- 
clature, to  the  neophyte  who  is  preparing  to  tread  the  paths 
of  initiation  into  the  absorbing  interest  which  its  pursuit 
unfolds,  and  to  participate  in  the  incalculable  benefits  which 
the  science  never  fails  to  shower  upon  its  conscientious  and 
painstaking  votaries. 

Physiognomy,  as  a  science,  has  now  taken  up  so  assured  a 
position  in  the  foreground  of  social  and  scientific  progress, 
and  has  become  so  thoroughly  recognized  in  the  important 
bearing  which  it  takes  up  in  relation  to  all  phases  of  society, 
alike  the  most  elevated  and  the  most  homely,  that  it  has  no 


need  to  fall  back  upon  its  pedigree  for  any  adventitious  aids 
to  its  advancement  and  prosperity ;  but  however  little  it 
may  require  any  bolstering  up  of  this  kind,  it  cannot  fail  to 
be  deeply  interesting  to  the  student,  to  take  a  retrospective 
glance  at  its  earliest  conditions  and  surroundings.  That  it 
has,  in  all  time,  in  a  greater  or  less  degree,  been  active  in  its 
operation  and  universal  in  its  application,  long  before  the 
crude  and  unformed  intellect  of  the  early  progenitors  of 
mankind — whatever  they  may  have  been — was  capable  of 
making  even  the  faintest  attempt  to  formulate  its  properties, 
is  a  proposition  we  think  that  cannot  be  doubted  for  a 
moment.  That  the  universality  and  eternity  of  its  scope 
must  always  have  been,  needs  little  reflection  to  convince 
any  thinking  man;  and  for  ages  before  the  dawn  of  history 
Physiognomy  must  have  wielded,  we  may  be  sure,  a  power, 
mighty  in  its  proportions,  although  little  heeded  it  may  be, 
by  the  beings  on  which  it  exerted  its  force.  Nor  do  we 
require  to  predicate  for  such  a  state  of  things  the  existence 
of  so  highly  organized  beings  as  we  are  ourselves.  A  much 
lower  type  of  organization  would  not  preclude  the  living 
action  of  the  all-pervading  department  of  nature's  functions 
of  which  we  are  treating,  and  wherever  organisms  existed, 
so  far  advanced  as  to  be  endowed  with  powers  of  vision, 
there  must  Physiognomy  have  been  actively  and  perceptibly 
at  worki  in  the  relations  which  subsisted  between  the 
•different  varieties  of  organisms.  There  would  we  find  the 
destructive  form  at  work  in  destroying  and  devouring  other 
forms  of  a  less  aggressive  character,  and  the  whole  operation 
of  nature,  going  slowly  but  surely  on  in  its  onward  march 
to  a  perfection,  the  advanced  stages  of  which,  if  not  its  acme, 
we  can  now  contemplate  in  the  conditions  with  which  we 
are  surrounded.  Be  it  understood,  however,  that  in  alluding 
to  the  advent  of  visual  organs,  we  do  not  mean  to  mark  or 
limit  the  commencement  of  the  operations  of  Physiognomy, 
except  in  so  far  as  they  then  became  visible  to,  and  notion 


able  by,  the  organisms  themselves.  Long  anterior  to  this, 
nature  must  have  been  elaborating  and  perfecting  this  law 
of  hers,  which,  through  the  lapse  of  ages,  has  attained  such 
stupendous  magnitude;  but  the  mind  of  man  reels  back, 
stunned  and  dizzied,  from  the  hopeless  attempt  to  peer  back 
to  the  remote  recesses  of  the  laboratory  of  that  mysterious 
agency,  which,  for  want  of  a  better  term,  and  it  may  be,  in 
our  ignorance,  we  call  Nature.  While,  therefore,  in  the 
nature  of  things  we  are  excluded  from  all  actual  knowledge 
of  the  development  of  Physiognomy  during  primeval  and 
prehistoric  times ;  and  while  we  recognize  how  fruitless  and 
unsatisfactory  mere  speculation  invariably  proves  to  be, 
when  affecting  a  subject  of  such  importance  as  is  our 
present  one,  we  may  at  all  events  indulge  in  a  legitimate, 
not  to  say  laudable,  curiosity  and  interest,  respecting  the 
dawning  and  primary  conditions  of  the  science,  if  indeed  we 
may  dignify  by  such  a  term,  a  thing  that  was  only,  as*  yet, 
recognized  half  unwittingly  and  unconsciously.  In  glancing 
briefly  at  the  early  aspect  and  dawning  conditions  of  the 
science,  be  it  well  understood,  that  we  are  in  no  wise  to  be 
considered  as  endorsing  all  or  any  of  the  opinions  of  the 
various  writers  whose  names  we  may  have  to  mention.  In 
no  department  of  abstract  thought,  perhaps,  has  opinion 
so  much  differed,  or  has  error  and  misplaced  deduction  been 
so  long  entertained  as  recognized  truth  as  in  this  science  of 
which  we  are  now  treating;  and  it  has  been  left  to  very- 
recent  times — to  our  own  day,  in  fact,  and  that  within  the 
past  very  few  years — so  to  elaborate  the  science,  as  to  place 
it  on  a  basis  of  the  very  firmest  foundation ;  this  basis  being, 
an  epitomizing  of  all  previous  experience,  an  avoidance  of 
all  previous  error,  and  an  experimentalizing  on  the  very 
broadest  principles,  the  whole  forming,  along  with  the  con- 
clusive and  illustrative  results  with  which  it  is  flanked,  a 
broad  scientific  formulary,  too  elaborate  and  complete  in  its 
details,  to  afford  a  vulnerable  point  of  attack  to  the  deadliest 


of  its  enemies.  A  resume,  therefore,  of  the  early  conditions 
of  the  science  is  in  no  way  indispensable  to  the  purpose  of 
the  present  work,  but  is  thrown  in  solely  in  the  interest  of 
the  curious  student  of  Physiognomy,  who  may  possibly 
derive  from  it  a  pardonable  satisfaction  and  amusement, 
akin  to  the  sympathetic  interest  which  the  modern  soldier 
of  an  antiquarian  turn  of  mind  feels  in  the  contemplation  of 
the  rude  flint  battle-axes  and  arrow-heads  used  in  the 
remote  warfare  of  prehistoric  times.  That  in  the  very 
earliest  ages,  and  before  the  advent  of  written  history,  or  at 
all  events  before  the  advent  of  any  history  which  has 
weathered  the  stormy  period  of  the  middle  ages,  so  fruitful 
in  literary  shipwreck,  as  we  very  well  know,  the  principles 
of  Physiognomy  were  entertained,  recognized,  and  admitted, 
is  a  proposition  that  admits  of  very  conclusive  proof,  even 
were  there  any  now  disposed  to  deny  the  assertion.  With- 
out trenching  upon  the  resources  of  the  Hebraic  Philosophy, 
which  was  of  a  more  emotional  and  less  practical  character 
than  that  of  the  Greek  Philosophers,  we  have  only  to  refer 
to  the  golden  productions  of  the  latter,  which  have  been 
miraculously  preserved  to  us,  after  surviving  the  crash  of 
nations  which  accompanied,  and  the  Cimmerian  darkness 
which  followed,  the  collapse  of  the  Roman  Empire,  to  find 
ample  proof  that  Physiognomy  was,  even  at  the  time  of  the 
very  earliest  of  the  Greek  writers,  a  recognized  department 
of  science,  however  far  it  may  have  fallen  short  at  that  time 
of  correctness  or  accuracy  in  its  deductions  or  formulae. 
Even  in  those  remote  times,  it  must  have  been  regarded  aa 
ha\ing  already  attained  to  a  comparatively  venerable  age, 
for  we  do  not  find  it  alluded  to  as  anything  which  had  then 
just  burst  upon  the  perception  of  the  Greeks  in  all  the  crude 
immaturity  of  a  new  and  wholly  untried  and  untested 
discovery.  Crude,  immature,  and  in  a  high  degree  un- 
reliable and  unsatisfactory,  it  must  then  have  been,  is  an 
assertion  that  will  hardly  be  called  in  question ;  but  at  the 


same  time  it  seems  equally  undeniable  that  it  had  become, 
comparatively  speaking,  aged  in  its  error;  and  while  there 
is  everything  in  the  writings  of  the  Greek  Philosophers  in 
favour  of  the  hypothesis  of  old  age,  and  absolutely  nothing 
favouring  the  view  of  recent  birth,  their  animadversions 
point  rather  to  a  dissatisfaction  with  its  existing  conditions, 
and  the  dawning  of  a  vigorous  effort  on  the  part  of  Greek 
subtlety  of  intellect — not  to  discard  it  as  useless  and  per- 
nicious quackery — but  to  separate  the  gold  from  the  dross, 
and  to  purify  it  from  the  abuses  with  which  it  had  become 

Aristotle,  Polemon,  Theophrastus,  Plato,  and  at  a  later 
period  Galen  of  Pergamos,  were  Greek  writers  who,  with 
perhaps  a  dim  intuition  of  the  vast  interests  which  were 
yet  to  be  evolved  from  the  womb  of  the  science,  all 
wrote  on  the  subject,  and  endeavoured  to  add  their  quota 
of  suggestion  and  speculation  to  the  mass  of  mingled 
truth  and  error  which  had  already  been  piled  around  it. 
Zopyrus,  another  Greek  of  a  more  practical  and  adventurous 
turn  of  mind,  seems  actually  to  have  formulated  the  science, 
and  to  have  come  to  the  front  as  a  practical  Physiognomist. 
He  drew  up  from  Physiognomy  alone,  it  is  said,  an 
estimate  of  the  character  of  Socrates,  not  by  any  means 
complimentary  to  that  gentleman,  but  with  apparently  a 
considerable  dash  of  truth  in  its  composition,  since  it 
appears  to  have  been  candidly  recognized  by  the  party 
most  concerned,  to  be  in  all  essential  details,  truthful, 
accurate  and  precise.  Some  lesser  Greek  names  might 
be  quoted  representing  authors  who  have  written  on  this 
all-important  subject,  but  we  may  not  suffer  ourselves  to 
be  so  diffuse  as  we  might  be  in  this  introductory  part  of 
the  work. 

Several  Roman  authors,  such  as  Cicero,  Pliny,  and  others, 
contributed  somewhat  to  the  advancement  of  the  science; 
but  in  the  gloom  and  barbarism  which  followed  the  dis- 


ruption  of  the  overgrown  and  unwieldy  Roman  edifice, 
and  in  the  almost  total  eclipse  of  fine  arts  and  literature 
which  that  stupendous  and  ruinous  collapse  of  nations, 
peoples,  and  society  entailed,  the  infant  science  of  Physiog- 
nomy was,  in  common  with  other  kindred  departments  of 
advancement  and  culture,  almost  totally  extinguished.  For 
some  centuries  during  the  continuance  of  this  gloomy 
period  of  darkness  and  barbarism,  we  hear  absolutely 
nothing  of  its  existence,  and  nothing  but  its  inherent 
vitality  could  have  sufficed  to  buoy  it  onward  to  more 
congenial  generations.  This  inherent  vitality  it  possesses, 
however,  in  such  a  degree,  that  nothing  short  of  the 
extinction  of  the  human  race  and  the  hurling  back  of 
mother  earth  to  its  original  conditions  could  have  sufficed 
entirely  to  crush  out  the  germs  of  life  with  which  it  is 
endowed ;  and  accordingly,  no  sooner  do  we  find  the  mists 
of  ignorance  and  superstition  beginning  to  clear  off  and  to 
admit  anew  the  light  of  intelligence,  than  we  again  find 
Physiognomy  slowly  but  surely  taking  its  place  as  a  science; 
with  many  a  false  step  it  may  be,  but  continually  correcting 
itself  and  again  pushing  forward  in  the  direction  of  its  goal. 
Early  in  the  14th  century,  so  far  had  the  science  attracted 
attention  in  the  dawning  of  modern  civilization  and  in- 
tellect, that  we  find  Petrus  de  Abbano,  in  the  year  1335, 
making  it  the  subject  of  lectures  before  the  students  of 
the  University  of  Paris:  and  although  the  information,  it 
must  be  confessed,  is  meagre,  yet  the  bare  fact  itself  is 
significant.  Michael  Scott,  who  flourished  in  the  loth 
century,  devoted  no  inconsiderable  portion  of  his  time  and 
space  to  the  elucidation  of  the  science,  in  so  far  as  his 
lights  on  the  subject  enabled  him.  The  latter  half  of  the 
15th,  and  the  whole  of  the  16th  centuries,  comprised  a 
period  when  Physiognomical  speculation  and  research  seem 
to  have  been  carried  on  with  a  degree  of  diligence  and 
perseverance  never  attained  before  that  time.  In  the  latter 


part  of  the  16tli,  and  the  first  portion  of  the  17th  centuries, 
J.  Baptista  Porta,  an  enterprising  and  energetic  Italian  of 
Padua,  wrote  and  published  on  this  subject,  a  vigorous 
and  painstaking  work,  which  was  illustrated  and  beautified 
by  numerous  cuts  of  faces  of  men  and  animals.  In  the 
year  1548,  Michael  Angelo  Blondies  issued  a  work  on 
Physiognomy,  having  for  its  aim  the  elucidation  of  its 
principles,  and  the  fixing  of  its  powers  and  limits.  In 
the  same  year  a  French  writer,  Anselm  Pierre  Douxciel, 
produced  at  Langres  his  "Speculum  Physionomica,"  in 
which  he  endeavoured  to  lay  down  fundamental  principles 
of  the  science.  In  the  year  1588,  Georgio  Rizzacasa,  of 
Carmagnola,  seems  to  have  been  occupying  himself  to 
some  purpose  with  the  subject,  as  we  since  learn  that  he 
was  then  dedicating  a  volume  on  "Fisionomia"  to  Queen 
Elizabeth;  and  in  the  following  year  we  discover  Johannes 
Padovanus  of  Verona  affirming  broadly,  "  that  every  con- 
ceivable variety  of  character  was  shadowed  out,  and  might 
be  detected  under  the  different  conformations  of  the  several 
members  of  the  body" — a  proof  that  advanced  and  en- 
lightened views  on  the  subject  had  already  begun  to  take 
root  amongst  eminent  thinkers  of  his  age.  In  the  year 
1621  Dr.  Rodolphus  Gocelenius  wrote  a  work  on  Physiog- 
nomy while  he  held  the  post  of  Professor  of  that  science 
in  the  Academia  Marpurgensi;  and  four  years  afterwards 
we  find  Edmund  Gallimard  dedicating  a  "Traite  Physiog- 
nomique  au  tres  illustre  Monseigneur  Theophile  Howard, 
compte  de  Sulfactz."  Besides  the  names  we  have  quoted, 
we  may  mention  that  of  John  de  Judgagnie,  who  wrote 
on  the  science  at  an  early  but  uncertain  date,  of  which 
last-mentioned  effort  we  had  a  translation  in  the  year  1666 
from  the  pen  cf  Fabian  Withers,  shewing  the  author  to 
have  been  remarkably  clear  and  concise  in  the  principles 
he  has  laid  dow/i,  however  incorrect  he  may  have  been 
io  some  of  the  deductions  he  has  drawn;  and  it  should 



not  be  forgottet.  in  his  case,  that  he  probably  wrote  at  a 
very  early  period,  when  as  yet  he  could  borrow  but  little 
light  from  other  sources.  The  other  names  which  we  have 
not  thought  proper  otherwise  to  particularize  we  may  give 
here  without  comment,  in  order  to  afford  the  curious  student 
an  opportunity  of  looking,  if  he  should  wish  to  do  so,  at 
the  notions  more  or  less  crude,  which  have  in  times  gone 
by,  been  promulgated  with  respect  to  this  science.  With- 
out pretending  to  give  an  exhaustive  list,  we  may  mention 
the  names  of  Adamantius,  Albertus  Magnus,  Avicenna, 
Averroes,  Cassidorus,  Hippocrates,  Melampus,  Meletes,  Eemi- 
gerius,  Seneca,  and  Quinctillian ;  and  in  reference  to  this 
additional  list  we  may  add,  that  in  the  year  1780  Franzius 
of  Leipsic  furnished  a  learnedly  edited  translation  of  the 
works  of  Adamantius  and  Melampus. 

Lavater,  who  was  Pastor  of  St.  Peter  s  Church  at  Zurich, 
became  a  martyr  to  liberty  and  truth  in  1801.  He  wrote 
several  works  on  Physiognomy,  which  were  translated  into 
various  languages,  yet  they  were  so  deficient  in  system  and 
principles,  that  they  are  of  little  practical  value  to  the  world. 

All  sciences,  and  indeed  all  advanced  departments  of 
culture,  have  had  to  endure  persecution  at  the  hands  of 
misplaced  and  superstitious  blockheads  in  power,  or  at  the 
hands  of  brutal  and  ignorance-steeped  mobs;  and  we  do 
not  find  that  Physiognomy  has  had  any  particular  im- 
munity extended  to  it  in  this  respect.  In  a  semi-civilized 
age,  any  art  that  pretended  to  delineate  the  character  and 
propensities  of  the  individual,  solely  by  means  of  the  salient 
points  and  colours  of  the  exterior,  had  too  close  a  resem- 
blance, in  the  jaundiced  eye  of  ignorance  and  superstition, 
to  the  occult  arts  of  sorcery  and  witchcraft,  altogether  to 
escape  some  troublesome  and  unsolicited  attentions.  These 
kind  attentions  usually  originated  with  that  class  of  busy 
bodies  which  has  flourished  in  every  age,  and  the  members 
of  which  have  always  been  animated  with  a  burning  desire 


to  keep  their  fellow-men  in  the  paths  of  that  code  of  virtue 
which  is  their  own,  and  which  they  know  to  be  the  right 
one.  Even  in  these  enlightened  days,  when  we  are  rapidly 
approaching  the  commencement  of  the  20th  century,  and 
when  many  flatter  themselves  that  we  have  for  ever  done 
with  those  pests  of  former  ages,  a  very  moderate  degree 
of  discernment  would  suffice  to  discover  the  modern  pro- 
totype of  the  sorcery  and  witchcraft  hunter,  in  those 
watchful  individuals  who  are  les  enfans  terribles  of 
their  own  church  courts,  who  have  had  themselves  dubbed 
"  Heresy  Hunters"  by  an  indignant  public,  and  who  only 
lack  the  power  and  the  opportunity  to  hunt,  slay,  and  burn 
like  their  progenitors  of  three  centuries  ago,  and  with  an 
equal  zeal  for  the  furtherance  of  the  Glory  of  God.  It 
will  astonish  some  people  to  know,  that  by  the  17  George 
II.  c.  5,  "  All  Persons  pretending  to  have  skill  in  Physiog- 
nomy are  included  amongst  those  offenders  who  are  deemed 
Rogues  and  Vagabonds.  As  such  they  are  liable  to  be 
publicly  whipped  or  sent  to  the  House  of  Correction,  until 
the  next  Sessions,  or  any  less  time,  and  after  whipping  or 
commitment,  they  may  be  passed  to  their  last  legal  settle- 
ment or  birth-place;  and  moreover,  the  Justice  may  sentence 
them  to  hard  labour  for  not  more  than  six  months."  This 
delicate  attention  on  the  part  of  the  British  legislature,  at 
a  time  when  liberality  of  opinion  and  breadth  of  ideas 
were  supposed  to  have  made  some  considerable  progress, 
is  peculiarly  touching;  and  in  the  year  1817  it  seems  to 
have  induced  Dr.  John  Cross — no  doubt  with  the  view 
of  reaping  the  full  benefit  of  the  enactment — to  publish, 
from  the  University  Press  of  Glasgow,  a  work  which  had 
for  its  object  the  establishment  of  Physiognomy  on  scientific 
principles.  This  work  comprised  the  reproduction  of  a 
series  of  lectures  which  he  had  delivered,  and  in  which 
he  had  indulged  in  the  most  sanguine  anticipations 
respecting  the  ultimate  triumph  of  the  principles  of  his 


favourite  study.  It  does  not  appear  that  the  legislature 
ever  took  any  steps  to  enforce  the  provisions  of  this  very 
considerate  Act,  and  we  are  left  to  infer  that  Dr.  Cross 
was  permitted  to  seek  his  last  legal  settlement  or  birth- 
place entirely  at  his  own  charges. 

Were  we  asked  to  furnish  proof  of  the  amount  of  atten- 
tion which  has  been  paid  in  all  times  and  in  all  ages  to  the 
Physiognomical  peculiarities  which  mark  the  infinite  varie- 
ties of  the  human  form  and  countenance,  we  have  an 
irrefragable  one  ready  to  our  hand,  in  the  endless  varieties 
of  personal  nomenclature,  all  having  their  origin — in  remote 
times  it  may  be — in  the  facial  and  corporeal  peculiarities  of 
our  progenitors.  A  few  examples  will  show  at  a  glance  the 
justice  of  this  observation.  x  From  Colour  we  have  the 
names  of  Brown,  Gray,  Green,  Black,  White,  Blue,  and 
so  on  over  the  entire  gamut  of  the  artist's  paint-box.  From 
Stature  we  have  Long,  Shirt,  Small,  Bigg,  Little,  and  many 
others.  From  Complexion  we  have  Fair,  Dark,  Pale,  &c. 
From  bodily  Strength  we  have  Strong,  Force,  Wight  or 
Weight,  &c. ;  and  in  reference  to  distinctive  peculiarities, 
we  may  cite  Strongarm  or  Armstrong,  Greathead,  Great- 
heart,  Longear,  Longshanks,  Cruikshanks^  Longman,  and 
a  host  of  others,  some  of  which  will  be  readily  suggested 
to  the  reader,  and  some  of  which  also  are  capable  of  bearing 
very  ludicrous  constructions.  lu  such  historical  names  also, 
as  Malcolm  Ceanmohr  (Bighead),  William  Rufus  (William 
the  Red),  Philip  the  Fair,  and  such  like,  we  have  clearly 
illustrated  the  distinctive  amount  of  attention  which  has 
always  been  accorded  to  Physical  oddity  or  peculiarity;  and 
were  we  to  search  for  further  examples  in  other  languages 
than  our  own,  a  mine  of  illustration  would  be  opened  up 
to  us  which  might  be  worked  successfully  ad  infinitum. 
But  we  refrain  from  swelling  our  remarks  on  a  feature  ol 
the  subject  which  all  .will  readily  admit,  even  although 
some  may  have  been  struck  with  it  now  for  the  first  time. 


Having  thus  taken  a  cursory  view  of  the  literary  history 
of  the  science,  and  brought  it  down  to  a  comparatively 
recent  date,  we  shall,  in  view  of  the  hopelessness  of  the 
attempt  to  sketch  the  proportion  and  scope  of  the  volum- 
inous writings  on  this  subject  with  which  the  literature  of 
our  day  has  been  flooded,  proceed  to  outline,  from  a  pre- 
fatory point  of  view,  the  intentions  and  aim  of  this  the 
latest,  and  we  hope  to  convince  our  readers,  not  the  least 
meritorious  of  those  works  which  have  for  their  object  the 
elucidating  and  elaborating  of  the  noble  and  comprehensive 
science  of  Physiognomy. 

A  vast  amount  of  time,  trouble,  and  money  is  expended 
in  the  search  for  new  fields  of  natural  Phenomena,  &c., 
wherein  to  exercise  that  capacity  for  wonder  and  amaze- 
ment, with  which  the  Divine  Head  of  nature  has  seen  fit  to 
endow  us.  To  gratify  this  propensity  of  ours,  nothing 
seems  too  arduous  to  be  undertaken  and  no  problem  too 
profound  to  be  investigated.  For  this  Central  African 
voyages  of  discovery  are  embarked  in,  the  crossing  of  the 
Australian  Continent  is  attempted,  the  Matterhorn  is  scaled, 
and  the  interior  of  the  earth  is  ransacked.  For  this  Arctic 
Expeditions  are^  organized,  Rosse's  Telescopes  are  invented, 
and  Chemical  analysis  is  undertaken.  To  minister  to  this 
craving  men  cross  the  Atlantic  in  a  shallop  and  attempt  to 
swim  over  stormy  arms  of  the  sea.  For  this  numberless 
lives  are  lost  in  the  watery  wastes  of  the  sea,  and  in  the 
howling  wildernesses  of  the  land;  and  for  this,  from  first  to 
last,  millions  of  money  have  been  dissipated  and  oceans  of 
blood  have  been  shed.  And  yet  how  blind  is  all  this 
wasteful  expenditure  of  force  and  energy!  Neglected  sub- 
jects of  wonderment  are  continually  to  our  hand,  before 
which,  in  the  deeper  and  more  legitimate  sense  of  wonder, 
Matterhorns,  Polar  Seas,  Earth's  crust,  and  Ocean's  bed 
dwindle  into  mediocrity  and  insignificance.  To  cite  one 
subject  which  more  immediately  concerns  the  matter  w« 


have  now  in  hand,  we  have  but  to  look  around  us  in  the 
pursuit  of  our  ordinary  avocations  at  the  amazing  variety  of 
form  and  feature  which  the  human  face  exhibits.  Whence 
comes  this  infinite  variety,  and  what  is  the  intention  and  aim 
of  the  all-powerful  intelligence  in  diversifying  so  infinitely 
the  results  of  that  operation  of  its  workings  which  we  have 
accustomed  ourselves,  somewhat  vaguely,  to  call  Nature? 
The  members  of  the  human  family  are  brought  into  exist- 
ence all  possessed  of  the  same  general  characteristics,  the 
same  organs  of  locomotion,  of  sight,  smell,  hearing,  breath- 
ing, and  touch,  or,  to  speak  in  language  more  to  the  point,  all 
have  heads,  eyes,  noses,  ears,  hair,  mouths,  chins,  breasts, 
arms,  hands,  fingers,  stomachs,  vertebi'ae,  abdomen,  genera- 
tive organs,  legs,  feet,  and  toes.  If  it  be  objected  that 
absolutely  all  are  not  thus  endowed  at  birth,  and  that 
abnormal  specimens  are  not  unknown,  we  answer,  that  this 
circumstance  is  in  no  wise  either  antagonistic  or  favourable 
to  our  premises,  except  in  so  far  as  that  the  rare  exception 
contributes  only  the  more  firmly  to  establish  the  rule.  For 
a  general  proposition  we  may  assume,  then,  that  all  are  en- 
dowed at  birth  with  the  same  general  characteristics,  and  in 
view  of  this,  how  calculated  to  excite  our  wonder  is  the  fact 
that  notwithstanding  this  general  similarity,  nature  yet 
so  diversifies  her  operations,  that  not  one  single  human 
being  is  produced  exactly  like  another.  And  not  so  only 
when  applied  to  contemporary  beings,  but  were  it  possible 
to  reproduce  the  human  race  in  its  entirety,  since  the 
advent  of  man,  no  two  individuals  taken  from  these  countless 
millions  would  be  found  to  be  alike.  In  view  of  this 
astounding  diversity  of  lineament,  so  vast  as  almost  to  take 
away  one's  breath  at  the  contemplation,  it  would  be  mere 
imbecility  in  our  vain  endeavours  to  find  a  solution,  to 
throw  ourselves  into  the  arms  of  "Chance."  Modern  research 
has  now  left  "Chance"  not  a  leg  to  stand  upon;  there 
appears  to  be  no  such  thing  as  accident  in  nature,  and 


every  effect,  however  seemingly  insignificant  or  fortuitous,  it 
the  result  of  the  operation  of  that  inscrutable  intelligence, 
which,  working  within  well  defined  and  unchangeable  laws, 
wields  the  destinies  of  this  universe  of  ours.  There  is  not 
the  very  slightest  variation  of  the  human  form  and  coun- 
tenance, which  is  not  the  result  of  well  defined  causes  of  pro- 
duction ;  and  we  have  only  to  formulate — as  is  done  in  the 
science  of  Physiognomy — these  results,  to  acquire  the  power 
of  deciphering  nature's  own  hieroglyphics  with  unerring 
accuracy.  As  no  two  outward  forms  are  exactly  alike,  so, 
and  in  just  precisely  the  same  degree,  do  no  two  inward 
forms  or  characters  bear  perfect  resemblance.  We  may 
endeavour  to  divine  the  design  of  the  Author  of  creation  in 
enacting  from  all  time  a  law  so  unchangeable  and  so  preg- 
nant with  weal  or  woe  in  its  right  or  wrong  comprehension 
and  application  to  the  human  race,  but  as  a  matter  of 
absolute  certainty  we  are  unable  in  the  order  of  things  to 
grasp  at  the  motives  of  Omnipotence.  There  is,  however, 
little  doubt  that  the  Universe,  and  the  various  organisms 
with  which  it  is  peopled,  have  been  designed  for  the 
creation,  occupation,  and  abode  of  that  ethereal  essence, 
the  highest,  infinitely  the  highest,  organism  of  which  we 
can  have  any  conception,  the  SOUL.  As,  however,  we 
have  to  do  more  with  the  material  aspect  of  the  subject  in 
question,  we  shall  not  take  up  time  and  space  at  present 
in  metaphysical  deductions. 

Notwithstanding  this  broad  and  almost  illimitable  diver- 
sity, as  exemplified  in  the  individual,  we  find  society  as  a 
whole  riveted  together  in  the  closest  bonds;  and  that 
element  of  individual  diversity,  which  at  first  sight  we 
might  suppose  to  be  calculated  to  have  a  disintegrating 
effect,  is  on  a  closer  inspection  found  to  be  the  very 
strongest  welding  ingredient  which  goes  to  form  society. 
The  mind,  as  it  were,  utterly  defeated  in  the  effort  to  take 
in  the  idea  of  the  human  race  individually,  seeks  refuge  ID 


the  contemplation  of  it  as  a  great  whole,  and  tho  same 
principle  tends  throughout  to  weld  the  mass  together  in 
the  closest  bonds  of  union.  And  it  is  not  presuming  too  far 
to  say  that  in  these  features  we  plainly  discern  the  design 
on  the  part  of  the  Divine  agency  to  preserve  distinctly 
together  the  two  elements  of  individuality  and  union,  the 
two  separated  by  a  well  defined  line  of  demarcation,  and 
yet  at  the  same  time  bound  together  and  dovetailed  on  the 
most  intimate  footing  of  fitness  and  expediency.  A  har- 
monious union  alongside  of  a  distinctive  identity  we  find 
maintained  with  the  most  beautiful  precision,  and  all  this 
accomplished  notwithstanding  the  infinite  multiplicity  of 
names,  and  the  antagonistic  action  of  thousands  of  other 
causes,  which  would  at  first  sight  seem  overwhelmingly 
destructive,  but  which  become  harmless  when  brought  into 
close  contact  with  nature's  decrees. 

We  have  seen  that  the  varying  effects  of  this  action  on 
the  part  of  nature's  law  are  illimitable  in  number,  and 
likewise  we  find  that  the  causes  which  produce  those 
effects  are  also  countless  in  their  character.  Every  con- 
ceivable variation  of  condition,  however  minute  and 
however  seemingly  unimportant,  exercises  its  influence 
on  the  interior  and  exterior,  and  goes  to  produce  Physiog- 
nomies of  innumerable  types  and  forms.  Ante-natal 
influences,  such  as  the  mixture  of  the  blood  of  different  races 
and  nationalities ;  the  immediate  conditions  surrounding  the 
parents,  and  thousands  of  influences  acting  upon  them  pre- 
vious to  conception;  the  various  causes  which  tend  to  pro- 
duce mother's  marks;  fashions  wielding  strong  though 
often  unsuspected  influences  upon  nations  and  individual 
members  before  birth  and  throughout  life;  climatic  agencies 
moulding  and  shaping  the  form  and  destinies  of  millions; 
altitude,  with  the  hand  of  a  master  artist,  colouring  and 
laying  on  her  tints  and  hues  according  to  her  strength 
and  capacity.  Heat  and  cold  asserting  their  rights  and 



stamping  their  effects.  Food  in  its  various  quantities  and 
unnumbered  qualities  affording  varieties  of  expression  and 
difference  of  strength  to  the  varied  forms  of  organization ; 
customs,  habits,  and  fashions,  with  their  elevative  or  depres- 
sive tendencies.  The  very  air  which  fans  the  brow  of 
man  tones  up  or  down  his  spirits;  the  west  wind  bringing 
enterprise  and  progress ;  the  northern  blasts  lending  staid- 
ness,  stability,  and  determination  of  purpose;  the  changeable 
and  ever  varying  breezes  from  the  mellow,  sunny  south, 
making  us  petulant,  changeable,  and  faultfinding;  and  the 
dire  east  wind  inducing  a  gloomy,  morose,  and  foreboding 
state  of  mind  in  those  who  are  subjected  to  its  baneful 
influences,  and  warping  them  out  of  calmness  and  placidity 
into  irritability  and  mental  tempest.  Sickness  slowly  but 
surely  cutting  her  seams  upon  the  visage;  Avarice  drying 
up  and  shrivelling  the  entire  organization;  Study  and 
mental  labour  furrowing  the  expressive  brow;  Love  warm- 
ing and  tinting  the  face;  Hate  blackening  arid  hardening 
the  visage;  Hope  lending  a  cheerful  halo  to  adorn  the 
countenance ;  Aspiration  elevating  the  features  and  inspiring 
the  soul;  and  thus  it  is  with  every  sentiment  and  emotion 
which  has  its  abode  in  the  human  form. 

We  have  hitherto  looked  at  Physiognomical  phenomena 
from  an  independent  stand-point,  and  watched,  as  it  were, 
its  manifestations  from  a  distance;  but  we  now  proceed  to  a 
closer  inspection,  and  endeavour  to  point  out  and  particu- 
larize, in  a  prefatory  way,  the  conditions  of  those  manifesta- 
tions as  displayed  on  the  exterior  of  the  human  form. 
We  have  only  to  watch  the  first  dawnings  of  intelligence  on 
the  face  of  an  infant  to  find  this  principle  of  nature,  viz., 
the  relation  of  mind  and  character  to  external  form — 
asserting  its  unmistakable  existence.  How  eagerly  the 
little  face  scans  the  lineaments  of  a  stranger,  and  how 
quickly  the  pleased  smile  or  the  frightened  wail  follows 
apon  the  verdict  for  or  against  which  nature  teaches  it 


instinctively  to  bring!  The  maternal  yearning  of  the 
mother  clothes  her  face  in  lineaments  of  the  deepest 
tenderness,  and  attracts  in  unquestioning  reliance,  the 
confidence  and  assurance  of  safety  in  the  child;  and  as  its 
Physiognomical  studies  are  extended,  it  quickly  learns  to 
crow  and  laugh  in  the  face  of  the  benevolent  stranger,  or  to 
bury  its  affrighted  head  in  its  mother's  la-p  at  the  approach 
of  malevolence.  Were  it  not  for  this  inborn  principle, 
infancy  could  have  no  impressions  of  love  or  terror  whatever, 
because,  at  that  period  the  reasoning  faculty  is  latent,  and 
does  not  arise  in  its  strength  until  long  after  the  truth  or 
error  of  the  first  impressions  have  been  tested,  and  tested  we 
may  add  almost  invariably,  with  the  result  of  endorsing  in 
the  fullest  degree  the  fidelity  of  nature  to  its  law.  The 
mind  of  man  is  alternately  a  prey  to  every  conceivable 
variety  of  emotion  and  feeling,  and  by  turns  it  is  possessed 
by  joy,  desire,  dislike,  hatred,  grief,  love,  courage,  despair, 
confidence,  contempt,  admiration,  cowardice,  cruelty,  pride, 
modesty,  scorn,  compassion,  spleen;  or  by  the  intellectual 
capacities,  reason,  attention,  discrimination,  observation, 
retention,  comparison,  wit,  taste,  imagination,  intuition,  &c., 
&c.  Each  of  these  feelings  and  emotions  has  itself 
reproduced  and  photographed  in  some  lineaments  of  the 
exterior;  and  each  of  these  pictures  has  its  distinctive 
characteristic,  as  accurately  defined  and  distinct,  as  its 
prototype  of  the  interior.  In  proportion  as  any  particular 
emotion,  or  set  of  emotions,  holds  sway  in  the  human  breast, 
so  in  proportion  does  its  photograph,  picture  or  Physiog- 
nomical equivalent,  become  more  conspicuous  and  less 
evanescent;  and  it  is  the  promise  of  the  Science  of 
Physiognomy  so  to  formulate  this  unerring  reproduction 
of  the  pencil  of  nature  herself,  as  to  enable  its  student 
to  read  the  messages  from  the  interior  with  unfaltering 
accuracy.  The.  mind  long  given  up  to  bursts  of  uncon- 
trollable passion,  like  a  tempest- tossed  rudderless  ship, 


draws  a  picture  of  the  strife  within  with  a  brush  of  no 
uncertain  tint,  and  we  can  see  the  gusts  of  mental  fury 
indexed  on  the  swollen  visage,  and  sweeping  across  like 
a  storm-cloud  during  the  hurricane's  rage,  leaving  at  last 
traces  that  become  indelible,  and  that  chart  out  in  livid 
bands  the  predominant  passions  of  the  victim,  as  well 
during  lucid  intervals  of  fitful  quietness,  as  in  the  heat  and 
fury  of  the  wasting  mental  strife  itself.  On  the  other  hand, 
the  countenance  of  the  habitually  philanthropical,  faithful 
to  the  inner  emotions  of  which  it  is  the  index,  presents  the 
calm  unimpassioned  but  still  yearning  solicitude  for  the 
welfare  of  others,  which  is  so  easily  read  by  all,  whether 
old  or  young,  and  which  attracts  so  powerfully  the  con- 
fidence and  reliance  of  the  broken  and  oppressed.  The 
constant  sway  of  ennobling  sentiments  within  wreaths  the 
face  into  the  loveliest  proportions,  and  invites  the  gaze  to 
dwell  there  as  it  might  wish  to  dwell,  on  the  peaceful 
landscape,  smiling  under  the  weight  of  a  bountiful  harvest 
In  either  case  and  in  all  degrees  that  lie  between  the  two, 
of  whatever  hue  or  texture,  the  picture  becomes  engraved 
deeper  and  deeper,  and  it  can  be  read  at  last,  as  easily 
during  sleep  as  in  waking  hours,  with  the  predominant 
passions  active  and  at  work.  The  lineaments  of  the 
exterior  perform  the  same  functions  and  indicate  intelli- 
gence from  the  interior  with  the  same  accuracy  as  the 
index  of  the  telegraph,  with  this  important  difference,  that 
while  the  language  of  the  latter  is  momentary  and 
evanescent,  that  of  the  former  partakes  more  of  the 
character  of  a  paititing,  fixed,  indelible,  and  fading  only 
with  life  itself.  The  Physiognomical  operator  can  take 
messages  with  as  much  fidelity  as  his  more  humble  brother 
of  the  telegraph  needle;  he  pays  nothing  for  his  in- 
formation,  but  the  trouble  of  observing;  and  if  he  has 
the  talent,  he  may  turn  it  to  account,  to  an  extent 
which  is  absolutely  unbounded  and  illimitable.  This  law 


of  nature  which  ordains  that  all  the  emotions  of  the  mind 
must  of  necessity  be  figured  on  the  exterior,  is  one  fraught 
with  the  very  deepest  interest  to  mankind.  It  holds  out  a 
book  to  be  read  in  broad  day,  a  book  of  the  most  surpass- 
ing interest,  and  one  whereon  the  educated  appetite  never 
palls;  a  book  in  winch  all  read  to  some  extent,  although 
it  may  be,  and  indeed  most  frequently  is  the  case,  that 
such  reading  is  engaged  in  unwittingly  and  unconsciously. 
The  merest  tyro  in  Physiognomical  education  can  draw 
treasures  from  this  storehouse;  and  no  one,  however  mean 
his  capacity,  can  possibly  pass  through  life  without  making 
some  progress,  however  unwittingly  and  unknowingly. 
It  is,  however,  to  the  diligent  and  purposeful  student  that 
Physiognomy  unlocks  her  richest  stores  and  unfolds  trea- 
sures of  untold  wealth,  incomprehensible  in  their  magnitude 
to  the  uninitiated.  Were  this  law  of  nature  fitful  and 
capricious  in  its  enforcement,  and  open  to  be  thwarted  and 
negatived  by  the  action  of  foreign  and  disturbing  forces, 
then  indeed  half  its  value  would  be  gone;  but  this  fixity  and 
unchangeableness  is  the  chief  ingredient  in  its  composi- 
tion, and  thanks  to  this,  we  are  enabled,  after  having 
graduated  in  Physiognomical  Science,  to  draw  deductions  and 
conclusions  with  the  most  absolute  precision  and  certainty. 
This  doctrine  may  give  an  unpleasant  shock  to  some  who 
have  been  flattering  themselves  for  years  in  the  fancied 
success  which  has  seemed  to  attend  their  efforts  at  dis- 
guising the  outward  manifestation  of  their  inward  emotions, 
and  it  may  be  astounding  also  to  others  who  may  not  have 
thought  or  speculated  much  on  the  subject.  We  are  willing 
to  admit  that  all  efforts  to  disguise  the  countenance  are  not 
quite  barren  of  results  in  the  direction  desired  and  designed 
by  the  disguiser ;  but  let  us  see  in  what  consists  the  small 
clement  of  success  which  we  are  willing  to  accord.  It  is 
certainly  not  produced  by  the  unaided  talent  of  the 
disguiser,  whose  art  can  really  go  but  a  very  slight  way 


in  the  direction  in  which  he  aims,  and  before  the  accom- 
plished Physiognomist  the  flimsy  veil  which — he  lays  the 
flattering  unction  to  his  soul — is  a  screen  of  the  most 
impenetrable  opacity,  is  seen  through  like  a  clear  glass,  and 
torn  to  shreds  as  soon  as  it  is  set  up.  It  is  painful  to  us  to 
seem  so  cruel  in  thus  mercilessly  exposing  the  worthlessness 
of  the  defences  here  erected,  but  we  hope  to  convince  that 
we  are  cruel  only  to  be  kind  in  the  balsam,  which,  before 
we  have  done,  we  propose  to  offer  for  the  cure  of  the 
bleeding  and  defenceless  ones.  The  Science  of  Physiognomy 
in  the  advanced  stages  to  which  it  has  recently  attained,  is 
comparatively  so  little  understood  generally,  that  we  are 
aware  our  dicta  on  its  comprehensiveness,  and  the  undeviating 
course  of  its  laws,  will  not  at  first  be  universally,  or  even 
very  generally,  accepted,  but  it  can  afford  to  wait  with 
time  on  its  side.  We  accorded  some  measure  of  success 
to  those  who  fancy  their  ability  to  disguise  their  features 
has  hitherto  been  crowned  with  complete  success,  and 
this  modicum  of  success  we  opine  to  be  the  deception 
which  is  effected  upon  simple  and  unthinking  people. 
The  effort  to  disguise  is  superficial  and  on  the  surface,  and 
it  succeeds  only  with  people  who  are  themselves  superficial, 
and  whose  mental  investigations  never  go  below  the  surface. 
This  may  be  poor  comfort,  but  it  is  all  we  can  truthfully 
afford  in  the  circumstances.  The  attempt  is  an  outrage  on 
the  laws  of  nature,  and  nature  with  a  just  retribution 
revenges  herself. 

The  degree  of  intelligence  within  is  faithfully  portrayed 
on  the  lineaments,  and  in  highly  endowed  beings  we  have 
the  reproduction  without  of  the  fertile  soil  within  in  a 
picture  of  the  most  sparkling  brilliancy.  The  light  of 
intelligence  and  genius  ripples  and  dances  over  the  visage, 
making  a  picture  fit  as  a  resting  place  for  the  eye;  while, 
on  the  other  hand,  at  the  extremity  of  the  opposite  scale, 
where  vacuity  and  barrenness  of  thought  placidly  reign, 


we  bars  the  vacant  expression  of  idiocy  and  mental  eclipse 
mirrored  in  a  visage  equally  devoid  of  expression.  There 
is  absolutely  nothing  within,  and  in  accordance  with  the 
inflexible  laws  of  nature,  there  is  and  can  be  nothing 
expressed  without.  We  have  the  needle  of  the  disused 
telegraphic  machine,  but  the  galvanic  battery  does  not 
exist,  and  the  one  is  equally  inexpressive  without  the  other. 
We  have  in  the  face  here  a  faithful  signboard  of  the  empty 
warehouse  within;  there  reigns  barren  emptiness,  and  the 
face  is  negatively  intelligent  and  truthful  when  it  honestly 
announces  the  fact  in  such  a  way  that  all  who  interpret  rightly 
may  understand.  In  the  former  case  we  have  what  has  been 
tersely  but  graphically  and  eloquently  expressed  as  a  speak- 
ing countenance ;  and  in  the  other  we  have  in  equally  terse, 
graphic,  and  eloquent  phraseology — vacancy. 

The  benefits  which  accrue  to  the  diligent,  indefatigable, 
and  painstaking  student  of  the  Science  of  Physiognomy 
are  simply  incalculable  in  number.  In  no  other  depart- 
ment of  acquired  information  or  education  can  it  be 
asserted  with  more  force  of  truth,  and  with  less  deviation 
from  plain  matter  of  fact,  that  true  Physiognomical  know- 
ledge is  a  gem  of  intrinsic  value,  esteemed  highly  when 
properly  comprehended.  The  ability  to  read  with  unfailing 
accuracy  the  characters  of  his  neighbours,  to  put  his  finger 
on  their  foibles,  and  in  fact  to  lay  bare  their  weaknesses, 
if  the  knowledge  of  the  science  is  accompanied  with  talent, 
puts  into  his  hands  a  lever  of  the  most  powerful  character. 
That  this  power  is  dangerous  in  the  hands  of  the  un- 
scrupulous can  hardly  be  denied ;  but  the  element  of  danger 
can  be  eliminated  by  the  general  spread  of  Physiognomical 
education,  so  that,  without  contracting  the  actual  power 
of  discernment  of  the  talented  unscrupulous,  which  it 
clearly  could  not  pretend  to  do,  educational  progress 
would  make  the  science  so  general,  that  they  in'  their 
turn  would  have  their  character  read,  their  wiles  exposed, 


and  their  influence  avoided.  What,  therefore,  at  first 
sight  might  bo  deemed  a  dangerous,  not  to  say  mis- 
chievous, power,  placed  in  the  hands  of  a  few,  would,  by 
the  operation  of  the  perfecting  law  of  nature,  and  the 
general  adoption  of  Physiognomy  as  a  branch  of  the 
ordinary  scholastic  curriculum,  finally  result  in  greater 
openness  of  character,  since  attempts  at  disguise*  would  be 
fruitless;  more  sincerity  of  conduct,  since  hypocrisy  would 
gradually  find  itself  devoid  of  a  rag  to  cover  its  naked 
deformity;  more  benevolence  of  disposition,  since  male- 
volence would  find  itself  everywhere  exposed  and  every- 
where scouted;  and  in  fact  it  would  gradually  be  found 
that  the  purer  sentiments  alone  would  pay,  and  that  the 
indulgence  of  vicious  habits  inevitably  led  to  exposure, 
ignomy,  and  disgrace.  We  are  not  so  sanguine  as  to 
hope  for  a  very  early  realization  of  this  prospective  state 
of  tilings,  but  of  this  we  are  assured  that  come  it  will, 
following  swiftly  on  the  footsteps  of  the  onward  march 
of  Physiognomy,  as  a  science  of  universal  application  and 
utility,  when  the  formulae  become  household  words,  and 
when  it  will  be  as  rare  to  find  a  man  ignorant  of  the 
first  principles  of  Physiognomy,  as  it  is  now  to  find  one 
who  does  not  know  his  letters. 

In  a  commercial  point  of  view,  too  great  stress  cannot 
be  laid  on  the  importance  attached  to  the  study  of  Phy- 
siognomy, and  in  this  connection  a  curious  and  interesting 
feature  strikes  the  observer.  The  whole  fabric  of  our 
commercial  prosperity  rests  upon  the  degree  of  reliance 
on  faith  and  honour,  which  one  man  can  place  in  another. 
When  the  proper  balance  of  credit  is  maintained  in  a 
community,  the  members  of  that  community  are  carried 
on  with  the  steady  stream  of  comfort  and  prosperity;  a 
healthy  social  condition  obtains,  and  a  feeling  of  mutual 
trust  and  confidence  is  induced,  which  becomes  stronger 
and  stronger,  and  more  and  more  conduces  to  the  happi- 


ness  of  its  members,  in  proportion  as  this  principle  is  held 
inviolate.  When  a  system  of  reckless  and  blindfold  trust 
in  all  and  sundry  is  engaged  in ;  when  dishonest  and 
unscrupulous  men  find  it  as  easy  to  obtain  credit  as  their 
upright  and  fair-dealing  brethren,  then  follow  bankruptcy 
and  ruin,  bringing  in  their  train  untold  misery  and  woe 
on  the  heads  of  the  innocent  and  helpless.  In  order, 
then,  to  conduct  business  to  a  successful  issue,  and  to 
steer  clear  of  the  shoals  of  insolvency  and  bankruptcy, 
the  merchant  must  have  at  his  disposal  means  of  some 
kind  or  another  by  which  he  may  be  able  to  separate 
the  wheat  from  the  chaff,  the  honest  from  the  dishonest. 
If  his  path  would  not  be  one  of  blind  and  aimless  direction, 
in  which  he  would  have  an  infinitely  greater  chance  of 
ruin  than  of  fortune,  he  must  found  the  principles  of  his 
transactions  upon  some  assured  basis,  and  one  would  think 
that  the  scope  and  conditions  of  this  basis  would  require 
to  be  laid  down  with  the  utmost  precision,  and  defined 
within  the  narrowest  limits  of  rule  and  compass,  so  as 
to  ensure  the  realization  of  the  end  which  he  aims  at, 
and  at  the  same  time  to  act  as  a  guide-post  to  warn 
him,  at  the  numberless  turnings  of  his  commercial  career, 
of  the  dangerous  paths  which  can  only  be  trodden  at  the 
hazard  of  commercial  existence.  Yet  we  find  the  prudent, 
cautious,  and  successful,  in  numberless  counting-houses, 
jogging  steadily  and  assuredly  on  in  the  path  to  pro- 
sperity and  fortune,  without  any  well  defined  rule  of 
action  so  far,  at  least,  as  the  superficial  observer  can  dis- 
cover. He  appears  capriciously  and  at  random  to  give 
unbounded  credit  in  one  quarter,  and  in  another  to  refuse 
trust  to  the  extent  of  a  sixpence.  He  throws  himself 
warmly  into  one  enterprise,  while  to  another  of  an  ap- 
parently equal  promise  he  promptly  and  unhesitatingly 
shews  the  '_tH  -shoulder.  For  one  man  he  becomes  security 
to  the  exteV  /*  thousands  without  enquiry,  while  to  an- 


other  he  insists  upon  the  strictest  scrutiny  into  the  state 
of  his  reputation  at  the  bank,  demands  from  him  refer- 
ences of  the  most  unimpeachable  character,  and  finally, 
perhaps,  notwithstanding  the  favourable  appearance  of  the 
man,  and  the  highly  satisfactory  result  of  the  inquiries 
respecting  him,  he  closes  the  negotiation  with  an  emphatic 
shake  of  the  head.  Notwithstanding,  however,  all  the 
incomprehensibleness  of  this  system,  or  rather  want  of 
system,  as  it  would  appear  to  some,  no  reflective  mind 
can  doubt  for  a  moment  the  existence  on  the  part  of 
the  merchant  of  rules  of  the  most  undeviating  character, 
which  he  never  loses  sight  of.  And  what  then  is  the 
secret?  Simply  that  the  successful  man  of  business,  how- 
ever much  he  may  ignore  the  fact,  is  invariably  a  Physiog- 
nomist of  a  very  high  order.  He  is  a  successful  merchant, 
in  fact,  in  the  same  degree  as  he  is  a  successful  Physiog- 
nomist. The  terms  are  synonymous  in  his  case.  There 
may  be  successful  Physiognomists  who  are  not  successful 
merchants,  perhaps,  indeed,  not  merchants  at  all;  but  on 
the  other  hand,  there  is  not  and  never  has  been  a  success- 
ful man  of  business  who  is  not  at  the  same  time,  although, 
we  repeat,  perhaps  unknowingly  to  himself,  an  accom- 
plished Physiognomist.  This  quality  enables  him  to  select 
servants  of  the  stamp  suited  for  his  business,  and  to  avoid 
and  discountenance  those  who  could  co-operate  with  him 
only  to  his  disadvantage.  It  is  this  faculty  of  his  which 
explains  the  seeming  caprice  of  his  conduct  in  dealing 
with  business  correspondents;  and  it  is  by  this  knowledge 
of  his  that  he  is  enabled  to  separate  the  wheat  from  the 
chaff,  the  commercially  dishonest  and  the  rotten  specu- 
lation, from  the  safe  man  and  the  good  investment.  It 
would  very  much  puzzle  such  a  merchant,  as  the  one 
instanced,  in  taking  a  retrospective  glance  at  his  career, 
to  discover  how  he  had  unwittingly  become  engaged  in 
the  study  of  Physiognomy;  when  his  education  bad  been 


commenced,  and  most  of  all,  he  would  be  astounded  at 
the  fact  that  he  should  have  graduated  in  the  science 
with  honours,  and  obtained  by  means  of  it  social  dignity 
and  position,  rank  and  fortune,  without  ever  having 
suspected  that  there  existed  such  a  faculty  as  that  of 
reading  the  inward  character  of  a  man  by  his  outward 
lineaments,  far  less  divining  that  in  himself  this  faculty 
was  developed  to  so  high  an  extent,  as  to  exert  the  most 
paramount  influence  upon  his  character,  his  prospects  and 
his  happiness.  While  we  thus  see  the  immense  import- 
ance of  the  science  to  men  of  business,  we  must  not  forget 
that  considerations  more  or  less  directly  springing  from 
it,  enter  into  every  conceivable  phase  of  society;  and  we 
do  not  hesitate  to  affirm  broadly,  that  nineteen  out  of 
twenty  of  all  the  lucky  hits,  and  the  same  proportion  of 
false  steps,  are  traceable  to  a  due  observance  on  the  one 
hand,  or  to  neglect  or  ignorance  on  the  other,  of  the  laws 
which  nature  has  enacted  in  reference  to  the  portraiture 
on  the  exterior  of  the  prevailing  feelings  and  passions  of 
the  interior.  "We  meet  the  principle  actively  at  work 
every  hour  of  the  day:  in  our  homes,  in  the  street,  in 
the  market,  in  railway  trains,  in  steam  boats,  in  the 
church,  in  the  law  courts,  and  in  fact,  everywhere,  where 
man  comes  in  contact  with  his  brother  man.  It  is  simply 
this  faculty,  powerfully  developed,  of  reading  the  face  of 
man  like  a  book  which  goes  to  form  the  character,  and 
which  constitutes  the  success  in  life  of  the  clever  shop 
salesman.  He  is  a  fair  practical  Physiognomist  of  a  high 
grade,  it  may  be,  without  knowing  the  fact.  His  oppor- 
tunities of  study  are  vast  and  continuous,  and  when  this 
coalesces  with  natural  talents  of  perception,  he  becomes 
what  is  known  as  the  clever  salesman,  whose  services 
are  valued  by  the  silk  mercer  and  other  tradesmen  at 
the  very  highest  figure,  worthy  in  fact  to  be  employed 
at  any  price.  In  a  large  retail  silk  mercery  establish- 


ment,  such  a  man  is  a  source  of  very  considerable  revenue 
to  his  emplo}rers,  by  reason  of  his  success  as  a  salesman. 
This  success,  as  we  have  said,  consists  in  his  Physiognomical 
knowledge,  as  applied  to  the  features  of  the  shopping 
portion  of  the  community.  When  a  new  customer  enters 
the  shop,  our  clever  Physiognomist  has  his  character 
dissected  in  a  trice,  by  means  of  the  salient  points  of 
the  exterior.  He  takes  in  during  the  first  few  minutes' 
survey  his  customer's  predominant  characteristics,  and 
decides  at  once  as  to  his  foibles  and  his  weaknesses.  To 
one  he  is  cringing — almost  abject — in  his  servility,  laying 
on  the  unction  of  what  we  may  call  passive  flatter}^  with 
an  unsparing  tongue.  To  another  he  is  calmly  dignified, 
and  to  a  third  he  is  almost  defiant.  He  knows  in  a 
second  what  kind  of  attitude  to  assume  to  each  customer, 
so  as  to  please  and  conciliate  the  various  tastes.  He 
divines  at  once  where  the  ordinary  servility  of  the  shop- 
man would  be  distasteful,  and  where  a  demeanour  of 
respectful  and  courteous  equality  would  best  please.  To 
the  foolish  and  the  vain  he  is  profuse  of  bows  and  salu- 
tations, all  evincing  the  deepest  reverence  and  the  most 
respectful  admiration.  To  the  suspicious  customer  on  guard 
against  being  cajoled  into  buying  more  than  the  one  article 
to  procure  which  he  has  entered,  he  is  careless  and  indif- 
ferent, but  manages  nevertheless  to  take  captive  the  atten- 
tion on  one  article  after  another,  all  of  which  he  parts 
with,  with  a  half-regretful  air,  as  if  he  were  throwing 
them  away,  and  would  as  soon  have  kept  them  as  not. 
He  fixes  the  greedy  and  avaricious  customer  at  a  glance, 
and  manages  after  a  while  to  allow  himself  to  admit 
inadvertently  that  certain  lots  of  goods  have  been  marked 
at  a  ruinous  reduction  of  price.  He  would  rather  not 
dispose  of  them  at  those  ridiculous  prices,  until  he  has 
had  an  opportunity  of  consulting  his  employers.  He  is 
certain  these  goods  have  been  so  marked  in  error,  but 


having  aroused  the  greedy  demon  within  his  customer, 
he  allows  himself  to  be  cajoled  into  producing  the  articles 
in  question,  and  finally  he  is  even  foolish  enough  to  part 
with  some  of  them  at  twenty-five  per  cent,  over  their  shop 
value,  though  all  the  while  prophesying  a  reprimand  or 
even  dismissal  on  the  part  of  his  employer.  Thus  to 
each  and  every  of  the  various  orders  of  customers  has 
he  ready  an  appropriate  bill  of  fare,  and  all  with  the 
result  of  conveying  money  from  the  strangers'  pockets 
to  his  master's  till.  The  adroit  salesman,  from  long  practice 
and  his  natural  gift  of  perception,  divines,  with  unerring 
accuracy,  the  exact  line  of  conduct  to  adopt,  and  follows 
it  accordingly,  never  wearying  or  disgusting  his  patrons  or 
the  public  by  an  inappropriate  course  of  action,  and  never 
tiring  until  he  sees  the  pockets  empty,  or  at  all  events, 
his  customer  taken  to  the  utmost  limits  of  his  purchasing 
inclination  or  ability.  Any  one  who  has  done  even  a 
very  moderate  amount  of  shopping  must  be  acquainted 
with  the  awkward  and  bungling  specimen  of  shopmen 
whose  ill-judged  pertinacity  displeases  at  once,  and  meta- 
phorically speaking,  has  the  effect  of  buttoning  up  instead 
of  opening  the  pockets  of  the  customer,  who  in  future 
avoids  not  only  the  man  but  the  shop  itself,  to  the 
detriment  of  the  interests  of  the  proprietor,  and  to  the 
ultimate  undoing  of  his  servant's  success.  The  latter 
is  very  probably  a  more  honest,  and  a  better  man  by  far, 
than  the  gifted  individual  whom  we  have  just  portrayed, 
but  he  is  not  a  Physiognomist,  and  in  this  lies  the  secret 
of  his  unsuccess.  We  have  often  wondered  how  it  comes 
that  hairdressers  or  barbers,  as  a  class,  are  so  devoid  of 
this  all  important  knowledge  of  Physiognomy:  and  so 
generally  do  they  disregard  its  principles,  that  we  have 
been  sometimes  well  nigh  staggered  in  our  belief.  Few 
men  like  to  be  reminded  that  a  gray  hair,  here  and  there, 
is  beginning  to  usurp  the  place  of  the  whilom  glossy  lock* 

30  INTRODUCTION.      , 

of  their  early  manhood.  Few  men  are  so  constituted  as  to 
be  highly  delighted  when  the  announcement  is  made  to 
them,  "Your  hair  is  getting  a  little  thin  on  the  crown, 
sir."  And  yet  despite  this  fact,  the  genus  hairdresser 
seems  utterly  to  ignore  the  circumstances,  and,  as  a  rule, 
he  loses  no  opportunity  of  mercilessly  reminding  his 
customer  of  the  interesting  change  which  is  taking  place. 
No  sooner  is  a  head  put  into  his  hands,  than  a  severe 
scrutiny  is  institii^ed  for  the  gray  monitors  of  the  fleeting 
character  of  human  existence.  If  happily  the  hint  is 
unsuccessful,  an  eager  search  for  incipient  baldness  is 
entered  into,  and  if  baffled  in  this  direction,  he  of  course 
falls  back  on,  "a  great  deal  of  scurf  in  your  hair,  sir; 
sure  sign  of  an  approaching  falling  off,  sir.  I  rather  think, 
sir,  you  have  neglected  to  try  our  '  Eureka  Restorer,' 
never-failing  remedy  for  scurf,  sir,  eighteenpence  a  bottle, 
sir."  Now,  how  abominably  distasteful  is  all  this  to  the 
average  frequenters  of  the  fashionable  perruquier's  shop, 
for  to  the  credit  of  the  humbler  order  of  establishments, 
be  it  said,  that  in  it  this  kind  of  persecution  is  almost 
unknown.  With  some  simple  people,  this  in  terrorem 
warning  is  occasionally  productive  of  "Eureka"  sales,  no 
doubt;  but  why  not  apply  the  principle  of  Physiognomy, 
and  learn  to  read  the  customer's  strength  or  weakness 
before  running  the  risk  of  losing  patrons,  by  announcing 
what  may  be  truth  partly,  but  at  the  same  time  truth 
which  had  much  better  remain  unspoken.  It  is  in  our 
own  experience,  that  it  is  almost  impossible  to  find  an 
establishment  of  this  kind  where  such  persecution  is 
tabooed;  and  we  have  been  forced  to  account  for  the 
fact,  in  a  way  not  very  flattering  to  the  intelligence  of 
perruquiers  as  a  body.  Shop  after  shop  has  been  tried 
in  the  vain  endeavour  to  find  a  peaceful  asylum  where 
one  might  sit  down  under  one's  comb  and  brush  in  peace. 
Failure  has  only  succeeded  failure,  until  we  have  been 


forced  to  submit  silently  in  the  sullen  endurance  of  despair. 
The  bright  aspirations  and  dreams  of  our  youth  have 
faded  one  by  one,  and  we  now  look  for  no  alleviation  until 
the  Science  of  Physiognomy  has  so  diffused  itself  through- 
out the  world  at  large,  as  to  have  its  principles  at 
last  made  plain  to  the  meanest  capacity,  even  to  the 
capacity  of  the  hairdresser's  assistant.  Until  this  mil- 
lennium arrives,  we  submit  to  be  solemnly  warned  once  a 
month,  that  unless  we  come  round  to  a  full  conviction  of 
the  efficacy  of  the  "Eureka"  and  invest  in  an  eighteen- 
pence  bottle,  we  must  speedily  wear  a  crown  of  unhonoured 
gray  hairs.  But  joking  aside,  the  loss  which  uninitiated 
shopkeepers  in  general,  and  hairdressers  in  particular,  inflict 
on  themselves  by  reason  of  a  neglect  of  the  simple  elements 
of  Physiognomy  is  incalculable ;  and  in  this  connection  we 
do  not  think  we  are  too  sanguine  in  prognosticating  the 
speedy  adoption  of  the  science,  as  a  common  and  everyday 
auxiliary  to  the  conduct  of  the  shopkeeping  business — a 
step  "which  will  be  conducive  to  the  profit  of  the  shop- 
keepers themselves  and  to  the  comfort  and  convenience  of 
their  patrons. 

As  a  ludicrous  instance  of  the  application  of  Physiog- 
nomical acumen  to  the  furtherance  of  business,  we  may  give 
the  following  before  finally  passing  on  to  other  phases,  and 
for  the  accuracy  of  the  narration  we  can  bring  a  voucher  in 
the  form  of  the  merchant  who  employed  the  astute  clerk  to 
whom  reference  is  made.  In  one  of  the  most  thriving 
manufacturing  towns  of  Scotland,  in  which  our  in- 
formant was,  and  indeed  is  still,  at  the  head  of  a  large 
soft  goods  warehouse,  one  of  these  born  Physiognomical 
geniuses,  who  could  drive  profitable  sales  in  the  teeth  almost 
of  impossibility  itself,  was  employed.  Unfortunately, 
his  capacity  for  usefulness  was  very  much  impaired 
by  habits  of  dissipation  which  he  had  contracted,  and  for 
days,  and  sometimes  for  weeks  together,  he  would  absent 


himself  from  business.  Admonition  and  advice  on  the  part 
of  his  employers  having  been  ultimately  found  totally 
unavailing,  he  was  at  length  allowed  to  drift  unmolested 
into  the  exercise  of  his  own  option  of  corning  and  going  at 
his  own  sweet  will,  his  services  being  much  too  valuable, 
however  intermittent  and  fitful,  to  admit  of  the  idea  being 
entertained  of  dismissal.  His  presence  in  the  warehouse 
was  always  marked  by  the  uncomplaining  and  even  grateful 
acquiescence  of  his  employers,  since  it  was  invariably 
attended  by  a  very  appreciable  increase  in  their  revenue. 
My  informant  was,  on  one  occasion,  engaged  in  inspecting, 
in  a  back  part  of  the  premises,  a  parcel  of  goods  which  he 
had  received  from  the  steamer  very  much  damaged  by  sea 
water,  and  a  special  sale  of  which  had  been  announced  by 
advertisement  and  placard.  While  superintending  the 
arrangement  and  marking  off  the  goods,  he  was  approached 
by  his  Physiognomical  assistant,  who  happened  then  to  be 
in  a  humour  for  working — a  state  of  mind  probably  super- 
induced by  a  tightness  in  the  money  market.  He  had 
just  tackled — as  my  informant  learned  afterwards — in  the 
front  shop,  one  of  those  customers  (a  lady)  who  belonged  to 
that  class  who  are  insatiably  greedy  of  bargains,  and 
especially  sweet  on  damaged  goods,  and  having  discovered 
her  character  in  half  a  minute  by  Physiognomical  inspection, 
he  had  gone  to  work.  The  lady  wanted  a  considerable 
quantity  of  a  particular  article,  and  she  was  at  once  assured 
that  the  damaged  bale  contained  precisely  the  thing  she 
wanted,  very  little  the  worse  for  the  sea- water,  and  at  the 
same  time  marked  at  a  ruinous  reduction  in  price.  "Mr. 

A ,  does  that  damaged  bale  include  any ?     I  want 

some  now."     "  No,  it  does  not,"  Mr.  A replied.     "  Then 

we  must  damage  some  ourselves,"  the  salesman  coolly  re- 
joined; and  without  further  remark  he  drew  from  one  ol 
the  shelves  a  sound  web  of  the  article  required,  threw  it  on 
the  floor,  and  dashed  a  basinful  of  dirty  water  over  it  Such 


was  the  unquestioning  reliance  placed  on  the  sagacity  of 
this  salesman,  that  my  friend. did  not  think  of  interfering 
by  a  word  of  remonstrance,  though  he  admits  that  for  a 
moment  he  felt  assured  that  this  jewel  of  a  salesman  of  his 
had  at  last  drunk  himself  into  a  softening  of  the  brain. 
Having  damaged  the  web  to  his  satisfaction,  the  latter 
shouldered  it,  and  proceeded  to  rejoin  his  expectant 
customer,  whom  he  speedily  managed  to  make  the  happy 
possessor  of  the  damaged  goods  in  question,  at  a  mere  trifle 
over  the  figure  for  which  she  could  have  purchased  them  in 
a  sound  state.  We  need  hardly  say  that  we  do  not  hold 
this  touching  incident  up  for  the  commendation  or  imita- 
tion of  our  readers,  but  simply  as  an  illustration  thoroughly 
well  authenticated,  of  the  influence  for  good  or  evil  wielded 
by  the  clever  Physiognomist. 

The  more  we  consider  the  Science  of  Physiognomy,  the 
more  are  we  struck  by  the  universality  of  its  application  in 
all  circumstances  of  life.  If  we  want  to  ask  a  favour  of  any 
one,  a  knowledge  of  Physiognomy  will  teach'  us  so  to  vary 
our  modes  of  procedure,  with  varying  character,  as  to  reduce 
our  chances  of  failure  to  a  minimum.  By  it  we  are  made 
aware  of  the  predominant  characteristics  of  the  party  whose 
good  offices  we  seek  to  propitiate;  and  over  and  above  all 
this  we  can,  by  means  of  Physiognomy,  decide  as  to  the 
particular  kind  of  humour  he  is  in  at  the  time  the  favour  is 
requested  of  him,  and  thus  avoid  a  refusal  by  judiciously 
suiting  ourselves  to  his  state  of  mind,  or  by  postponing  the 
matter  to  a  more  convenient  season.  How  often  is  the 
bungler,  to  his  unbounded  astonishment,  met  with  a  curt 
refusal  to  his  request,  in  a  quarter  where  he  thought  he  was 
assured  of  success,  while  he  has  only  himself  to  thank  for 
his  failure  in  neglecting  the  warnings  of  the  Physiognomical, 
index,  or  in  being  unable  properly  to  shape  and  time  his 
petition  to  the  particular  idiosyncratic  quality  of  hia 
customer  or  fellow-man ;  and  thus  it  is  in  every  conceivable 



condition  in  which  man  and  man  are  placed  in  relation  to 
each  other.  During  the  tedium  of  a  long  journey  by  rail 
or  by  water,  the  value  of  this  power  of  reading  character 
can  hardly  be  over-estimated.  If  we  feel  inclined  to  enter 
into  conversation,  we  have  the  means  to  our  hand  of  picking 
out  those  who  are  socially  inclined,  and  of  avoiding  the 
repellant  and  hedge-hog  kind  of  traveller;  and  it  enables  us 
not  only  to  do  this,  but  after  selecting  the  individual  to  be 
operated  upon,  we  can  by  it  arrive  approximately  at  a  sound 
conclusion  as  to  the  particular  kind  of  topic  which  is  likely  to 
prove  the  most  acceptable  and  the  least  distasteful ;  and  thus 
we  may  accomplish  at  one  and  the  same  time  the  improve- 
ment of  our  own  time  in  a  pleasant  and  profitable  way,  and 
the  furtherance  also  of  the  profit,  improvement,  and  pleasure 
of  others.  We  could  multiply  indefinitely  instances  wherein 
a  knowledge  of  Physiognomy  would  be  invaluable,  but  the 
limits  of  our  space  compel  us  to  adhere  only  to  the  more 
conspicuous  of  those.  Success  in  life  hinges  entirely  upon 
the  adoption,  in  youth  or  early  manhood,  of  that  particular 
calling,  trade,  or  profession  which  is  the  best  suited  to  the 
capacity  and  bent  of  the  individual ;  but  it  is  well  known, 
that  in  the  majority  of  cases  the  choice  of  any  particular 
profession  is  the  result  of  fortuitous  circumstances;  and  it 
will  not  be  denied  that  this  hap-hazard  system  results  most 
frequently  in  the  round  pin  being  fitted  to  the  square  hole, 
and  vice  versa.  We  have  shewn  that  no  two  human  beings 
are  similarly  endowed,  and  as  an  evident  corollary  of  this, 
each  individual  must  be  better  fitted  for  some  one  occupa- 
tion than  for  any  other.  To  neglect  the  means,  then,  of 
discovering  the  proper  sphere  in  time  is  to  be  guilty  of  the 
most  mischievous  folly,  and  yet  it  is  rare  to  find  parents 
going  systematically  to  work  in  a  matter  of  so  much  im- 
portance, and,  as  we  have  said,  the  decision  is  left  very 
much  to  accident  or  predilection  on  the  part  of  the  parents. 
Circumspection  in  this  direction  is  of  paramount  importance* 


but,  alas,  how  often  does  the  prevailing  method  result  in 
the  dissipation  of  the  energies  of  a  lifetime,  unillumiued 
by  the  faintest  realization  of  the  hopes  whicli  seemed  to 
beckon  it  on  at  the  commencement.  The  youth  who,  as  an 
Engineer  or  Inventor,  would  have  made  a  glorious  name 
for  himself,  passes  through  life  as  a  Doctor  or  a  Lawyer, 
struggling  and  unsuccessful.  Young  men  who  would 
infallibly  have  taken  rank  amongst  our  merchant  princes,  if 
initiated  at  the  proper  time  into  the  mysteries  of  commerce, 
frequently  waste  a  lifetime  in  seeking  distinction  in  some 
sphere  for  which  they  are  utterly  unsuited.  Young  women 
fret  themselves  to  death  in  the  uncongenial  calling  of 
millinery  or  dressmaking,  when  they  might  have  been 
profitably  and  pleasantly  employed  in  the  kitchen  or  behind 
the  shop-counter;  and  so  of  all  the  various  occupations  of 
life.  Physical  and  mental  disqualifications  for  particular 
walks  of  usefulness  are  unheeded  at  the  time  of  choice,  and 
the  result  is,  that  work  which  should  be  pleasant  and 
healthful  for  mind  and  body,  is  conducive  only  to  brittleness 
of  temper  and  general  unhappiness.  A  judicious  choice,  on 
the  other  hand,  gives  an  impetus  at  the  start,  which  carries 
them  on  pleasantly  and  profitably  to  that  measure  of  dis- 
tinction for  which  they  are  suited.  Above  all,  to  both  man 
and  woman,  the  choice  of  a  partner  for  life  is  an  act  fraught 
with  the  weightiest  consequences,  and  in  this,  perhaps,  as 
much  as  in  any  other  turning  point  of  life,  the  paramount 
importance  of  a  correct  understanding  of  the  Principles  of 
Physiognomy  shines  forth  with  the  -clearest  brilliancy.  Not 
only  our  own  happiness,  but  the  happiness  of  our  children, 
and  our  children's  children,  is  bound  up  with  a  judicious  or 
a  foolish  selection,  and  it  well  behoves  us  to  give  the  matter 
the  very  deepest  consideration,  at  so  momentous  an  epoch  of 
aur  existence. 

Apart  from  a  utilitarian  point  of  view,  the  mere  pleasure 
to  be  derived  from  the  science  is  an  element  which,  of  itself 


alone  might  have  sufficed  to  make  it  universal  in  its 
adoption.  When  disinclined  for  more  active  pursuits,  what 
a  vast  fund  of  amusing  instruction  may  be  gathered  in 
the  contemplation,  from  a  window  overlooking  a  densely 
thronged  thoroughfare,  of  the  various  types  of  countenances 
which  pass  and  repass  in  an  ever  ceaseless  flow.  The  same 
may  be  said  of  a  journey  by  railway  or  steamboat;  and  aa 
pleasure  is  healthiest  when  combined  with  profit  and 
instruction,  we  cannot  do  better  than  give  this  species  of  it 
our  hearty  recommendation  and  approval  We  have  tried 
it  for  years,  and  find  it  an  occupation  which  never  palls ; 
and  we  are  convinced  that  these  studies  for  leisure  hours 
will  be  more  and  more  entered  into  as  the  Science  of 
Physiognomy  becomes  better  known  and  more  widely 

The  moral  element  which  is  bound  up  with  the  Science 
of  Physiognomy  is  one  deserving  of  the  deepest  and  most 
profound  consideration  and  attention:  and  we  predict,  that 
in  the  promotion  of  that  science,  the  philanthropist  and 
social  reformer  will  find  ere  long  their  most  powerful  and 
most  efficient  levers  for  the  regeneration  of  mankind.  The 
swollen  basilar  visages  of  the  habitually  vicious  are  the 
direct  and  inevitable  consequences  of  a  life-long  indulgence 
in  the  worst  passions  which  can  take  possession  of  the 
human  breast,  and  they  may  well  act  as  a  beacon  and  a 
warning  to  the  rising  generation,  of  the  untold  evils  which 
follow  in  the  train  of  unbridled  indulgence,  lust,  and  passion. 
These  are  the  beacons  .which  tell  of  the  danger-fraught 
rocks  and  shoals  which  lie  below,  and  on  which  have 
perished  so  many  goodly  barks  in  life's  tempestuous  voyage. 
Once  let  the  moral  Physiognomical  survey  be  made,  and  the 
moral  Physiognomical  chart  be  drawn  and  laid  down,  and 
the  voyage  of  life  will  be  robbed  of  one-half  of  its  perils, 
and  travellers  relieved  of  one-half  their  terrors.  Once  let  it 
be  generally  understood  and  admitted  that  an  inward  refor- 


matiou  is  the  sure  forerunner  of  a  beautifying  reformation 
in  the  outward  and  visible  marks  of  the  countenance,  and 
vice  will  be  robbed  of  one-half  of  her  powers  of  seduction, 
while  virtue  will  be  reinforced  to  the  same  extent.  Our 
prisons  and  our  Courts  of  Justice  would  become  colleges 
and  museums  for  the  student  of  Physiognomy,  where  he 
would  see  depicted,  in  endless  variety  of  revolting  delinea- 
tion, the  degraded  pictures  of  the  votaries  of  vice.  In  fact, 
the  extent  to  which  this  lever  for  the  destruction  and  anni- 
hilation of  vice  could  be  used  is  unbounded,  and  the  benefits 
which  would  accrue  would  have  an  application  as  wide  and 
universal  as  the  habitable  globe.  The  enormous  sums  of 
money  which  are  required  in  every  country,  for  the  efficient 
maintenance  of  the  machinery  for  the  control  and  punish- 
ment of  the  criminal  population,  would  be  replaced  by 
modest  figures,  and  the  energies  and  talents  of  our  public 
judicial  servants  would  be  turned  into  other  useful  channels 
of  work  The  general  adoption  of  the  principle  would  have 
the  effect  of  making  so  apparent  the  scoundrel,  the  thief, 
and  the  habitu&l  criminal  of  whatever  cast,  that  it  would 
speedily  be  discovered  that  vice  was  an  article  no  longer 
marketable,  and  that  upngLt  and  honest  dealing  were  the 
only  passports  to  a  livelihood.  It  is  in  this  merciless 
exposure  of  vice,  when  the  vicious  could  no  longer  walk  the 
streets  without,  in  his  face,  carrying  a  signboard  denoting 
the  rottenness  within,  that  is  to  be  found  the  most  powerful 
element  for  the  elimination  of  vice  in  the  future.  These 
unfortunates  would  be  literally  starved  into  a  different 
course  of  action,  and  would  be  compelled,  nolens  volens,  to 
retrace  their  erring  steps  to  the  paths  of  virtue.  It  is 
impossible  to  calculate  the  influence  which  this  feature  will 
exercise  when  the  Principles  of  Physiognomy  have  reached 
their  acme  of  development.  When  Physiognomy  is  taught 
in  our  schools,  and  when  chairs  of  Physiognomy  are  insti- 
tuted in  our  Universities,  then  may  we  mark  the  dawn  of 


the  better  time,  the  approach  of  the  millennium  of  thefutuie, 
and  a  giant  stride  on  the  part  of  the  human  race  in  ita 
inarch  to  perfection — a  perfection  which  the  Omnipotent  has 
enacted  from  all  time  to  be  the  fit  resting-place  for  that 
ethereal  essence,  the  Soul. 

L6ON  M.  GAMBETTA,  an  eminent  French  statesman  and  founder  of 
the  French  Republic.  When  he  died  from  a  pistol  wound,  in  1882,  at  44 
years  of  age,  his  brain  was  found  to  weigh  40-,^  ounces,  whereas  boys  of  7 
to  14  years  of  age  average  a  fraction  less  than  46  ounces.  Dr.  Flint,  in  his 
"  Physiology,"  gives  the  average  male  brain  in  New  York  at  a  little  over 
50  ounces.  Here  we  find  one  of  the  most  powerful  of  the  statesmen  of 
his  time  with  a  receding  forehead  and  exceedingly  small  brain. 


"  We  are  all  the  slaves  of  our  organism." — Emerson. 

THE  question  of  human  responsibility,  involved  as  it  is  in 
the  metaphysical  subtleties,  yet  pregnant  with  the  weighti- 
est  practical  interest,   has   ever  been   the  vexed   inquiry 
of  speculative   theology.     But  although    I   am  somewhat 
attracted  to  this  perplexing  field,  by  the  subject  I  am  about 
to  discuss,  I  shall  not  here   attempt  its  exploration.      I 
shall  leave    the    metaphysicians    to    solve    the    question 
whether  mind  is  the   result  of  physical   organization,    or 
physical  organization  the  result  of  mind ;  or  to  what  extent 
they  both  act  and  react  upon  each  other.     In  this  work, 
strictly  devoted  as  it  is  to  Physiognomical  Science,  it  will 
be  sufficient  for  me  to  point  out  those  mental  and  moral 
characteristics   which,   in   common   experience,  are  always 
found  in  connection  with  distinctive  physical  types. 

A  scientific  definition  of  the  types  of  the  human  body,  as 
regards  the  relations  and  proportions  between  its  various 
parts,  has  been  attempted  even  by  the  earliest  writers. 
Galen  and  Hippocrates  contended  that  all  men  could  be 
classed  under  four  erases  or  temperaments,  viz.,  the  san- 
guineous, bilious,  melancholic,  and  phlegmatic.  The  bilious 
temperament,  according  to  Hippocrates,  is  the  result  of  an 


excess  of  yellow  bile  secreted  by  the  liver;  the  melancholic, 
of  a  surplus  of  black  bile  produced  by  the  spleen;  the 
sanguineous,  of  an  overplus  of  blood  originated  by  the  heart, 
and  the  phlegmatic,  of  a  superabundance  of  phlegm — a 
watery  fluid  consequent  upon  the  action  of  the  brain. 
The  progress  of  physiological  science  has  shewn  us  that 
the  brain  does  not,  as  the  Greek  pb}7sician  supposed, 
originate  a  watery  fluid,  and  that  black  bile  is  not  produced 
by  the  spleen,  nor  blood  by  the  heart.  Yet,  notwith- 
standing these  errors  in  the  details  of  Hippocrates'  system, 
his  classification,  as  such,  has  been  handed  down  through 
succeeding  ages,  and  is  more  or  less  in  favour  to-day.  Now 
I  maintain  that  this  ancient  system,  and  all  the  modern 
schemes  which  have  been  founded  upon  it,  are  essentially 
false,  because  they  are  not  based  upon  nature,  and  because 
their  terminology  is  obscure  to  any  but  the  scientific 

I  prefer,  in  the  consideration  of  this  subject,  to  discard  the 
word  temperament  altogether,  as  liable  to  grave  misunder- 
standing, and  to  designate  the  different  classes  of  men  by 
their  different-  physical  forma.  These  forms,  which  are  five 
in  number,  I  shall  consider  in  the  following  order.  The 
Abdominal  Form;  the  Thoracic  Form;  the  Muscular  and 
Fibrous  Form;  the  Osseous  or  Bony  Form,  and  the  Brain 
and  Nerve  Form.  In  this  order  I  follow  nature  in  the 
manner  in  which  she  unfolds  the  respective  powers  of 
mankind.  I  ascend  from  that  which  developes  first  to  that 
which  is  latest  in  maturing,  from  the  lower  part  of  the  face 
and  physique  to  the  superior  portions,  and  the  same  order 
is  maintained  throughout  the  entire  classification  of  this 
book.  The  number  of  the  classes  of  the  signs  of  the 
faculties  correspond  with  the  number  of  forms  which  the 
signs  and  their  even  combinations  represent.  Every  person, 
of  course,  possesses  all  of  these  forms,  but  in  the  vast 
majority  of  instances  they  are  unequally  developed,  in 


which  case,  the  predominating  form  or  forms,  by  marking 
the  leading  characteristic,  indicates  the  class  to  which  the 
subject  belongs. 

The  abdomen  is  that  part  of  the  body  which  lies  between 
the  thorax  and  the  pelvis,  and  includes  the  larger  part  of 
the  digestive  apparatus,  and  the  intestines.  The  form  to 
which  the  abdomen  gives  its  name  may  be  morbidly  in- 
creased by  entire  freedom  from  care  and  study,  and  excessive 
indulgence  in  eating,  drinking,  and  sleep.  Those  in 
whom  it  is  highly  developed  have  full  cheeks,  a  double  chin, 
one  or  more  wrinkles  running  round  the  neck,  short  and 
irregular  wrinkles  on  the  forehead,  almond-shaped  and 
sleepy  eyes,  a  round,  pug  nose,  and  general  fulness  in  the 
abdominal  region.  They  are  epicurean  in  their  tastes, 
prudent,  indolent,  good-natured,  social,  and  fond  of  making 
and  of  spending  money.  They  are  rnclined  to  adipose 
accumulation,  and  succeed  better  in  the  social  circle  than 
in  high  deliberative  or  executive  functions.  The  activity 
of  their  excernent  system  gives  them  the  plump  and 
aqueous  appearance  which  is  consequent  upon  an  abun- 
dance of  the  vital  fluids.  Daniel  Lambert  may  be  cited 
in  illustration  of  the  abdominal  form. 

The  Thoracic  form  is  highly  developed,  when  the  thorax 
is  relatively  large.  The  heart  and  the  organs  of  respiration 
are  contained  within  the  thoracic  cavity,  hence  mountain 
air,  and  mountain  climbing;  striking  the  chest  rapidly  after 
a  full  inhalation;  running;  swimming,  and  other  exercises 
increase  the  Thoracic  form,  by  developing  the  lungs,  and 
stimulating  the  circulatory  action  of  the  heart.  Those  in 
whom  this  form  predominates,  are  fond  of  amusements, 
pure  air  and  exercise.  They  are  cheerful  and  imaginative, 
but  dislike  confinement,  and  are  usually  averse  to  study. 
Their  muscles  are  of  a  fine  and  rather  firm  texture,  and 
they  have  generally  a  large  nose,  with  expanded  nostrils, 
prominent  and  wide  cheek  bones,  protuberant  veins,  and 


moderate  or  small  brain  and  abdomen.  They  are  peculiarly 
liable  to  acute  diseases,  and  especially  to  inflammatory  com- 
plaints. Cicero  was  a  good  example  of  this  form. 

As  large  bones  are  not  always  accompanied  by  powerful 
muscles,  it  is  necessary  to  discriminate  between  the  Muscular 
and  Fibrous,  and  the  Osseous  forms.  Dr.  Windship  of 
Boston,  although  able  to  lift  2,600  Ibs.,  is  a  man  of  small 
frame-work  The  Muscular  form  is  developed  by  all  kinds 
of  energetic  and  healthful  muscular  exercise.  Those  who 
are  distinguished  by  it  are  sensitive  and  energetic.  They 
possess .  abundant  physical  courage,  and  although  compar- 
atively slow  to  anger,  are  desperate  when  exasperated.  In 
the  purely  intellectual  powers  they  are  seldom  gifted,  but 
when  urged  to  practical  exertion  by  love,  ambition,  rage,  or 
fear,  there  are  few  obstacles  which  they  cannot  surmount. 
They  are  elastic  and  amorous,  and  when  irritated  become 
destructive.  Dr.  Windship,  who  is  a  conspicuous  instance 
of  this  form,  told  me  that  light-haired  people  were  the  most 
susceptible  of  physical  development.  He  is  light-haired,  and 
of  a  sandy  complexion.  Romulus,  Hercules,  Achilles,  Hector, 
Ajax,  Alexander  the  Great,  William  Wallace,  and  Robert 
Bruce,  all  possessed  the  muscular  fornj.  The  Spartan 
legislators  paid  particular  attention  to  the  development 
of  the  physique,  and  to  that  end  ordained  that  women  as 
well  as  men  should  practise  running,  wrestling,  boxing, 
jumping,  swimming,  quoit-pitching,  and  throwing  the 
javelin.  To  insure  a  muscular  race,  they  also  ordered  that 
all  weakly  and  deformed  children  should  be  destroyed 
immediately  after  birth.  Plutarch  informs  us  that,  the 
better  to  tone  the  fibres,  the  athletic  exercises  of  the  Greeks 
were  performed  by  both  men  and  women  in  a  nude 
condition.  The  physical  signs  of  the  muscular  form  are, 
general  breadth  of  the  body,  well  defined  tendons  and 
muscles,  heavy  shoulders,  a  nose  broad  at  the  base,  and  a 
large  short  neck.  The  muscles  may  be  developed  by 


vigorous  exercise  in  the  shade,  but  the  growth  of  the  bones 
is  dependent  on  the  influence  of  sunlight. 

Those  persons  strongly  characterized  by  the  Osseous  form, 
have  a  sallow  or  dark  complexion,  long  limbs  and  fingers, 
square  shoulders,  a  prominent  nose,  hollow  cheeks  and 
temples,  and  straight  hair.  They  are  ungraceful  in  their 
movements,  slow  in  motion  and  judgment,  but  very 
reliable ;  awkward  in  bestowing  or  receiving  a  favour, 
careless  in  details,  and  more  fond  of  comfort  than  display. 
When  this  form  is  supported  by  a  large  brain,  and  general 
healthiness  of  organization,  it  is  highly  favourable  to  talent 
and  greatness.  Plato,  Plutarch,  Alfred  the  Great,  La 
Fayette,  Washington,  and  Lincoln  possessed  the  Osseous,  in 
marked  but  harmonious  combination  with  the  Brain  and 
Nerve  form. 

The  Brain  or  Nerve  form  is  s^own  by  various  external 
signs,  such  as  an  uneven  or  angular  surface  of  skull,  sharp 
features,  thin  lips  and  nostrils,  wasted  physique,  an  anxious 
and  discontented  expression,  a  relatively  small  chest  and 
neck,  and  a  relatively  large  head.  Persons  of  this  form  are 
quick  in  their  motions,  keenly  sensitive  to  every  species 
of  suffering  or  enjoyment,  and  peculiarly  susceptible  of  the 
influence  of  alcoholic  liquors,  opium,  tobacco,  and  tea.  They 
are  apt  to  be  dyspeptic,  irritable,  fidgety,  and  super- 
attentive  to  details.  They  carry  too  much  sail,  and  they 
need  a  great  deal  of  sleep  and  healthful  food  to  repair  the 
waste  of  nature  incident  to  the  excitement  of  their  intense 

The  most  important  lesson  which  can  be  derived  from 
the  science  of  physiognomical  forms  is,  that  an  appropriate 
and  protracted  system  of  education  and  living  may  so 
modify  their  relative  development  as  to  bring  them  all  into 
that  harmonious  proportion  which  is  the  condition  of  the 
highest  mental  and  physical  health.  A  child,  for  instance,  in 
whom  the  brain  and  nerve  form  is  unduly  ascendant,  may 


acquire  the  Osseous  form  by  drinking  calcareous  water,  and 
by  plain  diet,  pure  air,  and  light  manual  labour  in  the  sun- 
light. All  the  other  forms  may  be  similarly  transmuted  by 
appropriate  training.  The  Creator  has  given  perfection  of 
physique  to  very  few  of  His  creatures;  but  he  has  arranged 
the  animal  economy  with  such  ineffable  wisdom  and  good- 
ness, that  all  have  it  in  their  power  to  decrease  their  natural 
defects,  and  approximate,  at  least,  to  a  perfectly  harmonious 
organization.  As  childhood  is  the  period  when  human 
beings  are  most  susceptible  of  all  kinds  of  educational 
influences,  it  is  evident  that  parents  and  guardians  are 
deeply  responsible  for  the  healthy  combination  of  forms  in 
the  children  whose  rearing  is  committed  to  their  care. 

FREDERICK  THE  GREAT,  author  of  23  volumes,  possessed  the  retro- 
gressive and  homoeopathic  forehead,  crouched  top  head,  yet,  in  liberality, 
significant  genius,  remarkable  intellectual  power,  enterprise,  and  heroism, 
he  has  rarely,  if  ever,  had  an  equal  among  monarchs. 


ONE  of  the  most  important  lessons  which  an  observant, 
thinking  man  can  learn  is,  that  there  are  certain  boundaries 
to  human  knowledge  beyond  which  he  cannot  step,  without 
involving  himself  in  the  fogs  of  superstition.  The  How  of 
a  natural  law  we  may  define  and  explain,  but  the  Why 
sometimes  evades  our  efforts. 

We  cannot  tell  why  platinum  is  eighteen  times  heavier 
than  water.  Why  chloride  of  sodium  (common  salt) 
always  crystallizes  in  the  form  of  a  cube,  no  matter  how 
often  it  is  dissolved  in  water.  We  perceive  that  the  com- 
bustion of  a  tallow  candle  is  caused  by  the  oxygen  of  the 
atmosphere  uniting  with  the  carbon  or  tallow  of  which  it 
is  formed,  by  what  we  term  chemical  action,  producing 
carbonic  acid  gas.  But  Why  this  takes  place  has  never 
been  answered. 

Why  the  sun  is  so  much  larger  than  the  planets,  or  why 
they  revolve  around  him  within  certain  limits,  are  matters 
entirely  beyond  the  reach  of  our  reasoning  powers.  We 
observe  only  the  facts,  and  from  those  facts  deduce  what 
we  call  natural  law. 

The  same  rule  pertains  to  our  knowledge  of  humanity. 
We  cannot  tell  why  men  and  animals  with  large  build  in 
the  abdomen  are  more  fond  of  eating  and  ease  than  those 
of  less  prominence  in  this  region,  and  yet  from  practical 



observation    we   discover  such   to   be   the   truth.     To  the 
attentive  eye  the  world  appears  filled  with  principles  and 

1.  S  2. 

1.  The  Abdominal  Form  Large. — The  Claimant  for  the  Tichborne  Estate. 

2.  The  Abdominal  Form  Small.  —Wallace,  of  Kelly.     Copied  by  permis- 
sion from   "The  Characters  of  Glasgow,"  published  by  Mr.  John  Tweed, 
1 1  St.  Enoch  Square,  Glasgow. 

curious  facts,  yet  none  can  fathom  the  reason  why  of  their 



Geology  reveals  to  us  the  fact  that  the  first  living 
organisms  were  destitute  of  bone  or  frame-work.  Every 
portion  of  the  body  was  constructed  to  minister  to  eating 
and  digestion,  which  was  the  great  aim  of  their  existence. 
Tue  stomach  occupied  the  centre,  protected  on  all  sides  from 
injury,  and  the  digestive  power  was  strong  and  active. 
The  Polypi  were  round  bodied,  destitute  of  bone  or  shell, 
and  from  the  commencement  to  the  end  of  their  existence, 
did  nothing  but  eat  and  digest  their  food. 

As  we  come  down  later  in  the  scale  of  animated  life,  we 
discover  the  Dermal  skeleton,  or  that  where  the  bony 
structure  or  shell  is  on  the  outside,  as  in  the  Mollusca  and 
other  shell-fish,  together  with  the  tribes  of  insect  life.  Still 
later  we  have  the  Neural  skeleton,  where  the  bones  are 
inside,  as  in  the  horse,  dog,  sheep,  and  animals  of  the 
highest  type,  as  well  as  Man. 

The  law  of  growth  in  the  world  seems  to  be  from  the 
lowest  to  highest  forms  of  being.  As  the  efforts  of  the  boy 
are,  excelled  by  those  of  the  man,  in  beauty,  perfection,  and 
usefulness;  so  nature,  or  the  earth,  appears  to  progress  in 
each  later  age  in  her  productions  of  animal  life. 

Races  of  men  make  their  appearance,  reach  their  utmost 
capacity,  then  go  to  decay,  and  become  extinct.  As  one  of 
the  first  acts  of  life  is  to  eat,  so  the  first  nations  of  men 
lived  mainly  to  eat.  Then  came  the  muscular  age  of  Egypt, 
Greece,  and  Rome,  where  war  and  labour  were  the  chief 
occupations,  and  now  still  later  we  enter  upon  the  age  of 
thought  and  reason.  So  rarely  is  it  we  meet  a  man  of  large 
abdomen,  that  when  we  do,  we  regard  him  as  a  specimen  of 
the  past  age. 

Recollect  the  Abdominal  form  takes  into  consideration  all 
that  part  of  the  body  between  the  diaphragm  (which 
separates  the  stomach  and  intestines  from  the  lungs  and 
heart)  and  the  inner  surface  of  the  pelvis.  It  contains  the. 
stomach,  liver,  and  other  viscera,  and  is  the  fat  or  oline* 


producing  region — the  nutritive  and  assimilative  part  of 
the  body.  The  vital  forces  are  active  in  this  form.  What 
is  eaten  digests  well,  and  the  organs  of  assimilation  store  up 
their  material  in  the  form  of  fat;  this  cushions  up  the  bones, 
rounds  out  the  muscles,  and  gives  a  plump  appearance  to 
the  whole  frame. 

Attendant  upon  a  large  abdomen  are  broad  mouth,  round- 
ness of  chin,  cheeks,  &c.,  a  softness  of  flesh  (from  the 
presence  of  fatty  matter)  to  the  touch.  The  eyes  are  usually 
sleepy  looking;  face  destitute  of  expression;  pulse  slow; 
movements  lazy ;  in  fact,  neither  quick  in  action  nor  thought. 
To  them  it  is  a  matter  of  indifference  whether  butter  is  ten 
or  fifty  cents  a  pound,  provided  they  get  enough  of  it. 
Personal  cares  hang  loosely  on  their  minds,  and  slip  off  as 
easily  as  their  clothing;  they  never  borrow  trouble,  but 
are  ever  willing  to  lend  it;  and  are  always  averse  to  physical 
labour,  or  incapable  by  illness.  They  may  be  fitly  repre- 
sented as  a  bag  of  food,  or  a  storehouse  of  fat. 

An  ordinary  tumble  does  little  injury  to  a  man  so  \»ell 
padded  and  protected.  Dinners  are  of  more  consequence  to 
him  than  ideas.  Such  men  are  never  close  students,  what- 
ever may  be  their  pretensions.  Their  dreams  have  never 
chiselled  down  their  faces  by  day  or  night,  and  their  joys 
are  as  rarely  intense  as  their  sorrows.  The  glands  are  all 
active,  and  do  their  work  thoroughly;  sleep  is  easy,  and 
tends  to  assist  digestion,  while  it  increases  the  fatty  secre- 
tions. Children  who  sleep  much,  and  assimilate  their  food 
readily,  are  almost  invariably  fat. 

Persons  '  Ihe  Abdominal  shape  should  be  especially 
careful  not  to  overload  the  stomach  with  food,  as  they  are 
liable  to  diseases  of  an  apoplectic  or  paralytic  character. 

Man  is  endowed  with  reason  that  he  may  overlook  and 
control  his  appetites  and  passions,  and  thus  keep  in  a  healthy 
condition  the  whole  animal  economy. 

The   principle    involved    is   like    that    of    a    threshing 


machine,  too  much  grain  chokes  up  the  apparatus,  and 
the  whole  force  is  lost ;  so  the  vital  organs  become  clogged, 
and  disease  and  death  ensue.  Men  who  are  large  in  the 
Abdomen  are  unexcitable,  their  ideas  are  as  undefined  as 
their  bodies  are  destitute  of  angles  and  points.  Daniel 
Lambert,  in  England,  was  a  remarkable  specimen  of  the 
Abdominal  shape,  and  Dixon  H.  Lewis,  long  time  senator 
in  Congress,  from  the  Southern  States,  was  another,  in 

They  are  subject  to  such  diseases  as  inflammatory 
rheumatism,  dropsy,  and  similar  complaints.  Mentally  they 
are  indolent,  sensual,  cowardly,  unambitious,  and  deficient 
in  enterprise.  Those  characteristics  naturally  invite  the 
insolence  and  oppression  of  others.  The  inhabitants  of 
Central  Asia  are  principally  of  the  Abdominal  shape,  and 
they  are  wanting  in  dignity,  energy,  and  enterprise. 

The  English  partake  in  some  degree  of  this  build,  blended 
with  the  bone  and  muscular  attributes,  and  this  combination 
gives  them  self-possession  and  a  consciousness  of  indepen- 
dence. The  highest  compliment  which  an  Englishman  ever 
pays  a  foreigner  is  to  tell  him  that  he  really  took  him  for 
an  Englishman. 

Where  the  Abdominal  characteristics  predominate  in  a 
nation  the  character  of  the  people  will  be  social  in  secular 
affairs,  and  slow  and  easy  in  domestic  life.  Women 
become  indifferent  to  tidiness  in  housekeeping,  as  exer- 
tion is  unpleasant  to  mind  and  body,  and  men  of  this 
build  make  poor  and  lazy  mechanics.  Their  mental  efforts 
are  apt  to  become  confused,  the  labour  of  thinking  being 
equally  disagreeable  with  that  of  physical  exertion. 

Sydney  Smith,  the  celebrated  wit,  once  sat  opposite  to 
a  man  of  this  organization  at  the  dinner  table,  and  for 
a  time  was  profoundly  impressed  with  his  solemn,  por- 
tentous-looking face.  After  watching  and  waiting  a  while, 
to  catch  the  drops  of  wisdom  he  expected  to  fall  from 



the  fat  stranger's  lips,  a  huge  dish  of  apple  dumplings  was 
placed  on  the  table,  when  in  a  moment  the  half-closed 
eyes  opened  widely,  stared  with  delight  at  the  dumplings, 
and  the  supposed  philosopher  exclaimed;  "  Them 's  the 
jockeys  for  me."  Sydney  Smith  then  learned  a  lesson  in 
Physiognomy  which  he  never  afterwards  forgot. 

In  the  walks  of  science  and  art  the  fat  man  takes  little 
delight;  to  him  the  thorny  path  which  leads  to  greatness 
is  an  insuperable  difficulty,  and  he  is  better  pleased  to 
reap  the  harvest  which  the  industry  of  others  has  pro- 
duced, than  to  work  himself  in  the  vineyard. 

When  boys  shew  a  pre-disposition  to  this  form,  they 
are  apt  to  be  untruthful;  they  enjoy  fun,  but  are  physi- 
cally and  mentally  too  lazy  to  make  it;  but  when  it  is 
joined  to  the  Bony  and  Muscular  form,  it  gives  a  keen 
appreciation  of  wit  and  humour.  They  are  sluggish,  like 
the  stagnant  waters  of  a  morass,  and  inclined  to  be  impure 
in  thou'ght.  Not  from  such,  but  among  the  slim  and 
active,  must  we  look  for  the  regenerators  of  the  world. 

Food,  when  introduced  into  the  stomach,  allays  the 
passions,  and  by  calling  the,  vital  energies  to  the  work 
of  digestion,  produces  an  indifference  to  mental  action: 
hence  the  importance  of  setting  apart  proper  hours  for 
thought  and  study.  Whatever  power  is  used  in  digestion 
lessens  that  necessary  for  the  brain.  Thousands  of  lawyers, 
clergymen,  and  merchants,  invite  their  friends  to  their 
own  funerals,  by  rushing  into  mental  labour  on  a  full 
stomach.  A  clear  brain  and  a  clean  stomach  are  so  nearly 
synonymous,  that  a  sermon  on  health  might  be  preached 
without  any  other  text. 

Napoleon  attributed  the  loss  of  a  great  battle  to  the 
fact  of  his  having  eaten  something  which  did  not  agree 
with  him.  Charles  VI.,  Emperor  of  West  Austria,  ate  a 
dish  of  mushrooms  that  caused  dyspepsia,  and  his  death. 
The  destiny  of  kingdoms  sometimes  hangs  in  the  balance, 


which  a  full  or  empty  stomach  may  turn  in  one  or  the 
other  direction.  To  eat  reasonably  is  to  eat  moderately 
the  food  best  fitted  for  mental  and  physical  activity,  as 
the  fatty  or  carbonaceous  substances  taken  into  the  system 
only  serve  to  maintain  warmth,  and  fulfil  no  other 
purpose  than  the  coal  does  in  our  stoves.  We  should, 
therefore,  abstain  from  that  class  of  diet,  especially  in 
the  summer  season,  when  warmth  is  not  an  object.  Too 
many  people  cram  and  stuff  their  own  stomachs,  and  those 
of  their  children,  just  the  same  in  summer  as  in  winter, 
and  by  that  means  induce  the  presence  of  those  fevers 
which  seem  to  be  permanently  located  in  our  midst. 

When  the  body  is  healthy,  we  can  often  move  among 
diseased  persons  with  impunity;  but  when  it  is  gorged 
with  improper  food,  or  too  great  a  quantity,  a  field  is 
offered  for  disease  to  work  upon,  and  death  is  frequently 
the  penalty  paid  for  such  neglect.  An  enormous  appetite 
almost  invariably  attends  insanity  and  idiotcy. 

Where  it  becomes  necessary  to  cultivate  the  Abdominal 
form,  care  should  be  observed  in  the  selection  of  food.  It 
should  be  plain,  easy  of  digestion,  and  taken  several  times 
in  a  day;  mastication  should  be  slow  and  perfect;  rest 
after  every  meal;  sleep  indulged  in  if  desired;  good  temper 
should  be  encouraged,  and  nothing  should  be  allowed  to 
interfere  with  the  mind  or  body  during  the  process  of 
digestion.  The  drink,  milk  and  water  only,  and  very 
soon  the  viscera  will  be  strengthened,  and  the  abdominal 
powers  will  become  enlarged  and  improved. 

To  repress  this  condition,  the  eyes  and  ears  should  be 
kept  open,  and  the  mouth  shut.  We  should  eat  less,  and 
try  to  work  and  think  more. 

By  associating  with  persons  whose  brains  are  active, 
and  whose  nervous  organizations  are  full  of  life,  the  sleepy 
fat  man  will  gradually  acquire  habits  of  thoughtful  ness; 
contact,  by  the  law  of  sympathy,  will  induce  greater 


activity  in  the  torpid  brain,  and  each  succeeding  effort 
will  prove  easier  than  the  former;  until  at  last,  in  the 
place  of  a  human  being  devoted  like  a  hog  to  the  solidi- 
fication of  carbon,  in  the  shape  of  lard,  we  have  a  man 
fulfilling  the  nobler  destiny  of  solving  the  great  problems 
of  life  and  motion  with  which  the  world  is  overflowing. 

The  use  of  alcoholic  drinks,  in  all  cases,  tends  to  a 
degeneracy  of  the  body,  producing  the  Abdominal  form. 
The  hydrogen,  which  is  the  basis  of  alcohol,  produces 
temporary  warmth  at  the  expense  of  the  destruction  of 
the  tissues  of  the  body,  and  inclines  the  stomach  and 
liver  to  fatty  secretions;  this  is  the  reason  we  see  so 
many  bloated  faces  around  our  too  numerous  saloons; 
and  when  disease  once  takes  hold  of  such  a  subject,  he 
is  almost  sure  to  be  hurried  off  to  that  bar,  where,  it  is 
said,  men  give  an  account  of  wasted  or  well-spent  lives. 

Personal  salvation  must  begin  by  controlling  the  appetite; 
pure  souls  are  not  to  be  found  in  impure  bodies,  and 
before  we  can  be  born  again,  a  fitting  temple,  swept  and 
garnished,  must  be  prepared  for  the  regenerated  spirit. 
Associate,  then,  with  persons  who  are  intelligent,  observe 
and  copy  their  habits  and  manners,  and  in  time  the 
burden  of  fat  will  fall  from  you,  and  additional  weight  of 
brain  will  take  its  place. 

This  large  Abdominal  condition  has  many  times  been 
cast  aside,  and  exchanged  for  muscle  and  brain.  Sleep 
little,  eat  seldom,  study  much,  bathe  daily  in  cold  water, 
climb  the  mountains,  and  there,  while  respiring  the  pure 
air,  let  your  soul  drink  in  the  great  and  holy  sermon 
which  is  preached  through  nature's  beautiful  handiwork. 

As  your  thoughts  tower  away  among  the  hill  tops,  or 
recline  among  the  flowery  vales,  nerve  again  your  whole 
frame,  for  one  grand  effort,-  to  send  your  spirit,  imagina- 
tively, throughout  the  vast  labyrinths  and  mazes  of  worlds, 
rounded  and  painted  with  flowers,  gladdened  with  the 


songs  of  birds,  and  decorated  with  rainbows,  blue  sky, 
and  glorious  landscapes,  until  you  are  swinging  on  airy 
pinions,  'mid  the  beautiful  Paradise  of  the  Poets. 

When  your  natural  condition  returns,  and  you  wonder- 
ingly  scrutinize,  and  try  to  divine  whether  it  was  a  vision, 
a  dream,  or  noble  thought,  almost  doubting  your  own 
identity,  then  remember  one  step  has  been  taken  to 
bring  your  spiritual  nature  over  your  gross  animal  appetites 
and  deadening  passions.  A  hundred  such  lessons,  with 
daily  care  and  diet,  will  give  you  spiritual  conceptions, 
and  a  thousand  similar  upliftings,  and  you  will  have  a 
spiritual  birth.  Thus,  and  thus  only,  can  we  develop  the 
mind  and  spirit,  and  curb  the  "  Old  Adam"  within  us. 

Dn.  J.  F.  BLTJMENBACH,  a  celebrated  German  anatomist,  physiolo- 
gist, and  anthropologist,  filled  the  chairs  of  anatomy  and  medicine  at  Got- 
tingen  more  than  half  a  century.  He  first  divided  the  human  species  into 
five  races.  This  is  a  superlatively  scientific  and  pure  face. 


THE  thorax  or  chest  is  the  highest  of  the  two  great  divisions 
of  the  trunk  in  the  human  body,  being  situated  between 
the  neck  and  the  abdomen,  from  which  it  is  separated  by 
the  large  muscular  partition  called  the  diaphragm.  The 
chest  is  protected  from  external  injury  by  the  back  and 
breast  bones,  and  the  ribs,  which  permit  the  necessary 
amount  of  expansion,  but  prevent  so  much  as  would  be 
injurious.  It  incloses  the  heart  and  lungs,  with  the  various 
arteries,  veins,  ducts,  tubes,  which  are  immediately  connected 
with  them,  and  necessary  for  their  functions.  This  is  not 
only  the  great  centre  of  the  circulation  of  the  blood,  but  the 
laboratory  in  which  is  carried  on  the  all-important  work  of 
purifying  it,  so  as  to  render  it  fit  to  fulfill  its  office  in  the 
system.  Impure  or  venous  blood — impure  because  charged 
with  carbon — venous  because  flowing  through  the  veins — 
enters  the  right  auricle  of  the  heart,  thence  proceeds  to  the 
right  ventricle,  and  is  driven  from  that  into  the  lungs,  to  be 
exposed  to  the  influence  of  the  air  which  has  been  inhaled 
through  the  trachea  or  wind-pipe.  The  precious,  life-giving 
oxygen  of  the  air  seizes  upon,  and  as  it  were,  burns  the 
carbon  of  the  blood,  which  now  pure,  warm,  and  life-giving, 
is  conveyed  to  the  left  side  of  the  heart ;  while  the  impure 
air,  called  carbonic  acid  gas,  is  expelled  from  the  lungs  and 
breathed  out  through  the  trachea  or  wind-pipe.  The  pure 



arterial  blood  is  pumped  from  the  heart  through  the  arteries, 
and  circulated  in  the  body  by  capillary  tubes,  where  it  again 
contracts  carbon,  and  returns  through  the  veins  to  undergo 
the  same  process.  As  soon  as  the  lungs  have  sent  away  the 
purified  blood  for  circulation,  the  heart  pours  into  them  a 
new  stream  of  the  impure  to  meet  the  next  breath,  and  so 
the  process  goes  on, 
with  silent  but  mighty 
and  withal  harmonious 
activity,  through  our 
sleeping  as  well  as 
waking  hours,  from 
the  first  hour  of  life 
on  till  the  last;  for 
the  commencement  of 
these  operations  means 
life  begun;  the  cessa- 
tion of  them  is  life 
ended  in  death.  The 
quantity  of  air  taken 
into  the  lungs  is  reck- 
oned as  about  502 
cubic  inchesperminute 
for  a  grown  person  at 
rest  during  the  day, 
and  400  during  the 
night.  But  this  quan-  Tlie  Thoracic  Form  Large— William  IIL 
tity  is  largely  increased  by  exertion. 

If  the  respiratory  and  circulatory  apparatus  of  any  indi- 
vidual is  in  a  good  condition  for  accomplishing  its  work, 
sufficiently  large,  and  having  room  for  full  play,  it  will 
appear  outwardly  in  a  broad  capacious  chest,  and  with  this 
will  be  associated  large  nostrils,  and  prominent  malar  or 
cheek-bones.  This  conformation  is  found  much  more  in 
mountainous  regions  than  in  low  plains.  In  Switzerland, 


Scotland,  the  high  lands  of  California,  and  in  parts  of  New 
England  we  find  what  we  may  call  the  Thoracic  shape  pre- 
vailing; and  all  the  points  that  go ,  to  compose  it  are 

conspicuous  in  the  North  American 
Indians.  So  also  the  Inka  Indians, 
living  on  the  mountains  of  South 
America,  have  very  large  and  long 
lungs;  they  live  to  a  great  age, 
and  never  suffer  from  pulmonary 
disease.  Some  are  said  to  have 
prolonged  their  lives  to  two 
hundred  years.  The  inhabitants 
of  the  city  of  Mexico,  which  is 
seven  thousand  feet  above  the 
ocean  level,  are  never  pulmonic 
or  consumptive,  while  in  the  low 
grounds  of  that  country,  such  dis- 
ease is  very  prevalent.  Similar 
facts  are  observed  in  Nevada, 
The  Thoracic  Form  Small  Oregon,  and  Washington  Territory, 
as  well  as  in  the  mountains  of  California.  All  consumptive 
patients  experience  relief,  if  they  visit  these  heights  in  good 
time,  before  the  disease  has  progressed  too  far.  As  elevated 
regions  are  favourable  to  persons  liable  to  pulmonary  affec- 
tions, those  near  the  sea  are  quite  the  reverse ;  therefore  the 
climate  of  London,  Glasgow,  San  Francisco,  New  York,  and 
other  localities  situated  but  little  above  sea  level,  should  be 
avoided  by  persons  of  contracted  chests. 

We  are  informed  by  Audubon,  Wilson,  and  other  Orni- 
thologists, that  birds  which  habitually  fly  high  have 
larger  air-vessels  than  those  which  remain  in  lower  air. 
The  wild  pigeon,  which  is  capable  of  such  a  rapid  and 
extended  flight,  reaching  in  some  instances  as  much  as 
three  hundred  miles  an  hour,  has  both  lungs  and  heart 
large  in  comparison  with  any  other  birds  not  migratory. 


Likewise  the  bears  of  mountainous  countries  have  lung- 
power  very  superior  to  that  of  the  same  class  of  animals 
living  in  the  valleys.  Even  fish  in  mountain  streams 
and  lakes  are  found  to  have  larger  air-vessels  than  those 
swimming  in  the  sluggish  waters  of  the  lowlands. 

These  facts  may  be  thus  explained.  In  low  flat  countries 
the  atmosphere  is  denser,  and  a  given  amount  of  air  con- 
tains more  oxygen  than  it  does  on  the  hills;  therefore 
there  is  not  the  same  necessity  for  filling  the  lungs  in 
order  to  obtain  what  is  necessary  to  support  life.  But 
when- we  ascend  to  higher  regions,  the  atmosphere  becomes 
rarer,  and  we  are  compelled  to  inspire  more  in  'volume, 
in  order  to  get  the  same  in  weight  and  efficiency.  Another 
cause  affecting  the  action  both  of  lungs  and  heart,  is,  that 
higher  altitudes  are  (cet.  par.}  colder  than  lower  ones;  and 
as  we  require  more  warmth,  we  must  burn  more  fuel,  that 
is  carbon,  to  maintain  the  heat  of  the  blood.  Consequently, 
we  must  not  only  eat  more  fat  and  other  carbon-producing 
matters,  but  must  take  in  a  larger  quantity  of  oxygen  to 
burn  it;  and  then  the  heart  has  to  send  the  vital  fluid 
thrilling  to  the  surface  and  extremities  of  the  body.  It 
appears  to  be  a  universal  law  of  nature  that  use  increases 
capacity;  and  herein  we  see  the  philosophy  of  sending 
weak-lunged  people  to  the  hills.  Not  only  is  the  tempera- 
ture more  equable,  but  the  increased  action  of  the  lungs 
steadily  enlarges  them;  the  heart  as  a  necessary  conse- 
quence begins  to  beat  Stronger;  the  appetite  improves, 
because  the  carbon  must  be  found ;  good  health  and  spirits 
are  the  natural  result.  Nature  responds  to  activity  and 
use,  by  giving  increase  of  power,  and  strength,  or  profit — 
thus  verifying  that  old  parable  of  the  Talents,  where  those 
who  used  them  won  others,  and  were  rewarded  with 
increase,  while  he  who  buried  his  for  safe-keeping  with- 
out using  it,  lost  that  which  he  had.  Nature  destroys 
that  which  is  not  used,  and  because  it  is  not  used. 


When,  howevei,  the  Thoracic  form  largely  preponderates 
over  the  abdominal,  the  activity  of  the  heart  arid  lungs 
may  be  too  great  in  proportion  to  other  functions;  and 
the  very  intensity  of  the  fires  may  destroy  the  life  which 
the}7  were  intended  to  preserve.  Though  the  broad-chested, 
large-nosed,  wide-cheek-boned  mountaineer  is  no  subject 
for  Phthisis  Pulmonalis,  he  may  be  subject  to  diseases 
of  a  characteristic  type.  Among  us,  persons  who  have 
too  great  a  proportion  of  Thoracic  development  are  liable 
to  haemorrhage  and  inflammatory  fevers;  when  exposed  to 
great  muscular  exertion  and  fatigue,  they  may  be  afflicted 
with  pleuro-pneumonia  and  rheumatism.  When  supported  by 
corresponding  abdominal  powers,  and  large  bone,  muscle, 
and  brain,  the  well-developed  thorax  produces  true  leaders 
in  war.  But  where  it  predominates,  as  in  the  mountaineers 
we  have  referred  to,  and  others  among  ourselves  who  are 
not  mountaineers,  *t  marks  a  type  of  character  easily 
recognized.  The  distinct,  well-marked  features,  the  im- 
petuous glance  of  the  eye,  the  animated  hopeful  expres- 
sion of  countenance,  the  well-rounded  limbs,  and  fine 
compact  muscles,  free  alike  from  angularity  and  flabbiness, 
prepare  us  to  find  less  mental  than  physical  power.  SucK 
persons  are  more  disposed  for  a  stirring,  active  life,  than 
one  of  study  and  close  application.  Their  impressions 
come  and  go;  so  do  their  opinions  and  religious  beliefs, 
fickle  as  the  wind;  yet  with  a  strong  and  courageous  will, 
they  act  upon  each  while  it  lasts.  Again  and  again  have 
great  revolutions  been  occasioned,  »\id  effete  civilizations 
overturned  by  hordes  of  such  impetuous  mountaineers 
sweeping  over  the  more  settled  lowlands,  and  carrying 
all  before  them,  only  to  be  themselves*  in  turn  displaced, 
when,  through  ages  of  luxury,  they  have  lost  their  thoracic 
character.  So  did  the  earliest  bands  of  the  Caucasian  race 
pour  down  from  the  Asiatic  highlands  to  settle  in  Europe, 
and  develop  the  civilizations  of  Greece  and  Rome.  But 


when  they  became  deteriorated,  hordes  of  Goths  and  Huns, 
usually  called  barbarians,  descended  from  the  mountains 
of  northern  Europe,  and  took  possession  in  their  stead, 
to  become  civilized  in  turn.  Still  later,  the  Norsemen 
came  down  on  old  England,  and  gave  a  mighty  stir  to 
its  population.  So  did  the  Tartars  of  high  Asia  make 
themselves  masters  of  India,  and  become  the  terror  of 
Eastern  Europe,  dispossessing  its  less  hardy  occupants.  The 
traditions  of  Mexico,  in  like  manner,  point  to  a  time  when 
people  came  from  the  Andes  and  Cordilleras  to  settle  in 
the  lower  lands  and  elaborate  a  new  civilization.  Popu- 
lations of  rude,  elastic,  stirring  character  are  bred  in 
mountain  lands,  to  transfuse  fresh  life  every  now  and  then 
into  the  more  sedentary  inhabitants  of  the  plains. 

As  certainly  as  Cuvier  could  describe  the  general  charac- 
teristics of  an  animal  from  a  single  tooth  presented  to 
him,  and  Owen,  still  later,  undertook  to  make  drawings 
of  animals  never  seen  by  living  men,  but  which  lived  on 
our  earth  hundreds  of  thousands  of  years  ago;  so  surely 
by  observing  the  law  of  harmony  in  nature's  works,  the 
constant  correspondence  between  mind  and  body,  man  and 
his  surroundings,  we  are  able  to  predicate  that  which  we  see 
not  from  that  which  we  do  see.  And  whenever  we  meet  a 
man  in  whom  the  Thoracic  form  is  strongly  predominant,  we 
expect  to  find  him  active  and  elastic,  rather  than  plodding; 
disposed  to  be  prodigal  in  his  expenditure ;  a  playful, 
humorous,  caressing,  and  obliging  companion;  easily  elated 
by  prosperity,  and  hopeful  in  adversity;  of  lively  deport- 
ment, and  springy  step ;  fond  of  variety,  ever  astir,  never 
long  at  one  stay.  Such  a  one  seldom  attains  pre-eminence 
in  his  sphere,  but  he  may  do  much  to  keep  his  neighbours 
alive,  and  prevent  social  intercourse  from  stagnating.  Let 
us  add,  he  should  never  marry  one  of  the  *same  type ;  he 
needs  a  careful,  steady,  even-going  wife,  to  counter-balance 
his  disposition  to  profusion  and  restlessness. 


No  portion  of  the  human  frame-work  is  so  difficult  to 
describe,  as  that  upon  which  muscular  activity  and 
strength  depends.  We  discover  one  man  weak,  another 
strong,  one  overflowing  with  physical  vigour,  another  all 
feebleness,  yet  size  has  apparently  very  little  to  do  with  the 

The  prize-fighter,  by  training,  is  reduced  in  bulk  pre- 
paratory to  his  trial  of  strength  and  skill.  The  race-horse 
loses  weight  of  one  kind,  which  is  replaced  by  activity  and 
endurance,  ere  he  can  win  the  prize  ahead  of  his  com- 

To  determine  from  whence  this  quality  is  derived,  will 
be  the  subject  matter  for  consideration  in  this  chapter. 

It  is  not  sufficient  to  know  that  one  specimen  of  life  is 
full  of  physical  force,  and  another  comparatively  helpless; 
but  the  causes  or  principles  which  underlie  those  conditions 
must  be  studied,  and  to  this  task  we  invite  our  readers. 

It  is  from  Nature  we  learn  all  that  we  know  or  can 
possibly  accomplish.  The  Poet  says — 

"  Nature  hath  nothing  made  so  base,  but  can 
Bead  some  instruction  to  the  wisest  man." 

The  artist  sometimes  endeavours  to  teach  others  to  paint 
a  landscape,  but  you  only  learn  to  imitate  from  him ;  he,  or 


his  tutor,  learned  the  lessons  from  Nature.  The  true  land- 
scape was  painted  by  her  long  before  man  studied  her  art. 
The  portrait  painter  but  copies  the  face  which  nature  has 
so  richly  tinted;  and  the  photographic  artist  uses  the  sun- 
light to  accomplish  those  well  rounded  lines  of  beauty  and 
grace,  which  no  human  hand  can  excel  and  but  few  imi- 
tate to  perfection. 

The  Electrician  pumps  small  doses  of  lightning  from  that 
great  reservoir  the  earth,  but  nature  furnishes  immensely 
larger  ones  from  the  same  source. 

The  rocks  have  been  printed  indelibly  by  nature's  type, 
so  that  the  geologist  reads  her  stories,  as  readily  as  from  a 
book,  and  modern  civilization  but  poorly  imitates  her 
action,  in  that  art  we  term  the  "Mighty  Press. 

The  Muscular  Form  Large — S.  Judas  Thadeus. 

Navigation  is  a  copy  from  the  Nautilus,  which  trimmed 
its  tiny  sails  on  summer  seas  long  ages  ere  man  made  his 



appearance  on  this  globe.  Our  best  efforts  in  this  direction 
often  vainly  try  to  work  out  safety  and  deliverance  from 
danger,  while  this  little  creature  is  capable  of  providing 
against  the  ocean  storm,  and  always  gains  a  haven  of 

Houses  were  made  by  the  beaver,  musk-rat,  and  other 
animals,  long  before  the  first-born  son  of  Adam  built  the 
City  of  Enoch,  and  their  habitations  serve  their  purposes,  as 
well  or  better,  than  many  of  those  erected  by  man. 

The  first  dwellers  in 
tents  but  imitated  the 
closing  foliage  of  the  arched 
forest  overhead.  The  walls 
of  the  ancient  Egyptian 
temples,  leaning  inward, 
are  only  imitations  of  that 
primitive  tent,  with  the 
pointed  top  replaced  by  a 
flat  covering  or  roof.  Thus 
architecture  may  be  traced, 
step  by  step,  from  savage 
woodland  life. 

The  tribe  of  Muras, 
occupying  the  forests  of 
the  valley  of  the  Amazon, 
build  their  houses  in  the 
tops  of  trees,  in  exact  imi- 
tation of  certain  animals 
which  live  in  countries  subject  to  inundation.  Thus  we  see 
that  nature  is  the  source  from  whence  we  draw  all  our 
designs,  and  obtain  all  our  patterns;  even  the  front  and 
back  doors  of  our  modern  palatial  mansions  were  invented 
by  the  chattering  English  Magpie — a  bird  whose  ingenuity 
and  taste  are  only  exceeded  by  its  everlasting  round  of 
trickery  and  talk;  perhaps  in  this  latter  respect  poor 

The  Muscular  Form  Small —  Princess 


humanity  has  also  some  semblance  to  this  denizen  of 
the  air. 

Thus  we  might  enumerate  every  trade,  art,  or  profession 
which  man  proudly  claims  as  his  own  invention,  and  shew 
they  are  but  plagiarisms  on  Nature.  All  we  know  we 
learn  either  directly  or  indirectly  from  this  great  Mother 
of  Life.  She  is  our  teacher,  and  obedience  to  her  lessons 
implies  strength,  security,  and  success. 

Anatomy  and  Physiology  are  partial  studies  of  the  form 
and  laws  which  govern  our  being,  and  Physiognomy 
requires  the  utmost  accuracy  in  the  ob.  enr  :ion  of  nature, 
to  obtain  success. 

The  Muscular  system  is  divided  into  two  sets,  known  as 
the  organs  of  strength  and  motion:  the  first  are  known  as 
the  voluntary  muscles,  which  respond  to  the  option  of  the 
mind ;  and  the  other  acts  independently,  as  in  the  motion  of 
the  heart,  lungs,  alimentary  canal,  arteries,  bladder,  skin, 
&c.  Those  two  sets  of  muscles  are  inherited  previous  to 
birth ;  consequently  we  have  only  to  do  with  their  develop- 
ment and  cultivation. 

In  looking  at  nature,  as  exhibited  in  the  vegetable  world, 
we  discover  that  of  all  the  woody  fibres,  that  species  is 
toughest  and  strongest  which,  during  its  growth,  exhibits 
the  greatest  activity  or  motion.  The  Elm  is  an  instance 
of  this  fact.  Its  slim  branches  are  constantly  swinging 
gracefully  in  the  air;  no  limbs  bend  more  readily,  and  none 
are  harder  to  break.  This  law,  which  unites  activity  with 
strength,  pervades  all  the  vegetable  world;  indeed,  rules  all 
animate  life,  and  plainly  teaches  the  great  lesson,  that 
motion  and  life,  rest  and  death,  are  but  synonyms  of 
each  other. 

At  the  birth  of  a  child,  it  is  unable  to  stand,  or  even 
crawl  alone;  but  as  it  puts  forth  effort,  strength  begins 
to  be  developed,  and  continued  activity  soon  converts  a 
helpless  being  into  one  physically  or  musculurly  strong; 


vigour  takes  the  place  of  atony,  and  langour  gives  place 
to  lustiness. 

Exercise,  then,  is  the  great  developer  of  animal  muscle 
as  well  as  vegetable  fibre.  As  illustrations  of  the  fact  that 
active  exercise  promotes  this  muscular  strength,  may  be 
mentioned  the  cases  of  the  Kanakas,  who  have  been  known 
to  swim  thirty  miles,  remaining  in  the  water  six  hours. 
The  naked  castes  of  Hindostan,  the  Tasmanians,  and 
Fuegians,  who  go  unclothed  in  very  cold  weather,  by 
constant  exercise  are  able  to  endure  cold  and  fatigue, 
astonishing  to  less  active  races.  An  Eton  boy  can  climb  a 
tree  as  readily  as  an  ordinary  lad  could  go  up  a  ladder,  and  a 
savage  will  mount  a  smooth  pole,  using  his  feet  like  a  second 
pair  of  hands,  and  jump  from  tree  to  tree,  with  great  agility. 

In  our  own  country  we  have  the  case  of  Dr.  G.  B.  Wind- 
ship  of  Boston,  who,  by  a  thorough  training  in  lifting, 
pulling,  swinging,  and  the  other  various  manoeuvres 
attending  a  gymnastic  course,  has  become  a  perfect 
specimen  of  health  and  strength,  lifting  2,600  Ibs.,  or  a 
dumb-bell  of  200  Ibs.  at  arm's  length.  His  plan  seems 
to  have  proved  a  perfect  success.  Inheriting,  from  eight 
generations  of  studious  men,  a  disposition  to  inactivity 
of  the  Muscular  system,  and  weighing  but  one  hundred 
and  twenty  pounds,  he  sought  to  remedy  the  defect  by 
a  course  of  active  exertion,  so  as  to  increase  his  size 
and  strength.  To-day  he  weighs  one  hundred  and 
forty-four  pounds.  The  deltoid  muscles  on  his  shoulders 
are  very  broad,  the  biceps  in  his  arms  are  immensely 
developed,  and  his  whole  body  is  a  miracle  of  manly 
strength.  He  now  teaches  a  gymnastic  system  of  physical 
cultivation  in  Boston. 

Compare  the  life  of  this  man  with  that  of  some  exquisite 
fop,  whose  highest  ambition  is  to  dress  in  the  latest  style, 
talk  flabby  nonsense  to  some  coquette,  and  puff  tobacco 
eruoke  in  the  pure  air,  or  squirt  the  juice  upon  the  pave- 


ments  of  our  cities  Windship  is  a  bundle  of  living  nerves 
and  muscles,  full  of  life  and  energy,  while  the  other  drawls, 
fritters,  and  "  cusses  "  a  noble  opportunity  away. 

In  addition  to  this  constant  exercise,  pure  air  is  an 
absolute  necessity  for  the  preservation  of  perfect  health  and 
strength.  Our  houses  are,  generally,  poorly  ventilated;  and 
when  mankind  learns  the  influence  of  sunlight  on  the 
human  body,  we  shall  have  stronger  and  better  men  than 
at  present.  This  activity  in  man  and  the  vegetable  world 
works  out  all  unnecessary  material  from  the  body,  and 
leaves  only  the  strongest  and  best  behind.  The  lungs  take 
in  at  least  one-third  more  air  during  exercise ;  consequently, 
the  supply  of  oxygen  for  vitalizing  the  blood  and  manu- 
facturing muscle  is  increased ;  much  of  our  indisposition  to 
move  about  arises  from  the  presence  of  this  useless,  cumber- 
some matter  in  the  body;  and  there  was  a  profound 
philosophy  in  that  ancient  system  of  punishment  which 
sought  to  cure  the  lazy  scamp  by  whipping  his  hide 
through  the  streets  of  a  town. 

As  physicians,  we  have  to  be  very  careful  in  setting  a 
broken  bone,  when  the  individual  has  been  confined  to  his 
bed  for  some  months,  because  there  is  unusual  liability  of 
fracturing  the  tender  bone  in  another  place.  Thus  we  find 
that  inaction  causes  even  the  bones  to  weaken,  and  become 
tender,  as  well  as  the  muscles.  How  delicate  and  fragile 
are  the  bodies  of  those  stationary  mollusks,  or  shell -fish, 
when  compared  to  the  agile  trout  or  well-muscled  eel. 

Herbert,  the  sweet  singer  of  a  hundred  and  fifty  years 
ago,  was  inspired  with  the  thought  of  an  active,  muscular, 
and  healthy  man,  when  he  sang — 

"Man  is  all  symmetry, 
Full  of  proportions,  one  limb  to  another, 

And  to  all  the  woi'd  besides  : 
For  head  with  foot  hath  private  amity  ; 
-  Each  may  call  the  farthest,  brother, 
And  both,  with  moons  and  tide*." 


When  men  with  excellent  Muscular  development  ara 
well  educated,  what  useful  members  of  society  they  become. 
This  was  undoubtedly  what  Pope  meant  when  he  penned 
the  lines — 

"  And  praise  the  easy  vigour  of  a  line, 

Where  Denham's  strength  and  Waller's  sweetness  join." 

Men  who  are  authors,  and  at  the  same  time  strong  in 
muscular  proportions,  will  give  evidence  of  boldness  of  con- 
ception in  natural  science,  mechanism,  or  the  fine  arts,  such 
as  only  comes  from  physically  strong  persons.  Dr.  Johnson 
was  an  exceedingly  strong  man.  Robert  Burns,  when  a 
plough-boy,  could  handle  any  two  boys  of  his  age.  Shake- 
speare carried  the  brick  and  mortar  with  which  to  build  the 
tabernacle  in  which  he  afterwards  performed  his  plays  before 
Queen  Elizabeth.  The  shady  halls  of  colleges  damped  and 
dwarfed  not  his  great  mind.  Benjamin  Franklin  could  carry 
a  form  of  type  in  each  hand  up  two  flights  of  stairs,  while 
it  required  an  ordinary  boy  to  use  both  hands  to  carry  one 
of  such  weight. 

In  our  present  time  we  have  had  such  men  as  Professor 
Wilson  of  Edinburgh  ( "  Christopher  North  "),  Charles 
Kingsley,  Hugh  Miller,  Lord  Palmerston,  Lord  Brougham, 
and  a  host  of  others,  remarkable  for  muscular  strength  and 
activity,  as  well  as  profound  learning  and  authorship. 
Many  of  these  mounted  the  ladder  of  fame  from  humble 
life,  entirely  through  activity  of  character.  Some  were 
poor;  and  here  let  us  say,  that  one  of  the  greatest  blessings 
to  the  young  is  that  of  poverty,  because  the  very  necessities 
it  involves  become  an  incentive  to  action,  which  forms  the 
basis  of  future  greatness.  Elihu  Burritt,  the  greatest  living 
linguist,  laid  the  foundation  of  his  greatness,  in  bone  and 
muscle,  while  labouring  as  a  blacksmith.  At  the  forge, 
while  blowing  the  bellows  with  one  hand,  he  held  a  Greek, 
Hebrew,  or  Latin  Lexicon  in  the  other ;  and  in  the  interval, 
while  the  iron  was  heating,  he  mastered  from  two  to  six 


words  of  those  difficult  languages;  and  while  hammering 
the  red  hot  metal  with  his  hammer,  he  was  busily  engaged 
forging  out  ideas  on  the  anvil  of  his  mind.  This  was  the 
price  he  paid  for  greatness;  and  his  example  is  but  the  key 
to  that  law  which  is  universal. 

While  men  frequently  work  just  about  enough  for  good 
health,  women  often  overwork  themselves,  especially  those 
who  are  mothers,  and  have  the  care  of  a  house  and  family. 

Legitimate  rest  is  as  necessary  for  health  and  strength  as 
exercise.  The  pernicious  custom  of  turning  night  into  day, 
by  woman  working  long  after  dark,  causes  her  to  feel  as  if 
Jael  were  driving  the  nail  which  killed  Sisera  into  her 
temples,  or  a  tightness  as  though  Luke's  iron  crown  encom- 
passed her  brow.  Many  cases  of  constipation  and  headache 
can  be  traced  to  want  of  sleep  from  this  cause.  Then  let 
mothers  rest  more,  and  make  their  idle  sons  and  daughters 

To  give  my  readers  an  idea  of  the  advantages  of  poverty, 
and  how  men  who  have  risen,  started  in  the  world's  great 
race,  I  quote  the  following  concerning  the  origin  of  noted 
men  : — Columbus  was  the  son  of  a  weaver,  and  a  weaver 
himself.  Claude  Lorraine  was  bred  a  pastry  cook.  Cervan- 
tes was  a  common  soldier.  Homer  was  the  son  of  a  small 
farmer.  Moliere  was  the  son  of  a  tapestry  maker.  Demos- 
thenes was  the  son  of  a  cutler.  Terence  was  a  slave. 
Oliver  Cromwell  was  the  son  of  a  London  brewer.  Franklin 
was  a  journeyman  printer,  and  son  of  a  tallow  chandler  and 
soap  boiler.  Dr.  Thomas,  Bishop  of  Worcester,  was  the  son 
of  t\  linen  draper.  Daniel  Defoe  was  a  hostler,  and  the  son  of 
a  butcher.  Whitfield  was  the  son  of  an  innkeeper  at 
Gloucester.  Sir  Cloudely  Shovel,  Rear- Admiral  of  England, 
was  an  apprentice  to  a  shoemaker,  and  afterwards  a  cabin 
boy.  Bishop  Prideaux  worked  in  the  kitchen  -at  Exeter 
College,  Oxford.  Cardinal  Wolsey  was  the  son  of  a  poor 
butcher.  Ferguson  was  a  shepherd.  Dean  Tucker  was  the 


son  of  a  small  farmer  in  Cardiganshire,  and  performed  hia 
journey  to  Oxford  on  foot.  Edmund  Hailey  was  the  son 
of  a  soap-boiler  at  Shore-ditch.  Joseph  Hall,  Bishop  of 
Norwich,  was  the  son  of  a  farmer.  Virgil  was  the  son  of  a 
porter.  Horace  was  the  son  of  a  shopkeeper.  Shakespeare 
was  the  son  of  a  wool-stapler.  Milton  was  the  son  of  a  money- 
scrivener.  Robert  Burns  was  a  ploughman  in  Ayrshire. 
Confucius  was  a  carpenter.  Mahornmed,  called  the  prophet, 
was  a  driver  of  asses.  Mohamet  Ali  was  a  barber.  Madam 
Bernadotte  was  a  washerwoman  of  Paris.  Napoleon,  a 
descendent  of  an  obscure  family  of  Corsica,  was  a  Major 
when  he  married  Josephine,  the  daughter  of  a  tobacconist 
Creole  of  Martinique.  General  Escartero  was  a  vestry-clerk. 
Bolivar  was  a  druggist.  Vasco  de  Gama  was  a  sailor.  John 
Jacob  Astor  once  sold  apples  OQ  the  streets  of  New  York 
Catherine,  Empress  of  Russia,  was  a  camp  grisette.  Cincin- 
natus  was  ploughing  his  vineyard  when  the  Dictatorship  of 
Rome  was  offered  to  him. 

I  also  make  another  selection,  to  show  how  many  of  the 
wealthy  men  in  the  city  of  New  York  began  the  great  battle 
of  life  in  poverty. 

There  are  sixty-seven  who  pay  an  income-tax  of  $100,000 
and  over.  The  man  who  leads  the  list,  A.  T.  Stewart, 
everybody  knows,  is  an  Irish  emigrant,  who  commenced  life 
with  a  capital  of  less  than  twenty-five  cents.  Jay  Gould 
drove  a  herd  of  cattle  from  Delhi,  Delaware  County,  when 
a  lad,  for  fifty  cents  a  day,  in  order  to  get  money  enough  to 
reach  the  Hudson  River.  David  Groesbeck,  over  thirty  years 
ago,  used  to  mend  old  shoes  for  his  brother,  who  was  a 
respectable  shoemaker  in  Albany.  Henry  Keep,  boasts 
that  he  graduated  from  the  poor-house  of  Jagerson  County. 
Jnmes  Gordon  Bennett  and  Robert  Bonner,  both  poor  boys, 
full  of  talent  and  industry.  Rufus  Hatch,  when  a  youngster, 
had  an  ambition  to  hold  the  reins  of  a  pedlar's  waggon 
E.  D.  Morgan  commenced  life  with  a  quarter  measure  of 


molasses.  Henry  Clews  was  an  errand  boy  in  one  of  the 
banking  houses  down  town.  The  Brothers  Seligman  started 
out  in  life  with  a  pedlar's  pack.  David  Dows  retailed  pork 
by  the  half-pound,  and  molasses  by  the  gill;  and  H.  T. 
Hembold  was  first  cabin  boy  on  the  sloop  "  Mary  Jane," 
that  navigated  the  Delaware.  Such  men  as  these  were  the 
architects  of  their  own  fortunes,  and  active  muscles  and 
brains  did  the  work  of  their  elevation. 

We  all  perceive  the  growing  aversion  which  exists  in  the 
minds  of  Americans  to  manual  labour,  and  this  is  the  reason 
why  an  essay  of  unusual  length  upon  its  advantages  and 
importance  can  hardly  be  amiss,  while  considering  the  Mus- 
cular build  or  form.  Scarcely  a  month  passes  in  which 
several  young  men  have  not  applied  to  me  for  a  situation  to 
travel.  When  asked  what  they  wish  to  do,  they  answer, — 
"  They  would  like  a  situation  where  there  was  not  much  to 
do,  and  without  hard  labour,  yet  good  wages,  and  all  expenses 
paid,  together  with  a  good  chance  to  see  the  world."  Oh ! 
horrible,  lamentable  fact!  How  many  such  silly  idlers  the 
world  possesses,  anii  I  am  sorry  for  them.  I  pity  them,  be- 
cause their  lack  of  training  has  doomed  them,  with  all  their 
golden  dreams,  to  disappointment.  My  answer  to  them  is,  I 
have  no  such  situation,  not  even  for  myself.  Such  young 
men  will  refuse  positions  as  farm  labourers  at  high  wages,  or 
the  opportunity  to  learn  some  useful  trade.  All  over  the  land 
complaints  go  up  against  high  prices,  which  this  growing 
hatred  of  work  causes,  while  on  the  street  corners  of  every 
city  may  be  found  specimens  of  humanity  telling  such  tales 
as  these — 


"  Now  I  lay  me  down  to  sleep, 
Musquitoes  at  your  distance  keep  ; 
And  if  I  snore  before  I  wake, 
Tis  owing  to  the  buckwheat  cake. 

"  Let  me  dream  of  other  days, 
On  whisky  punch,  oh,  let  me 


On  sherry  cobblers  sucked  through  straw% 
Before  they  make  Maine  liquor  lawa. 

"  Sing  me  the  songs  I  used  to  hear, 
When  every  store  sold  lager  beer, 
And  every  loafer  told  his  joke, 
In  clouds  of  poor  tobacco  smoke. 

*'  Wake  me  up  '  when  daylight's  o'er,' 
I  can  't  go  out  with  clothes  so  poor ; 
For  every  fellow  whom  we  meet 
Thinks  I  look  too  mean  to  treat. 

"  So  I  lay  me  down  to  sleep, 
I  wish  my  thoughts  away  would  keep  ; 
Oh  !  could  he  sleep  till  he  were  dead, 
Rest  would  come  So  the  loafer's  head." 

A  certain  amount  of  bodily  labour  is  a  prime  necessity  as 
a  promoter  of  good  health  and  solid  happiness ;  and  until 
young  men,  and  young  women  also,  cast  aside  the  fallacious 
iiofion  that  labour  is  degrading,  we  shall  find  poverty  and 
puling  sickness  stalking  into  every  house  in  the  land.  Dis- 
content, and  divorces  in  ninety-nine  cases  out  of  every 
hundred  derive  their  origin  from  the  idleness  of  one  or  both 
parties.  Bear  in  Blind,  that  honourable  labour  promotes 
womanhood  and  manhood,  health,  wealth,  and  that  great 
boon  for  which  thousands  are  vainly  seeking — happiness. 
When  we  look  over  the  United  States  of  America,  and  see 
the  Northern  States  blooming  like  a  garden;  their  stately 
edifices,  private  and  public;  their  free  schools,  thriving 
machine  shops,  and  manufactories;  and  then  contrast  the 
view  with  the  woody,  uncultivated  south,  with  its  ox-teams 
and  log-houses,  its  scarcity  of  schools,  and  other  means  of 
enlightenment,  we  are  forced  to  the  conclusion  that  the 
people  of  the  North  have  toiled  and  laboured,  and  time  has 
repaid  their  well-directed  efforts.  Whereas  the  South  has 
compelled  its  disinterested  negroes  to  do  its  work,  while  the 
white  race  has  grown  up  inactive  and  useless,  leading  aim- 
less lives;  and  an  unthrifty  country  is  nature's  reward 


There  is  a  law  of  compensation  in  nature,  and  by  this  law 
labour,  if  well  directed,  is  always  richly  repaid.  Thank 
fortune  that,  since  the  war,  the  Southern  people  have 
become  more  industrious,  and  consequently  prosperous. 

The  poorer  classes  of  England  and  America  have  been 
cultivated  physically  by  the  labour  to  which  poverty  com- 
pelled them.  There  was  a  time  when  France  and  England 
had  no  postal  system,  as  at  present,  and  fast  couriers  were 
emploj^ed  to  carry  letters  from  city  to  city.  That  class  of 
servants  or  foot-runners  were  well  cultivated,  and  conse- 
quently vigorous  and  healthy.  In  France  this  service  waa 
performed  by  the  inhabitants  of  the  Basque  provinces,  who 
were  very  swift  of  foot.  The  English  runners  were  very 
supple  and  robust,  and  took  pains  to  keep  themselves  strong 
and  active  by  dieting  and  other  means.  As  a  method  of 
physical  development,  the  Carthaginians  engaged  in  swim- 
ming. About  three  hundred  and  ninety  years  after  the 
founding  of  the  great  Roman  Empire,  and  even  at  the  time 
when  the  tyrant  Caracal! a  ruled  Rome,  the  practice  of  rope- 
dancing  was  one  of  the  popular  games,  and  it  developed  the 
Muscular  system  in  a  remarkable  degree.  In  the  days  of 
Socrates,  leaning  was  a  common  amusement.  Alexander  had 
many  expert  runners  whose  muscles  were  finely  developed; 
and  Glaucus  excelled  in  many  kinds  of  gymnastic  feats. 

Not  only  did  the  ancients  practise  fighting,  running, 
wrestling,  &c.,  for  health  and  strength,  but  they  most  assidu- 
ously cared  for  their  bodies,  by  currying,  washing,  and 
rubbing,  &c.  Their  gymnasiums  were  amply  provided  with 
bathing  appliances;  and  Lucian  informs  us  that  the  com- 
batants in  the  arena  freely  cleaned  each  other  after  each 
combat,  if  not  quite  disabled. 

Thus  we  learn  what  care  was  taken  in  ages  past  to  increase 
and  preserve  muscular  strength,  and  the  millions  of  dollars 
and  years  of  labour  were  not  bestowed  in  vain.  We  know, 
by  the  remains  they  have  left  behind  them,  that  the  Romans 


excelled  in  works  of  art  and  grand  design,  and  that  their 
bodies  were  models  of  physical  and  mental  beauty.  In 
imitation  of  this  ancient  curriculum,  the  colleges  of  Harvard 
and  Yale  are  beginning  to  see  the  importance  of  physical 
training  as  a  part  of  education,  and  are  erecting  gymnasiums 
within  the  walls  hitherto  sacred  to  mental  labour. 

When  this  change  begins  to  be  felt,  we  shall  see  our 
college  graduates  taking  rank  equally  with  the  sons  of 
mechanics  and  labourers  in  scientific  and  literary  pursuits. 
Among  statesmen  and  men  of  letters,  we  rarely  find  the 
sons  filling  high  stations,  or  making  their  mark  as  men  of 
superior  worth,  for  the  very  reason  that  the  possession  of 
wealth  enables  them  to  fritter  away  their  time  in  idleness; 
while  the  mechanic  often  tries  to  make  a  tradesman  of  his 
child,  whose  talents  fit  him  for  philosophy,  science,  or  art. 
The  physical  cultivation  of  the  mechanic  is  transmitted  to 
his  children,  and  this  natural  birthright  gives  them  greater 
force  of  character  in  both  body  and  mind. 

One  great  cause  of  physical  decline  in  children  is  the 
use  of  tobacco  and  stimulating  beverages,  such  as  whisky, 
brandy,  rum,  gin,  wine,  tea,  and  coffee.  Living  in  impure 
air,  tight  lacing,  concentrated  and  mixed  diet,  spices  and 
I  tickles,  hot  saleratus  bread,  and  late  hours,  are  all  dele- 
terious to  health  and  strength.  There  are  secret  sins 
among  the  young  which  are  more  prostrating  to  the 
Muscular  and  Nervous  systems  than  any  of  the  above 
mentioned.  Then,  to  be  strong  in  muscle,  and  of  iron 
heart,  that  we  may  insure  health  and  success  to  ourselves 
and  to  our  offspring  who  shall  represent  us  in  life's  great 
drama,  let  us  be  "  temperate  in  all  things,"  and  above  all, 
be  virtwous. 

"  Count  life  by  virtues — these  will  last, 
When  life's  lone-footed  race  is  o'er; 
And  these,  when  earthly  joys  are  past, 
Shall  cheer  us  on  a  brighter  shore." 


The  Muscular  form,  being  compressed,  rigid,  and  com- 
pact, gives  such  individuals  a  quick  firm  step,  and  generally 
rapid  motions.  They  usually  lack  the  gentle  and  tender 
emotions  which  we  find  in  the  Brain  or  Thoracic  form. 
They  have  vigour  and  intensity  in  everything;  this  class 
is  impressive,  and  capable  of  lasting  attachment.  They 
are  noble  in  ambition,  and  fearless  in  enterprise,  when 
possessed  of  a  cultivated  intellect.  They  resemble  the 
muscular  animals:  the  lion,  grizzly  bear,  tiger,  panther, 
lynx,  gorilla,  &c.,  all  of  which  are  full  of  physical  courage. 
Such  men  dare  to  do  for  themselves,  and  usually  are  quite 
considerate.  They  are  proud.  Being  irritable  and  high 
tempered,  men  of  this  form  are  vehement,  intense,  emo- 
tional, and  strong.  Their  irritability  and  emotions  affect 
the  liver,  which  is  largely  under  the  influence  of  the  mind, 
and  this  causes  them  to  become  bilious,  or  to  have  derange- 
ments of  the  portal  and  hepatic  systems.  They  have  a 
very  changeable  and  contradictory  temper.  In  religion 
they  are  apt  to  be  remarkably  inquisitive,  penetrating  in 
scientific  investigations,  and  prying  and  expert  in  domestic 
affairs.  Good  in  all  serious  affairs,  except  in  prayer; 
sumptuous  in  living,  and  imperious  as  superiors. 

Thus  we  have  given  in  detail  some  of  the  characteristics 
which  attend  this  build.  The  type  of  these  men,  like  the 
animals  they  resemble,  is  broad  rather  than  tall,  round, 
wide  head,  broad  short  ear,  small  eyes,  nose  wide  in  its 
lower  part  where  it  joins  the  face,  short  broad  foot,  and 
a  remarkable  closing  of  the  mouth  when  in  the  act  of 
eating,  as  if  more  in  earnest  in  that  affair,  and  at  that 
time,  than  in  any  foregone  act  of  life.  They  should  guard 
well  against  liquor,  for  where  their  animal  passions  are 
aroused  by  its  stimulating  effects,  they  are  apt  to  become 
turbulent,  and  at  times  have  been  known  to  murder,  as 
they  are  naturally  destructive.  A  good  moral  education, 
and  strict  temperance,  will  enable  them  to  rightly  direct 


their  surplus  force,  and  save  them  as  ornaments  to  the 
world,  and  from  an  unnatural  and  disgraceful  death.  As 
action  is  the  great  cultivator  and  cause  of  physical  strength, 
so  in  turn  it  acts  again  on  the  animal  and  man,  and 
demands  almost  constant  exercise.  Hence,  if  such  persons 
are  not  engaged  in  some  laudable  employment,  their  very 
nature  spurs  them  on  to  do  something,  either  right  or 
wrong.  Tbej'  "  put  an  enemy  within  their  mouths  to 
steal  away  their  brains,"  and  allow  the  system  to  become 
unbalanced  by  the  use  of  alcoholic  liquors,  or  mental 
derangement  ensues,  to  which  this  form  of  individual  is 
quite  liable. 

This  unguided  physical  force  is  like  a  powerful  steamer 
without  a  pilot,  rushing  onward,  mayhap,  to  swift  destruc- 
tion. But  action  is  their  nature,  and  act  they  will,  for 
weal  or  woe ;  hence  the  great  importance  of  teaching  those 
strong  boys  the  true  aim  of  life  —  self-government  and 
strict  sobriety. 

E.  DiCinNSON,  an  American  authoress,  orator,  and  actress, 
whose  vigor  of  intellect,  force,  and  independence  of  character  are  photo- 
graphed on  every  feature. 


GEOLOGISTS,  in  speaking  of  the  mountain  ranges  of  North 
America,  refer  to  the  Rocky  Mountains  as  the  backbone  of 
the  continent,  and  the  lesser  ranges  as  the  ribs  and  sup- 
ports, branch  off  from  this  central  system;  and  we  find 
they  bear  a  striking  similarity  to  the  human  body,  in  the 
apparent  support  they  give  to  other  portions  of  the  earth's 
surface.  As  the  rocks  represent  the*  stable  and  reliable 
portion  of  the  globe,  so  the  Bony  structure  of  man  and 
other  animals,  gives  firmness  and  tangibiKty  of  character, 
which  cannot  otherwise  be  obtained. 

There  are  two  great  causes  which  go  to  produce  and 
develop  large  bones  in  man  and  animals. 

The  first  comes  from  nature,  in  the  shape  of  soil,  or 
food,  and  water.  For  instance,  the  States  of  Kentucky, 
Virginia,  and  Tennessee,  are  famous  for  tall  men,  fine 
horses,  and  large  mules,  among  other  things  that  might 
be  named.  The  foundations  of  those  States  are  laid  in 
the  lime  rock,  which  everywhere  prevails  under  the 
surface,  and  the  water  supply  to  man  and  animals  is 
largely  impregnated  with  lime,  the  material  of  which 
bones  are  made. 

Its  secondary  influence  is  found  in  the  fact  that  the 
cereals  are  largely  built  up  from  this  source.  The  wheat, 
corn,  straw,  and  Hay  of  those  States  contain  a  larger  per 



nentage  of    bone-producing   food  than   is  found   in   many 
other  States. 

The  second  cause  is  exercise,  which  grows  naturally  out 
of  a  healthy  and  rapid  bone  development.  The  inhabitants 
of  Tennessee  and  Virginia,  who  ride  much  on  horseback, 
are  usually  large,  lank,  and 
powerfully-framed  men.  That 
species  of  exercise  does  not  call 
for  the  use  of  the  muscles  so 
much  as  other  labour,  and  }7et 
is  sufficient  to  make  the  bones 
grow.  Prominent  men  in  our 
own  and  other  countries,  are 
striking  examples  of  the  inti- 
mate relation  between  exercise 
and  large  Bony  structure. 
Washington,  six  feet  three  in 
height,  rode  a  great  deal  on 

Lincoln,  whose  early  life  was 
one  of  much  exercise,  towered 
body  and  mind  above  his  fellows. 
Lafayette,  the  great  Philanthro- 
pist and  Franco-American  de- 
fender of  liberty,  was  one  of  the 
tallest  officers  in  our  revolution- 
ary army.  The  exercise  of  his 
school  days  at  Chavagnac,  his 
birth-place,  developed  the  boy 
into  the  tall  and  bony  man, 
whose  honesty  became  a  pro- 
verb. Cyrus  the  Elder, 
Caesar,  Brutus,  Mahomet,  Crom- 
well, and  a  host  of  others  might  be  named  who  were  all 
tall  and  bony  men,  and  the  ones,  of  all  others,  on  whom 
the  nations  relied  for  support. 

The  Osseous  Form  Large.  — 
Lowrie  Coulter.  Copied  from 
"TLe  Characters  of  Glasgow." 
Published  by  Mr.  John  Tweed, 
11  St.  Enoch  Square,  Glasgow. 


Strength  of  bone  structure  is  allied  to  honesty  and 
reliability  of  mind.  As  Owen,  one  of  the  greatest  Anato- 
mists of  the  present  centur}^  has  observed,  "The  only 
difference  between  a  wise  man  and  a  fool  is  a  few  grains 
of  phosphorus  more  or  less  in  the  brain." 

So  with  regard  to  firmness  and  honesty  of  character,  a 
few  pounds  more  or  less  of  bone  makes  all  the  difference 
between  an  honest  man  and  a  villain.  Shakespeare  was 
right  when  he  made  Julius  Caesar,  while  he  plotted  for 
supreme  power  in  Rome,  exclaim — 

"  Let  me  have  men  about  me  that  are  fat, 
Sleek-headed  men,  and  such  as  sleep  o'  night ; 
Yon  Cassius  has  a  lean  and  hungry  look — 
He  thinks  too  much;  such  men  are  dangerous! " 

He  knew  that  he  could  bribe  and  purchase  the  silence  of 
the  plump  jolly  fellows,  but  the  angular  long 
men  were  too  honest  to  be  bought. 

General  Sherman  is  six  and  a-half  feet 
high,  and  no  more  upright  and  honest  man 
ever  faced  bullets  on  American  soil. 

Ewing,  who  raised  Sherman,  said  he  was 
the  most  reliable  boy  to  do  an  errand  he 
ever  knew,  and  by  far  too  honest  for  the 
political  field. 

When  you  see  a  man  moving  like  a  tall 
pine  among  oaks,  rest  assured  that  in  con- 
nection with  his  fine  bony  structure  will 
be  found  probity  of  character.  Care,  how-  f^9  Osseous 

ever,  must  be  had  in  arriving  at  conclusions    Form  very  Small. 
,,.          ,  .  ,     .   ,  ,      ,  .  .,'     —Mr.  G.  W.  M. 

on  this  subject,  as  height  alone  is  not  the    „  .. 

Nutt.    "  Commo- 
sole  criterion.  dore  Nutt." 

Some  men  are  not  so  tall,  who  have  larger  bones,  in  pro- 
portion to  other  portions  of  their  body. 

The  general  appearance  of  the  bones  of  the  face,  the 
squareness  of  the  shoulders,  &c.,  are  signs  which  indicate 


the  prevailing  bone  build.  Prominent  wrists,  knuckles, 
nose,  cheeks,  and  forehead  stand  out  plainly,  as  if  to  sayj 
here  I  am,  you  can  depend  upon  me  in  case  of  emergency. 

You  will  observe  that  in  all  the  portraits  of  Lincoln, 
the  bones  jutt  out  all  over  his  face;  and  his  honesty  (not- 
withstanding his  villifiers)  has  marked  the  pages  of  history, 
as  it  did  his  features,  with  indestructible  glory. 

A_idrew  Jackson  was  another  President  who  knew  no 
bribery  or  guile;  and  the  rough  bony  face  of  the  man 
would  be  the  best  monument  to  his  memory,  as  integrity 
and  virtue  last  longer  than  marble,  and  are  more  truly 
ornaments  of  human  character. 

Wellington  was  made  of  more  bone  than  any  other 
material ;  and  as  his  fame  reverberates  from  valley  to  hill- 
top, again  and  for  ever,  no  dismantling  has  left  one  gem 
less  in  the  great  crown  of  honour  which  ever  encircles 
his  name. 

The  highest  tjrpe  of  animals,  and  those  most  useful  as 
servants  to  man,  are  the  horse  and  ox.  They  have  large 
bones,  the  presence  of  which  is  manifest  in  the  arch  of 
the  eye,  at  the  hips,  in  the  legs,  shoulders,  and  other 
observable  places. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  most  worthless  and  deceptive 
animals,  such  as  the  skunk,  fox,  porcupine,  American 
panther,  and  animals  of  the  cat  tribe,  are  small-boned  and 
full-muscled,  and  of  little  or  no  service  to  man,  and  quite 
dishonest  and  untrustworthy. 

The  camel  again  is  an  animal  of  large  bones,  and  see  how 
much  service  he  nffords  in  carrying  human  beings  across 
the  pathless  deserts  of  Asia  and  Africa.  The  camel  takes 
his  exercise  in  sunshine,  while  the  skunk,  fox,  coon,  cat, 
and  other  small-boned  animals  prowl  about  at  night,  retiring 
to  the  darkest  shades  at  break  of  day,  while  the  panther 
buries  himself  in  the  underwood  or  gloom  of  the  forest. 

Large  bones  are  as  much  an  evidence  of  trustworthiness 


in  men  as  in  animals ;  and  the  influence  of  sunlight  and 
exercise  tends  towards  developing  the  Bony  structure,  while 
the  reverse  action  deteriorates  it. 

The  backers  of  London,  at  the  present  moment,  are 
puzzled  to  devise  some  plan  by  which  their  clerks  may  be 
kept  honest.  We  say,  the  only  way  is  to  procure  from  the 
country  districts  boys  who,  by  the  exercise  necessary  to 
farm  life,  have  finely-developed  bone  forms,  for  with  this 
class  of  organization  will  be  found  stable  honesty  of  charac- 
ter. Perhaps  some  finely-dressed  city  fop  may  wink,  and 
wince,  and  say,  a  country  lad  could  not  do  the  business,  he 
would  be  "  so  green."  We  reply,  that  George  Peabody  was 
a  country  boy,  who  had  an  excellent  physical  constitution, 
the  foundation  of  which  was  laid  in  country  life.  Nearly 
all  the  London  and  New  York  bankers  were  raised  in  the 
country,  and  do  not  seem  to  be  so  green  as  the  city  fops, 
who  never  mount  the  ladder  of  fame,  or  wander  abroad 
except  after  gaslight. 

As  a  general  rule,  persons  unused  to  reading  character 
scientifically,  measure  the  characters  of  persons  by  them- 
selves. A  mean  man  is  well  assured  that  'others  are  as 
mean  as  himself.  A  miser  supposes  the  love  of  money  the 
ruling  motive  of  action  in  bargain  or  trade.  The  thief  says, 
"  I  would  like  to  see  the  fellow  that  wouldn't  steal  if  he 
could;"  and  in  this  way  ignorance  "measures  another's 
corn  in  its  own  bushel."  Small-boned  men,  whose  souls 
are  of  the  same  diminutive  build,  can  divine  no  motive 
but  selfishness  in  the  most  generous '  actions,  or  in  the 
lives  of  the  world's  greatest  philanthropists. 

Large  men,  whose  bones  bear  a  full  proportion  to  the 
other  parts  of  their  bodies,  will  be  found  to  be  decided,  firm, 
persevering,  honest,  honourable,  hopeful,  slow,  and  sure; 
enduring,  constant  in  affection,  poor  politicians,  progressive 
in  science,  good  providers  in  a  family,  peace-loving,  yet  full 
of  moral  courage 


Variations  among  members  of  the  same  family  may  fre- 
quently be  observed.  The  father  may  have  very  large 
bones,  and  the  mother  very  small  ones,  and  the  children 
might  inherit  the  individual  qualities  of  either  parent 
exclusively,  or  a  commingling  of  both.  Bone  culture  is  an 
inheritance  not  confined  to  one  generation,  but  permeates 
through  a  long  series  of  ancestors,  and,  like  liberty,  or  any 
other  of  the  great  blessings  of  humanity,  its  price  is  "eternal 

While  marriages  are  contracted  without  due  regard  to 
fitness  of  organization,  the  children  born  under  such  circum- 
stances will  not  only  vary,  but  are  likely  to  deteriorate ; 
consequently  every  child  should  have  especial  education 
and  training  to  preserve  and  bring  out  the  best  type  of 

The  poorer  the  structure,  the  greater  care  is  required  to 
develop  better  conditions.  It  is  the  poor  farm  that  needs 
the  husbandman's  nursing  hand.  What  a  stupid  mistake 
those  parents  make,  when  they  train  up  their  delicate,  puny 
children  to  be  tailors,  shoemakers,  &c.,  thus  dooming  them 
to  a  life  of  disease  and  early  death. 

They  should  have  been  sent  out  into  the  sunlight  and 
pure  air,  to  gambol  and  play  the  livelong  day,  or  to  swing 
the  axe,  to  climb  trees,  or  take  any  exercise  that  would  in 
some  measure  remedy  their  poor  fortunes. 

It  is  time  we  should  learn  the  fact,  that  labour  out  of 
doors  in  fresh  air  is  physical  salvation,  to  be  followed,  not 
preceded,  by  mental  safety  and  beauty. 

We  refer  our  readers,  who  desire  to  learn  more  fully  the 
effects  of  Bone  culture,  to  the  chapter  on  "  Rectitude "  in 
this  work,  or  the  succeeding  book.  When  the  Bony  form 
becomes  allied  to  Brain  form,  we  have  men  of  great  genius. 
Cicero,  Locke,  Tasso,  Petrarch,  Shakespeare,  King  Alfred, 
Tyndall,  Wickliffe,  Liebig,  Morse,  and  thousands  of  others 
were  specimens  of  this  combination  of  bodily  and  mental 

THE    OSSEOUS    OR    BONY    FORM.  81 

strength.  This  form  gives  decided  features  and  well- 
marked  physiognomies,  which  indicate  energy  of  character 
and  honesty  of  purpose. 

Bone-brain  men  are  slow  of  motion,  strong  of  mind  and 
body,  possessed  of  untiring  energy  and  powerful  passions, 
which  make  them  disregard  the  grovelling  law  of  common 
life,  by  which  the  bulk  of  mankind  are  governed.  They 
devise  gigantic  schemes  of  adventure,  and  great  and  perilous 
undertakings  in  the  pursuit  of  science,  power,  or  renown ; 
linked  to  their  purposes  by  the  bony  bands  of  a  strong 
manhood,  they  pursue  profoundly  and  accurately,  without 
extravagance,  the  great  business  of  their  lives.  This  com- 
bination produces  the  grave  and  thoughtful,  prudent  and 
doubtful,  orderly  and  mathematical,  mechanical  and  inven- 
tive genius — men  who  are  usually  dignified  and  safe  in 
every  enterprise.  They  are  firm  in  step,  cautious  in  their 
vocations,  and  penetrating  in  science. 

The  following  verse  pictures  men  of  the  Brain-bone  make: 

"  Big  was  he  made,  and  tall,  his  port  was  fierce, 
Erect  his  co'-'Utenauce  ;  manly  majesty 
Sat  in  his  front,  and  darted  from  his  eyes, 
Commanding  all  he  viewed." — (EDIPUS. 

Or,  as  Shakespeare  has  remarked  of  large  men — 

"  Why,  man,  he  doth  bestride  the  narrow  world 
Like  a  Colossus  ;  and  we  petty  men 
Walk  under  his  huge  legs,  and  peep  about, 
To  find  ourselves  dishonourable  graves." 

Most  of  the  Bone-brain  form  can  labour  and  think  with 
apparently  little  exhaustion,  and  to  be  great  requires  that 
capability  in  an  unusual  degree. 

"  'Tis  hardship,  toil, 

'Tis  sleepless  nights,  and  never  resting  days, 
'Tis  pain,  'tis  danger,  'tis  affronted  Death, 
'Tis  equal  fate  for  all,  and  changing  torture, 
That  rear  the  mind  to  glory,  that  inspire 
The  noblest  virtues  and  the  gentlest  manners." 



With  these  facts  before  us,  how  important  becomes  the 
physical  development  in  this  direction,  what  nobler  work 
for  parents  and  educators  than  building  up  a  good  solid 
basis  upon  which  to  rear  the  future  fabric  of  civilization? 
Men  of  strong  arms,  broad  shoulders,  and  prominent  fore- 
heads are  to  be  the  coming  pioneers  in  all  great  deeds. 

Yet  remember,  that  while  every  male  child  born  in  the 
United  States  is  eligible,  by  law,  to  the  highest  office  in  the 
gift  of  the  people,  but  few  ever  become  qualified  to  fill  the 
position  of  President.  So  with  our  children,  the  possibili- 
ties of  their  training  are  infinite,  but  the  actual  facts  of  it 
will  depend  upon  the  earliest  attention  being  given  to 
exercise  that  shall  increase  the  growth  of  Bone  and  Brain, 

CHARLES  SKINNER,  a  congenital  idiot,  being  neither  epileptic,  rickety, 
nor  hydrocephalic,  yet  he  has  the  boldest,  widest,  and  highest  forehead 
the  author  ever  saw  on  a  human  being,  his  head  immediately  above  the 
eyebrows  and  the  tops  of  the  ears  has  the  enormous  horizontal  circum- 
ference of  2GJ  inches.  This  idiot  possesses  more  than  Goldsmith's  "  gar- 
nish of  brains,"  if  we  judge  by  the  size  of  his  head,  as  do  the  phrenologists. 


AMONG  all  the  forms  of  the  human  system,  the  Brain  and 

Nerve  form  is  the  most  important.     To  the  rest  it  sustains 

the  relation  of  master,  for  to  it  all  others  are  subservient. 

Or  if  we  compare  the  human  system  to  a  family,  the  brain 

may   be  said  to  be  the 

husband,    the    digestive 

organs     the     wife,     the 

bones     the    oldest    and 

sturdiest  son,  the  muscles 

the  youngest  and   most 

mischievous  son,  and  the 

heart  and  lungs  the  only 

daughter.   The  Brain  and 

Nerve  form  being  thus  at 

the  head,   requires    and 

ought     to     have    more- 

attention  paid  to  it  than  \ 

is    given   to    the    other    I 

forms,  as  the  health  and      The  Brain  Form  Large.— John  Price,  a 

,  .  f     ,i  learned  critic  of  England, 

working   power    of    the 

head  of  a  family — the  bread-winner  should  be  looked  to 
— though  not  exclusively,  yet,  with  a  preponderance  of  care; 
and  where  this  is  done,  it  will  be  found  that  the  upper  part 
of  the  forehead  predominates  in  width  over  the  facial  organ- 


ism  or  cheeks.  Of  this  the  likeness  which  we  give  of 
President  Spraker,  who  was  for  a  number  of  years  President 
of  Wittenberg  College  at  Springfield,  Ohio,  is  an  excellent 

illustration.  For  years  he  was 
a  great  student,  lectured,  taught, 
and  preached,  and  thus  strength- 
ened and  developed  his  mind  by 
hard  toil  until  it  became,  as  the 
reader  may  notice,  proportion- 
ably  larger  than  any  other  part 
of  his  organism.  Persons  in 
whom  this  form  predominates 
may  always  be  set  down  as 
thinkers,  with  inclination  to  hard  work;  so  that,  generally 
speaking,  it  is  impossible  for  them  to  become  fleshy.  The 
truth  of  this  proposition  may  be  verified  any  day  in  any  of 
our  high  class  educational  institutions.  The  round  cheeked, 

full-faced  boy, 
who  has  hitherto 
lived  for  the  deve- 
lopment of  his 
abdominal  form, 
enters  one  of  our 
colleges  with  a 
determination  to 
work  hard;  and 
he  is  not  long 
there  until  he 
begins  to  exhaust 
more  than  his 
average  vitals  are 
The  Brain  Form  Small.  —George  III.  abJe  fully  to 

recuperate;  so  that  he  very  soon  becomes,  gradually  and 
perceptibly,  thin  of  face  and  spare  in  framework,  convexities 
and  concavities  make  their  appearance  in  his  face ;  and  j  ust 



as  old  ocean  is  deepest  where  its  waves  and  billows  are  most 
stupendous,  so  these  Physiognomical  signs  constitute  unmis- 
takable evidence  of  a  clear  thinker.  Deep  lines  and  strongly 
marked  protuberances  bespeak  originality  of  thought  and 
profundity  of  mind;  still,  on  the  other  hand,  as  the 
smooth  and  placid  lake  must  of  necessity  be  shallow 
compared  with  the  heaving  ocean,  a  smooth  unwrinkled 
face  declares  a  feeble  mind,  quite  unfitted  for  anything  save 
the  surface  of  things  only. 

Thus  human  forms 
change;  the  Abdominal,  as 
in  the  above  case,  retires,  so 
to  speak,  allowing  the  Brain 
and  Nerve  form  to  become 
regnant;  and  in  whomso- 
ever this  takes  place,  there 
will  be  found  inclination  to 
study,  to  behold,  to  write,  to 
teach,  to  lecture,  to  superin- 
tend or  plan;  in  short,  there 
will  be  found  the  thinking 
mind.  A  large  brain  and 
a  fleshy  body  do  not  seem 
to  be  able  to  draw  together; 
and  hence,  when  the  Brain 
and  Nerve  form  predomi- 
nates in  a  man,  the  flesh  seems  to  pass  imperceptibly  away, 
leaving  leanness  and  spareness  behind  it;  at  least,  it  is  in 
harmony  with  observation,  that  the  man  of  large,  thoughtful, 
clear  inind-power  is  as  to  his  make-up  lank  and  lean.  And 
so  Shakespeare  says — "Yon  lean  and  hungry  Cassius,  he 
thinks  deeply  and  reads  men  well."  "He  cannot  sleep  well 
o'  nights;  oh!  that  he  had  more  of  that  rounder,  sleeker, 
fatter  head,  and  could  sleep  better  o'  nights." 

The  Brain  and  Nerve  form  is  of  all  the  other  forms  in  the 

The  Brain  Form  Large. — Rev.  S. 
H.  Tyng. 



human  system  the  most  exhausting ;  and  this  being  the  case, 
with  what  solicitude  and  care  it  should  be  watched  and 
trained;  and  in  order  to  this,  how  anxious  we  ought  to  be 
to  understand  its  working,  its  tendencies;  the  food  best 
suited  for  its  healthy  and  vigorous  action;  the  recreation 
most  suitable  for  it  after  hard  work,  and  all  its  other 

diversified  necessities, 
which,  to  be  ignorant  of,  is 
almost  certain  to  shorten 
life.  Sleep  restrains  and 
refreshes  this  form,  as  does 
also  physical  labour,  when 
not  of  an  over-exhausting 
character.  The  other  forms 
of  the  body  are  in  a  sense 
as  important  as  this;  but 
this  being  the  age  of  intel- 
lectuality, it  is  thought  well 
in  this  essay  to  explain  it 

The  Brain  Form  Small.— Thomas  Cribb,  pretty   fully    in    plain    and 
Champion  of  England  in  IS  11.  •    ,    ir    MI  ,1 

intelligible  terms,  so  that, 

having  a  knowledge  of  its  nature,  requirements,  and  the 
influence  it  exerts  over  the  whole  system,  our  readers 
may  be  in  a  position,  humanly  speaking,  to  ward  oft 
disease  which,  where  ignorance  prevails,  is  ever  found 
planting  its  heavy  foot  upon  the  mechanism  of  the  brain. 

The  brain,  being  the  seat  of  sensation,  is  related  to  all 
parts  of  the  body  \)y  &  beautifully  designed  system  of 
nerves,  so  that,  whatever  organ  may  be  damaged,  the  brain 
suffers  with  it.  The  brain  may  be  said  to  be  the  guiding 
form ;  but  this  is  true  only  in  a  relative  sense,  for  without 
the  soul  or  "the  Divinity  that  stirs  within  us,"  the  brain 
would  be  blind,  or  at  least  would  be  incapable  of  rational 
action.  The  body,  according  to  the  Scriptures,  is  the  temple 
of  the  living  God,  and  ought  to  be  the  repository  of  the 


highest  and  most  noble  thoughts.  How  important,  then, 
to  sustain  it  in  good  order;  to  ward  off  disturbing  elements 
from  its  various  functions,  so  that  it  may  pursue  its  in- 
tended course  without  let  or  hindrance!  And  how  can 
this  be  done,  save  by  means  of  that  food  which  nature 
has  provided  for  it,  and  that  work  for  which  it  is  so 
evidently  adapted?  We  have  said  that  the  Brain  form 
requires  the  greatest  care;  and,  considering  its  relation  to 
all  the  other  forms,  how  important  its  healthy  and  pro- 
per training.  Everybody  knows  how  detrimental  it  is  to 
have  frequent  sudden  rushes  of  blood  to  the  brain,  but 
how  few  there  are,  comparatively  speaking,  who  have 
learned'  to  avoid  such  an  evil  by  avoiding  the  cause  or 
causes.  Hence  the  frequency  of  what  is  sometimes 
called  nervous  exhaustion,  which  would  be  more  properly 
termed  paralysis  of  the  brain  tissues.  Whatever  tends  to 
derange  the  nervous  system,  deranges  the  brain,  and  much 
of  the  domestic  unhappiness  of  which  we  hear  is  attri- 
butable to  no  other  cause  save  this,  that  the  habits  of 
society  are  against  a  healthy  nervous  system,  and  con- 
sequently against  a  healthy  Brain  form.  Husband  and  wife 
take  into  their  systems  enormous  quantities  of  strong  tea, 
spirituous  liquors,  &c.,  all  which  irritate  the  brain,  and  what 
ensues?  Constant  dissatisfaction,  fault-finding,  disrespect- 
ful retorts,  squabbling  over  the  merest  trifles,  so  that  the 
domestic  hearth,  which  should  ever  be  the  home  of  peace, 
becomes  turbulent  with  unhappiness.  An  English  gentle- 
man once  went  to  his  minister,  and  told  him  that  his  house, 
from  being  one  of  the  happiest  homes  in  the  world,  had 
come  to  be  a  little  hell.  His  wife  and  he,  he  said,  could  not 
sit  five  minutes  together  without  indulging  in  the  most 
irritating  language,  and  as  this  was  known  to  the  children, 
indeed  observed  daily  by  them,  he  felt  things  to  be  almost 
intolerable,  and  wished  the  minister's  counsel.  "You  are  a 
heavy  smoker,  1  think,"  said  the  minister.  "I  am,"  replied 


the  gentleman.  "And  your  wife,  if  I  mistake  not,  indulges 
largely  in  tobacco,  though  that  is  not  generally  known?" 
"She  does,"  answered  the  gentleman.  "You  are  both  in 
the  habit  also  of  indulging  in  spirituous  liquors,  especially 
at  night?"  "We  are,"  confessed  the  gentleman.  "And  you 
drink  very  strong  tea?"  "Yes,"  replied  the  gentleman. 
"Then,"'  said  the  minister,  "I  am  not  astonished  at  your 
domestic  unhappiness.  Indeed,  it  is  a  mystery  to  me, 
knowing  what  I  have  known  all  along  of  your  habits, 
that  you  are  not  both  in  a  lunatic  asylum.  Go  home 
and  give  your  wife  money,  and  send  her  to  one  hydro- 
pathic establishment,  and  go  you  to  another,  remain  there 
three  months,  and  during  that  time  give  up  the  noxious 
things  I 'have  mentioned,  and  at  the  end  of  that  time  come 
back  and  tell  me  how  you  feel."  The  minister's  advice  was 
taken ;  the  old  habits  were  given  up,  and  at  the  end  of 
three  months  a  new  life  dawned  upon  that. house,  peace  and 
happiness  reigned  supreme;  and  why?  Because,  -by  care- 
fully avoiding  food  and  drinks  having  a  tendency  to 
derange  the  nervous  system,  the  Brain  form  was  kept  in  a 
healthy  condition,  and  thus  all  tendency  to  irritability  was 

When  we  say  that  the  brain  is  the  seat  of  sensation,  we 
are  but  repeating  what  physiologists  of  all  classes  know  to 
be  a  fact.  Once  let  the  nerves  proceeding  from  the  brain 
be  destroyed,  and  the  mind  ceases  to  act;  the  person  sinks 
into  a  more  or  less  insensible  condition,  and  sometimes 
becomes  unconscious  altogether,  either  of  pain  or  pleasure. 
Sir  Astley  Cooper,  a  celebrated  British  surgeon,  gives  an 
instance  of  this,  which  excited  much  attention  at  the  time 
at  which  it  happened.  A  man  (see  Preshaw's  Elements  of 
Human  Anatomy  and  Physiology]  who,  during  the  days 
of  Lord  Nelson,  had  been  pressed  on  board  an  English  ship, 
received,  when  sailing  in  the  Mediterranean,  a  fall  from  the 
yu-d-arm,  and  when  picked  up  was  found  to  be  insensible. 


The  vessel  soon  after  making  Gibraltar,  he  was  placed  in  an 
hospital  there,  where  he  remained  for  some  months,  still 
insensible;  and  some  time  after  he  was  brought  from 
Gibraltar,  on  board  an  English  frigate,  to  a  depot  for  sailors 
at  Deptford.  While  he  was  at  Deptford,  the  surgeon  under 
whose  care  he  was  placed  being  visited  by  Mr.  Davy,  then 
an  apprentice  in  a  London  Hospital,  said  to  him,  "I  have  a 
case  which  I  think  you  would  like  to  see.  It  is  a  man  who 
has  been  insensible  for  many  months;  he  lies  on  his  back 
with  very  few  signs  of  life;  he  breathes,  indeed,  has  a  pulse, 
and  some  motion  in  his  fingers,  but  in  all  other  respects,  he  is 
apparently  deprived  of  all  powers  of  mind,  volition,  or  sensa- 
tion." Mr.  Davy  went  to  see  the  patient,  and  on  examining 
him,  found  that  there  was  a  slight  depression  on  one  part  of 
the  head.  Being  informed  of  the  accident  which  had 
occasioned  this  depression,  he  recommended  the  man  to  be 
sent  to  St.  Thomas's  Hospital  in  London.  When  admitted 
into  that  Hospital  to  undergo  an  operation,  it  was  thirteen 
months  and  a  few  days  after  the  accident.  The  depressed 
portion  of  the  bone  was  elevated  from  the  skull.  While  he 
was  lying  on  the  table,  the  motion  of  his  fingers  went  on 
during  the  operation,  but  no  sooner  was  the  portion  of  the 
bone  raised  than  it  ceased.  The  operation  was  performed 
at  one  o'clock  in  the  afternoon,  and  at  four,  when  Sir 
Astley  was  walking  through  the  wards,  he  went  up  to  the 
man's  bed-side,  and  was  surprised  to  see  him  sitting  up  in 
his  bed.  He  had  raised  himself  on  his  pillow;  and  when 
Sir  Astley  asked  him  if  he  felt  any  pain,  he  immediately 
put  his  hand  to  his  head,  which  showed  that  volition 
and  sensation  were  returning.  In  four  days  the  man  was 
able  to  get  out  of  bed,  and  began  to  converse;  and  in  a  few 
days  more  he  was  able  to  tell  where  he  came  from.  He 
recollected  the  circumstance  of  being  pressed  and  carried  to 
the  vessel;  but  from  the  moment  of  the  accident,  up  to  the 
time  when  the  operation  was  performed,  his  mind  remained 


in  a  state  of  perfect  oblivion.  For  thirteen  months  he  had 
been  dead  so  far  as  his  mental  powers  were  concerned,  but 
by  removing  a  small  portion  of  bone  from  his  brain,  he  was 
at  once  restored  to  all  the  functions  of  his  mind,  and  almost 
all  the  powers  of  his  body — a  most  remarkable  proof  of 
the  statement  we  have  just  made,  that  the  brain  is  the  seat 
of  sensation,  without  which  neither  pain  nor  pleasure  could 
be  felt;  and  an  illustration  of  the  care  with  which  the  Brain 
and  Nerve  form  should  be  attended  to,  and  everything 
tending  to  its  derangement  excluded  from  the  system.  Not 
only  by  such  an  accident  as  we  have  described,  and  by 
an  over  indulgence  in  stimulants,  is  the  brain  deranged. 
He  who  overloads  his  stomach  with  the  most  harmless 
food,  or  most  innocent  drinks,  must  of  necessity  do  injury 
to  his  nervous  system,  and  through  the  nervous  system 
so  delicately  connected  with  the  brain,  cannot  avoid 
doing  mischief  to  that  form.  Hearty  suppers  immediately 
before  retiring  to  bed,  engender  unpleasant  dreams,  and 
unpleasant  dreams  it  must  be  admitted  by  all,  have  a 
tendency  to  weaken  the  organization.  That,  in  so  many 
cases,  fatal  disease,  called  congestion  of  the  brain,  is  not 
unfrequently  occasioned  by  the  very  things  of  which  we 
are  speaking.  After  a  succession  of  horrible  dreams, 
brought  on  by  indulgence  in  late  suppers,  the  brain 
becomes  what  is  commonly  called  "flattened,"  or  "softened  ; 
the  person  still  sometimes  thinkins,"  but  cannot  think 
consecutively  ;  by-and-by  the  memory  ceases  to  retain :  its 
shelves  are  suddenly  emptied  of  all  its  stored-up  know- 
ledge, so  that  the  sufferer  is  unable  to  conduct  intelligent 
conversation,  even  of  the  simplest  kind;  the  faculty  of 
comparison  seems  to  go  into  oblivion;  then  judgment 
vacates  her  throne,  and  the  individual  dies.  We  di  not 
describe  an  imaginary  case.  That  doctor's  practice  cannot 
be  very  extensive  who  does  not  know  that  such  cases  are 
common,  and  in  an  untold  number  of  instances,  the  disease 


has  been  brought  on,  as  asserted,  by  over-loading  the 
stomach  prior  to  sleep.  Wise  men  are  not  gormandizers. 
They  eat  moderately,  drink  moderately,  sleep  well,  and 
thus  avoid  that  nervous  irritation  so  detrimental  to  the 
thinking  powers.  For  the  most  part,  the  authors  of  the 
eighteenth  century  and  before  that  era,  both  British  and 
Continental,  were  poor,  and  probably  to  their  poverty,  as 
much  as  to  their  genius,  we  are  indebted  for  those  works, 
whether  of  history,  science,  poetry,  music,  or  descriptions 
of  society  which  now  enrich  and  adorn  our  libraries.  Those 
men  were  saved  from  gormandizing  for  want  of  means, 
they  lived  on  extremely  simple  fare,  because  they  were 
compelled  to  do  so,  and  who  dare  say  that,  if  the  reverse 
had  been  the  case,  the  works  which  have  made  them 
immortal  would  ever  have  been  written.  From  garret 
rooms,  shabbily  furnished,  sometimes  containing  only  a  bed, 
a  small  table,  and  a  rickety  chair,  and  which  seldom  saw  a 
richer  diet  than  the  plainest  bread  and  butter,  and  often  not 
very  much  of  that,  came  forth  those  thoughts  before  which 
Kings  and  Cabinets  have  humbly  bowed,  and  which  have 
done  so  much  to  advance  the  civilization  of  the  world. 
These  men  lived  not  for  the  stomach,  but  for  the  brain. 
They  were  compelled  to  keep  the  body  under,  and  bring  it 
into  subjection,  because  they  had  no  means  of  doing  other- 
wise, and  to  this  compulsion  the  world  owes  a  vast  debt  of 
gratitude  for  her  brilliant  thinkers  and  towering  genius. 

But  even  men  who  live  sparingly,  and  never  indulge  in 
anything  save  the  simplest  food,  are  apt  to  bring  disease 
upon  the  brain.  They  are  hard  students,  live  a  secluded 
life,  are  seldom  seen  in  society,  think  and  compose  often 
when  other  people  are  asleep.  Their  increasing  study  goes 
on  for  years,  it  may  be,  without  any  apparent  evil  conse- 
quences. But  the  time  comes  when  the  strings  of  the  brain, 
so  to  speak,  like  the  over-screwed  strings  of  a  violin,  snap, 
leaving  their  possessor  a  mental  vreck.  Hugh  Miller  was 


a  great  student.  His  works  are  voluminous,  and  he  indulged 
in  no  superfluous  writing.  But  who  can  think  of  his  sad 
end  without  feeling  that  it  would  have  been  better  for  him 
had  he  contented  himself  with  the  half  of  the  literary  labour 
to  which  he  was  devoted.  "  What  brought  you  here  ?  "  said 
a  gentleman  one  day  to  a  brilliant  preacher  and  popular 
author  whom  he  found  in  a  lunatic  asylum.  "  That  which 
will  never  bring  you  here,"  was  the  sharp  reply.  "  And 
what  is  that  ?"  asked  the  gentleman.  "  An  over- wrought 
brain,"  replied  the  lunatic  sternly.  To  keep  their  thinking 
powers  in  a  healthy  condition,  our  literateurs  require  to 
work  according  to  a  system.  Four  or  five  hours  per  diem. 
at  most  is  quite  sufficient  for  the  most  active  mind  to 
work,  and  these  should  be  in  the  early  part  of  the  day. 
Then  in  the  afternoon  let  them  do  a  little  gardening,  or  let 
them  ply  the  axe,  hold  the  plough,  or  play  at  golf  or  cricket, 
or  any  other  harmless  game;  they  will  thus  encourage 
digestion,  strengthen  both  bone  and  muscle,  and,  in  short, 
do  their  duty  to  that  temple  in  which  the  living  God  deigns 
to  dwell.  The  man  who  acts  thus  returns  to  his  mind 
work  with  a  keen  zest;  thoughts  of  the  noblest  kind  crowd 
upon  him;  difficulties  vanish;  his  pen  moves  surely  and 
rapidly  over  the  paper;  his  thinking  powers  never  become 
sluggish;  and  after  accomplishing  more  work  than  those 
who,  by  over-tension  of  the  mind,  gradually  commit  suicide, 
he  falls  asleep  in  a  ripe  old  age,  supported  with  the  idea 
that  he  has  left  his  footprints  on  the  sands  of  time,  and 
that  his  example  is  worthy  of  being  followed.  Compare  a 
case  like  this  with  that  of  Hugh  Miller,  who,  after  years  of 
incessant  mind  toil,  in  which  it  was  evident  that  he  was 
gradually  committing  suicide,  deliberately  loaded  a  pistol, 
and  in  a  fit  of  mental  derangement,  shot  himself.  Let  young 
men  take  warning.  Be  thankful  if  nature  has  blessed  you 
with  a  superior  Brain  form,  but  see  that  that  form  receives 
from  you  the  treatment  it  requires.  It  is  at  once  the  most 


important  and  most  tender  form  in  your  constitution. 
Certain  of  your  bones  may  be  broken,  and  still  you  may 
live  a  useful  and  happy  life.  You  may,  like  Dr.  Kitto,  lose 
your  hearing  and  ultimately  your  speech,  and  yet  do  some- 
thing for  which  posterity  will  feel  grateful.  Nay,  you  may 
be  deprived  of  the  organ  of  vision,  like  the  Puritan  John 
Milton,  and  notwithstanding  this,  leave  behind  you  that 
which  will  make  your  name  immortal ;  but  indulge  in  any- 
thing, whether  too  much  eating,  too  much  drinking,  or  an 
over  close  application  of  your  mental  powers,  by  which  your 
nervous  system  is  thrown  out  of  order,  and  your  Brain  form 
stultified,  and  the  time  may  come  when,  instead  of  feeling 
life  a  blessing,  you  will  feel  it  to  be  a  curse,  and  will  go 
down  to  an  early  grave,  if  not  a  direct,  at  least  an  indirect 
suicide.  This  is  the  age  of  thinking.  The  world  has  passed 
through  the  Abdominal  epoch,  the  Muscular  epoch,  &c.,  and 
now  we  have  reached  the  mind  or  intellectual  age.  Think 
of  the  time  when  scarcely  any  one  could  read,  save  the  priests, 
who  depended  for  much  of  their  power  on  the  ignorance  of 
the  people,  and  compare  that  age  with  the  present,  and 
behold  the  contrast.  That  was  the  age  of  chivalry,  when 
men  lived  in  their  lower  natures ;  this  is  the  age  of  thought, 
in  which  men  fight,  not  with  sword,  and  spear,  and  lance, 
but  for  the  most  part  with  their  intellects.  And  who  can 
contemplate  the  result  of  our  haste  toward  increase  of 
knowledge,  and  thirst  for  literary  fame,  without  being 
impressed  with  the  words  of  Henry  Ward  Beecher,  when 
he  says,  "  the  literary  field  is  like  unto  a  battle-field,  a 
grand  slaughter-house." 

Now,  if  any  of  our  readers  are  conscious  of  having  gone 
astray  in  this  matter;  if  they  feel  that  they  have  failed  to 
do  justice  to  their  Brain  form,  and  are  in  consequence 
subjects  of  pain  and  suffering ;  let  them  seek  deliverance 
from  their  condition  now.  Let  them  cease  to  do  evil,  and 
learn  to  do  well  Appliances  of  all  kinds  may  be  tried, 


but  so  long  as  the  cause  is  at  work  the  disease  can  never  be 
removed.  The  sun  is  capable  of  drying  a  piece  of  wet  cloth 
when  brought  under  its  influence,  but  in  order  to  this  you 
must  cease  pouring  water  on  it.  Let  this  be  done — that  is 
to  say,  let  the  cause  be  removed,  and  the  sun  will  speedily 
dry  it.  And  so  it  is  with  a  deranged  brain — that  is,  a  brain 
out  of  order,  whether  by  over-eating,  over-drinking,  or  over- 
working. If  you  find  that  the  food  you  use  does  not  agree 
with  you,  give  it  up,  and  try  something  else.  If  you  find 
that  tobacco  or  spirituous  liquors  impair  your  Brain  power, 
why  certainly,  then,  forego  them.  Or  if  you  find  that  your 
eating  and  drinking  are  simple  enough  ;  but  that  you  are 
bringing  disease  upon  your  brain  by  over-working  it,  then 
in  the  name  of  common  sense,  do  take  warning  and  refrain 
from  the  use  of  your  mind,  and  whatever  taxes  largely  your 
sensations.  Unless  you  are  very  far  gone,  nature  can  restore 
you  to  former  health,  and  all  your  powers  to  their  wonted 
activity,  but  only  upon  condition  that  you  avoid  those 
things  which  have  caused  the  disorder.  Mind  power  is  like 
Muscular  power;  it  grows  in  strength  and  vigour,  by  means 
of  a  reasonable  and  moderate  amount  of  work.  But  just  as 
a  pugilist,  however  powerful  his  bones  and  muscles,  will  fall 
exhausted  after  a  prolonged  battle,  and  remain  exhausted  for 
months  to  come;  so  an  over- taxed  mind,  that  needs  noxious 
stimulants  in  order  to  make  it  work,  becomes  at  last 
exhausted,  and  exhaustion  indulged  in  brings  on  congestion, 
and  if  that  is  not  removed,  death  is  the  result.  Sluggish 
digestion,  want  of  fresh  air,  sudden  excitement,  whether  of  a 
sad  or  joyful  character,  with  a  thousand  other  things  that 
could  be  mentioned,  destroy  the  nervous  system,  affect  the 
arind,  make  people  ill-tempered,  and  anything  but  pleasant 
companions.  Nothing  can  please  a  man  who  lives  undei 
the  power  of  these  things.  The  day  is  either  too  hot  or  it  is 
too  cold.  The  dinner  bell  is  rung  too  early  or  too  late.  In 
ehort,  he  is  not  at  peace  with  himself,  and  consequently 


cannot  look  upon  life  with  a  pleasant  eye.  He  wears  green 
glasses,  which  make  everything  green  outside.  To  such  a 
man  life  is  a  living  death.  Now,  ignorance  lies  at  the 
bottom  of  all  this  ignoring  of  the  laws  by  which  nature 
governs  the  body  in  its  different  forms.  How  foolish  is  this 
ignorance  !  And  how  terrible  its  results  !  In  early  life  the 
evil  begins.  Children  go  to  school,  and  their  powers  being 
over-taxed  they  grow  weakly.  The  question  which  parents 
and  teachers  ask  is  not  "  how  much  may  the  child  learn, 
and  yet  preserve  that  physical  equilibrium  which  nature 
desires  ? " — but  this,  "  how  much  can  the  child  learn  at  all 
hazards?"  Teachers  are  not  always  the  wisest  of  men. 
Indeed,  perhaps,  there  is  no  class  of  men  anywhere  who 
need  more  drilling  in  regard  to  the  subject  of  which  we 
have  been  treating  than  teachers.  For  a  number  of  years 
children  should  be  taught  chiefly  through  the  physical 
senses.  Their  memories  should  not  be  worked  as  they  are 
at  present  in  a  certain  class  of  schools.  In  short,  parents 
and  teachers,  who  between  them  have  the  training  of  the 
future  generation,  should  see  to  it  that  the  children  first  of 
all  make  body ;  for  it  is  a  fact  that  the  strongest,  healthiest, 
most  active,  and  most  successful  men  are  those  who,  when 
they  were  young,  studied  little  and  played  much  ;  while 
our  weak,  irritable,  bilious  people,  are  those  who  had  long 
hours  at  school  when  they  were  young,  hard  mental  tasks, 
and  almost  no  running  about.  "  All  work  and  no  play 
makes  Jack  a  dull  boy,"  is  a  proverb  the  truth  of  which  is 
verified  by  experience.  But  dullness  is  not  the  worst  evil. 
The  darker  consequences  may  be  witnessed  in  every  lunatic 
asylum  and  every  grave-yard. 


THERE  is  a  tendency  in  nature  to  destroy.  We  have  illus- 
trations of  this  everywhere,  and  in  all  ages.  As  it  has  been, 
so  is  it  now.  Crops  are  blighted,  fences  are  laid  low,  trees 
are  torn  up  by  the  roots,  houses  are  razed  to  their  founda- 
tions, ships  are  sunk,  and  men  and  animals  are  suddenly 
deprived  of  life.  This  apparently  suicidal  tendency  is  called 
demolitiousness.  On  the  other  hand,  nature  possesses  a 
preservative  power.  In  her  bosom  lie  those  treasures  of 
gold,  silver,  coal,  iron,  &c.,  which,  when  laid  hold  of  by  man, 
minister  so  much  to  human  comfort  and  prosperity.  This 
power,  common  both  to  man  and  surrounding  nature,  we 
call  concealativeness. 

To  this  nomenclature  none  can  object;  but  with  its 
modus  operandi  of  application  among  a  certain  class  of 
teachers  it  is  impossible  for  us  to  agree.  When  you  speak 
of  nature  as  being  destructive,  concealative,  &c.,  you  say 
what  is  undeniable  truth;  but  when  you  presume  to  descend 
to  particulars,  and  attribute  to  one  part  of  nature  demoli- 
tiousness, to  another  concealativeness,  and  to  another  resist- 
ativeness,  we  are  compelled,  by  the  sheer  force  of  evidence, 
to  dissent.  You  cannot  localize  these  faculties,  yet  their 
signs  are  local  and  general.  You  cannot  speak  of  them 
collectively  or  individually  as  being  here  and  not  there,  as 


being  in  the  mountain,  but  not  in  the  ocean,  or  as  being 
above  you,  but  not  beneath  you.     The  spirit  that  moves  in 
nature  is   ubiquitous.     Its   centre   is   everywhere   and   its 
circumference  no  where; -and  as  this  spirit  is  the  onsia,  as 
the  ancients  called  it,  in  which  all  the  faculties  of  nature 
inhere,   we   must,   by   a    process   of   reasoning,    trace    the 
different  tendencies  to  that  spirit,  as  we  trace  the  different 
manifestations  of  power  in  the   human   body  to  the  un- 
seen man  within  it;  and  just  as  we  speak  of  a  man  doing 
this  or  that,  and  not  of  his  hand  doing  it,  or  his  eye  doing 
it,  or  his  feet  doing  it,  so  is  it  absurd  to  localize  the  above 
faculties  in  nature  and  speak  of  them  as  being  present  here, 
but  absent  there.     Wherever  the  spirit  of  universal  nature 
is,  there  are  the  faculties.     And  as  the  spirit  is  everywhere 
in  man's  form  and  in  all  nature,  so  must  the  faculties  be. 
He  is  a  fool,  therefore,  who  would  lay  his  hand  upon  one 
mountain  and  say,  here  we  have  demolitiousness ;  and  on 
another,  and  say,  here  we  have  concealativeness ;  and  on  a 
third  and  fourth,  and  say,  here  we  have  truth  and  love;  the 
truth  being,  that  the  whole  of  the  faculties  inhere  in  that 
existence  which,  for  popular  purposes,  has  been  denominated 
nature :  only  in  some  places  they  are  manifested  in  an  observ- 
able manner,  and  in  others  not.     Matter  we  may  locate ; 
mind  or  God  we  cannot. 

To  localize  faculties  is  no  new  thing  in  the  world.  The 
tendency  toward  it  is  hoary  with  age.  The  literature  of 
ancient  Greece  and  Rome  is  full  of  it,  and  the  religion  of 
the  Egyptians  was  founded  upon  it.  Socrates,  and  Aristotle 
after  him,  with  all  their  philosophical  acuteness,  were  unable 
to  perceive  that  universal  nature  was  permeated  with  one 
indivisible  spirit,  the  cause  of  all  existences,  animate  and 
inanimate.  They  clothed  certain  material  things  with  attri- 
butes considered  to  be  divine,  and  in  these  material  things 
they  believed  powers  or  gods  to  reside,  exclusive  of  all  other 
places,  and  in  consequence  of  this  they  worshipped  them 


But  not  only  in  heathendom  do  we  find  this  tendency 
Even  the  Jews,  with  their  oracles,  patristic  traditions,  and 
living  prophets,  were  unable  to  extricate  themselves  from 
its  seductive  influence.     Hence  they  saw  the  Great  Spirit 
of  the  Universe  only  in  certain  of  His  works,  and  not  in 
others;  in  those  which  moved  and  alarmed,  not  in  those 
which   came   daily   and   steadily;    in    the    tempest   which 
blighted  the  crops,  not  in  the  heat  and  moisture  which  made 
them  to  spring  up,  and  grow  and  ripen;  in  the  disease  which 
wasted  and  ravaged,  not  in  the  health  which  sustained  and 
gladdened   the   frame  for  years;    in  the  lightning  which 
smote,  but  not  in  the  light  which  smiled;  in  the  eclipse 
with  its  lurid  darkness,  but  not  in  the  pleasant  sunshine 
which  daily  played  .upon  the  earth ;  in  the  meteor  which 
burst  out  so  ominously,  but  not  in  the  stars  which  looked 
down  upon  them  so  purely  and  benignly;  in  sudden  and 
unexpected  prosperity,   but  not  in  the  common  blessings 
which  were  showered  upon  them  from  day  to  day;  in  the 
storm  which   sunk  the  vessel,  but  not  in  the  favourable 
breezes  which  bad  borne  it  along  for  such  a  length  of  time ; 
in  the  preservation  of  the  individual  in  a  shipwreck,  but 
not  in  that  assiduous  care  which  to  so  many  had  prevented 
shipwreck  altogether.     Such  was  the  state  of  things  among 
the  Jews;  and  in  modern  Christendom,  what  do  we  find  but 
the  same  spirit?     Men  are  unable  to  worship  the  unseen. 
They  must  not  only  have  God  embodied,  they  must  have 
Him  individualized  and  separate.     He  dwells  in  the  Pope,  it 
is  said:  and  when  men  meet  his  holiness,  they  prostrate 
themselves    before    him,   intentionally   or   unintentionally, 
believing  that  the  great  moving  spirit  of  the  universe  is 
hid  within  the  old  man's  bones  and  muscles,  to  the  exclu- 
sion of  surrounding  nature.     And  so,  too,  among  religious 
reformers.     Places  are  set  aside  and  consecrated,  such  as 
churches,  &c. ;  and  in  these  places,  we  are  told,  God  vouch^ 

safes  His  presence,  as  if  that  Being  who  shines  in  the  sun, 


and  glows  in  the  moon,  did  not  live  thioughout  all  space, 
and  could  be  walled  in  by  brick  and  mortar!  What  is  this, 
we  ask,  but  the  localization  of  the  faculties  of  that  un- 
bounded spirit  which  is  everywhere  and  indivisible! 

Against  this  tendency,  then,  we  most  earnestly  protest. 
In  God  we  live,  and  move,  and  have  our  being;  and  in 
that  God  there  is  an  infinity  of  faculties  or  powers,  all 
working  to  one  glorious  end;  but  these  are  not  separate 
and  limited,  and  confined  to  certain  defined  parts  of  space, 
but  are  diffused  throughout  all  nature. 

The  word  faculty  denotes  ability  to  act  or  perform, 
whether  that  ability  be  inborn,  or  developed  and  cultivated. 
When  Fuller  says  that  the  Pope  granted  him  a  faculty  to 
set  him  free  from  his  promise,  he  means  that  ability  had 
been  granted  to  him  to  avoid  the  fulfilment  of  his  promise; 
and  when  Quincey  says  that  the  vital  faculty  is  that  by 
which  life  is  preserved,  he  simply  predicates  of  living  exist- 
ences the  ability  to  preserve  life.  On  this  principle,  when 
we  speak  of  the  faculties  of  nature,  we  refer  to  the  powers 
or  abilities  which  nature  possesses  to  accomplish  ends  by 
appropriate  means,  whether  these  powers  or  abilities 
operate  or  otherwise.  To  act  is  one  thing,  the  power, 
faculty,  or  ability  which  underlies  the  act  is  another  and 
very  different  thing.  Acts  performed  sustain  to  the  faculty 
which  acts,  the  relation  of  production  to  producer;  or,  in 
other  words,  the  faculty  is  the  cause,  the  act  accomplished 
is  the  effect:  and  while  effects  may  be  limited,  and  indeed 
must  be,  both  by  time  and  space,  it  is  impossible  to  localize 
the  primary  cause. 

What  we  contend  for  is  beautifully  portrayed  in  man, 
felicitously  called  a  microcosm,  a  little  world  in  himself. 
Professor  Frazer,  of  the  Edinburgh  University,  speaks  of 
man  as  being  a  bundle  of  attributes,  which  is  just  a  repro- 
duction of  the  oft-quoted  idea  of  England's  greatest  poet 
and  dramatist, — "What  a  piece  of  workmanship  is  man!  how 


noble  in  reason!  how  infinite  in  faculties!"  Innumerable 
as  the  sands  upon  the  sea-shore,  and  full  as  old  ocean  are 
the  powers  of  this  noble  and  wonderful  microcosm — man. 
Here,  as  well  as  in  the  broad  expanse  above,  and  in  the 
green  earth  beneath,  are  evident  tokens  of  design.  As  ships 
are  built,  and  so  built  as  to  plough  the  ocean  with  as  little 
difficulty  as  possible,  so  men  have  been  constructed  for  a 
purpose.  One  man  is  born  a  mechanic.  He  has  within 
him  the  faculty  of  appreciating  physical  proportions,  that 
he  may  be  able  to  form  materials  square,  round,  &c.,  as  the 
case  may  be;  and  as  that  faculty  is  developed,  we  see  it 
controlling  the  materials  on  which  it  acts.  Another  man  is 
born  with  endurance.  He  has  within  him  the  faculty  of 
bearing  up  in  extreme  difficulties  and  hardships.  Waves 
that  would  overwhelm  others  have  no  effect  on  him.  His 
constitution,  like  the  blacksmith's  arm,  gathers  strength  by 
exercise.  So  it  is  with  the  man  of  scientific  tendencies.  He 
is  constructed  to  be  scientific.  His  faculty  of  penetration, 
his  faculty  of  generalization  and  abstraction  seem  to  predo- 
minate. He  has  been  born  to  chain  the  winds  that  they 
may  do  his  behests, — to  direct  the  lightning  for  conversa- 
tional purposes, — to  traverse  the  starry-paved  firmament, 
and  find  out  the  positions  of  the  planets,  and  to  delve  into 
the  dark  recesses  of  the  earth,  and  tell  the  history  of  the 
world  by  means  of  fossilized  substances.  Another  man  has 
been  constructed  for  musical  purposes.  His  varied  powers 
coalesce,  so  to  speak,  and  develop  into  a  beautiful  harmony. 
This  man  deals  with  sounds  and  controls  them,  and  can 
detect  in  an  instant  the  slightest  discord,  even  though  the 
performers  could  be  numbered  by  thousands.  But  who  can 
lay  his  hand  upon  a  man  and  say,  here,  at  this  particular 
part  of  his  complex  organism,  is  the  mechanical  faculty,  or 
here,  at  another  part,  is  the  faculty  of  endurance,  or  at 
another,  the  penetrative  or  scientific  faculty,  or  at  another, 
the  musical?  The  man  who  acts  thus  meroly  assumes  or 


imitates.  He  does  not  reason,  and  if  he  systematizes  his 
notions  into  a  whole,  he  systematizes  what  is  and  must  be 
false,  for  his  notions  have  no  foundation  in  principle.  Why 
does  he  fasten  on  a  certain  part  of  the  human  organism  and 
say,  here  we  have  the  mechanical  faculty  or  the  musical 
faculty?  He  cannot  tell,  or  will  answer,  that  "  observation 
has  determined  that  a  fulness  at  such  a  point  indicates 
certain  idiosyncracies  of  character;"  the  observation  may  be 
true  of  the  sign,  but  not  of  the  faculty  or  principle  that  is 
general  in  nature.  He  can  give  no  reason  for  it.  He 
merely  assumes  and  asserts,  and  takes  the  sign  for  the 
faculty.  And  as  assertions  without  reasons  are  unreason- 
able, and  that  which  is  unreasonable,  false,  it  follows  that 
his  notions,  whether  detailed  or  gathered  up  into  a  system, 
are  wholly  unworthy  of  belief.  The  faculties  of  man,  like 
the  powers  inherent  in  nature,  cannot  be  located.  The  man 
who  has  the  mechanical  faculty  is  a  mechanic  from  the 
crown  of  his  head  to  the  soles  of  his  feet.  The  man  who 
has  the  faculty  of  endurance  is  an  enduring  man  through 
and  through,  not  in  one  bono  merely,  but  in  all.  He  who 
has  the  scientific  faculty,  m  scientific,  or  constructed  for 
scientific  purposes  all  throughout  his  organism;  and  the 
musical  man  is  not  musical  in  part,  but  from  the  centre 
to  the  circumference  of  his  being  is  permeated  with  the 
faculty  of  music.  There  is  no  location;  there  is  no 
dividing  of  the  integral  parts  of  a  man,  one  part  contain- 
ing one  faculty,  and  another  another  faculty;  whatever 
faculties  a  man  has  are  diffused  throughout  his  whole 
body,  soul,  and  spirit,  as  God  is  diffused  throughout 
universal  space.  There  are  signs  of  faculties,  and  these 
grouped  into  one  whole  we  denominate  Physiognomy; 
but  the  signs  must  be  distinguished  from  the  faculties 
themselves.  The  signs  are  local,  the  faculties  are  not, 
and  it  is  because  these  two  things  have  been  confounded, 
instead  of  being  distinguished,  that  the  localizing  theory 



which    we   have    been    condemning    has  found   a  footing 
among  men. 

Here  it  may  be  remarked,  that  man  has  failed  as  yet 
to  master  even  the  alphabet  of  his  own  nature,  and  the 
cosmical  system  with  which  he  is  surrounded — that, 
indeed,  as  Sir  Isaac  Newton  once  said,  we  are  just 
like  children  gathering  shells  upon  the  sea-shore,  while  tho 
great  ocean  of  truth  lies  before  us  unexplored. 

THE  MAKQUIS  DE  LAFAYETTE,  a  distinguished  French  statesman, 
patriot,  and  philanthropist.  His  low  and  greatly  receding  forehead  did 
not  prevent  the  manifestation  of  sound  reason,  good  judgment,  and 
superior  intellectual  ability. 


IT  is  implied  in  the  heading  of  this  essay  that  there  is 
in  man  a  something  called  Mind,  as  distinct  from  that 
which  we  denominate  matter — physical  substance  or  body. 
What  mind  is  in  its  essence,  we  know  not,  any  more  than 
we  know  what  matter  is  in  its  essence.  "What  is  mind?" 
asked  an  inquirer  once  of  a  philosopher.  "  No  matter,"  was 
the  reply.  "And  what  is  matter?"  continued  the  inquirer. 
"  Never  mind,"  was  the  laconic  answer.  These  we  con- 
sider to  be  the  best  answers  which  could  possibly,  in  our 
present  condition,  be  given  to  the  questions.  We  know  the 
attributes  of  matter,  at  least  some  of  them,  but  that  is  all 
we  know;  and  we  know  the  qualities  of  mind,  at  least 
some  of  them,  and  there  our  knowledge  ceases.  When  we 
come  into  contact  with  a  substance  which  has  length,  and 
breadth,  and  height,  and  depth,  hardness,  or  softness,  or 
colour,  we  immediately  conclude  that  that  substance  is 
physical,  that  it  is  matter  or  body ;  and  when,  by  the 
exercise  of  our  inner  consciousness,  we  find  in  ourselves 
the  qualities  of  thought,  feeling,  and  volition,  we  infer  from 
these  qualities  that  there  is  some  kind  of  substance  or 
existence  in  which  they  inhere,  and  that  substance  we  call 
Mind.  The  qualities  of  mind  cannot  be  predicated  of 

104      THE   NUMBER  OF  FACULTIES   IN  Tllri   HUMAN   MIND. 

matter,  nor  can  the  attributes  of  matter  be  predicated  of 
mind.  The  two  reside  together,  and  in  a  mysterious 
manner  influence  each  other,  but  they  are  not  to  be  con- 
founded. Materialism,  therefore,  pure  and  simple,  is,  as  a 
system,  false.  There  must  be  something  greater  than 
matter,  which  produces  it,  controls  it,  and  gives  it  endur- 
ance; that  something  we  call  Mind. 

It  has  been  said,  "  there  is  nothing  great  on  earth  but 
man,  and  there  is  nothing  in  man  great  but  mind."  Sir 
W.  Hamilton  was  so  convinced  of  the  truth  of  this  state- 
ment, that  he  used  it  as  the  motto  of  those  immortal 
lectures  now  published,  which,  as  Professor  of  Logic,  he 
delivered  in  the  Edinburgh  University;  and  certainly, 
taking  the  term  great  in  its  loftiest  sense,  the  great 
metaphysician  was  right;  for  body  without  mind  as  a 
moving  principle  would  sink  into  nothingness. 

The  question  as  to  the  number  of  faculties  possessed  by 
fcho  human  mind  has  perplexed  scientific  and  philosophic 
inquirers  in  all  ages.  Some  dogmatists  have  professed  to 
master  the  question,  and  have  been  forward  enough  to  put 
their  answer  on  paper  and  give  it  to  the  world.  Others, 
more  penetrating  in  intellect  and  less  bold,  have  named  a  few, 
leaving  future  searchers  for  truth  to  discover  more;  but  few 
have  been  able  to  see  that  what  we  call  mental  faculties 
spring  up  as  the  ages  roll  on,  and  are  brought  to  light  by 
the  surrounding  circumstances  which  demand  them.  Nature 
creates  nothing  in  vain.  She  gives  only  as  man  requires. 
Just  as  a  wise  man,  when  travelling  through  foreign  coun- 
tries, will  not  cumber  his  pockets  with  money,  but  take 
with  him  a  bill  of  exchange  by  which  he  can  supply  him- 
self on  his  way  just  as  he  requires  it,  so  Nature  acts 
naturally  and  reasonably,  bestowing  powers  only  where 
and  when  they  are  needed.  The  ancients,  who  were  able 
to  do  without  clothing,  and  without  roofs  to  their  houses, 
as  the  lower  animals  do  still,  did  not  possess  the  architec- 


tural  faculty  which  has  done  such  great  things  in  the 
present  day;  and  Nature  did  not  impart  it  to  them,  because 
in  their  case  it  was  not  required.  Architecture,  like  ever}7 
other  art,  is  a  thing  of  growth.  From  the  rude,  unpolished 
upright  stones  of  barbarous  times,  to  the  beautiful  fluted 
pillars  of  the  Athenians,  there  was  a  gradual  growth,  just 
as  there  has  been  since  the  time  that  the  then  gorgeous 
Areopagus  was  built.  At  first  the  faculty  was  given  in  a 
rude  form,  gradually  it  became  brighter  and  brighter, 
and  is  becoming  more  and  more  polished  still;  and  who 
dare  say  that  man  possesses  it  in  perfection,  even  in  this 
the  19th  century.  May  we  not  say,  that  notwithstanding 
the  past  glories  .of  architecture,  there  are  glories  yet  to  be 
revealed,  in  the  presence  of  which  the  architecture  of  the 
present  will  appear  as  rude  as  was  the  work  of  the  first 
architects,  as  compared  with  that  of  architects  now?  And 
so  it  is  with  other  mental  faculties.  They  are  growths. 
The  demand  creates  the  supply.  Reason  was  given  when 
it  was  needed,  and  because  it  was  needed;  and  this  may 
be  said  of  every  power  which  man  at  present  possesses. 

The  lower  and  more  animal  faculties  are,  as  well  as  the 
special  senses,  common  to  all  mankind;  the  higher,  and 
more  refined,  and  spiritual,  are  the  products  of  cultivation 
and  growth.  Worship  is  a  matter  of  education.  Prayer  is 
a  matter  of  education.  Like  monkeys,  men  are  imitative, 
and  take  on  much  from  example.  The  child,  under  the 
tuition  of  a  praying  mother,  will  most  probably  become  a 
praying  man;  but  without  such  tuition,  it  is  most  likely 
that  in  this  respect  he  would  fail.  Prayer  is  based  upon 
education,  like  telegraphy.  Could  any  school-boy  become 
an  accomplished  telegraphist  at  once,  without  the  necessary 
drill?  The  thing  is  impossible.  And  so  it  is  with  prayer. 
Printers  learn  to  be  printers.  They  are  not  printers  by 
intuition.  A  man  who  never  saw  a  printing  press,  and 
knew  nothing  of  types  and  their  settings,  could  never  make 


an  intelligent  impression  on  paper.  It  is  mind  under  drill 
and  cultivation  which  telegraphs  and  prints.  Those  powers 
peculiar  to  Christianity  were  once  but  conceptions  in  the 
inind  of  Jesus  of  Nazareth;  but  through  the  instrumentality 
of  those  whom  he  educated,  those  conceptions  have  spread 
through  the  civilized  world,  and  have  produced  in  men's 
minds  those  faculties  for  worship  which  we  find  in  the 
Christian  Church.  Christianity  brought  new  faculties  to 
men,  but  these  it  distributed  gradually ;  and  who  dare  say 
that  that  system  called  Christianity  has  been  exhausted, 
and  that  all  the  powers  it  can  impart  have  been  imparted? 
Step  by  step  are  men  being  led;  and  only  step  by  step  can 
they  be  led,  until  they  reach  that  noble  manhood  which 
consists  in  an  innumerable  array  of  received  faculties  work- 
ing harmoniously  together.  The  faculty  of  music,  too,  is 
a  thing  imparted.  Many  a  girl  has  been  set  down  as 
incapable  of  becoming  a  pianist,  who,  nevertheless,  after 
careful  training,  has  manifested  a  power  in  the  art  quite 
uncommon.  Without  the  training,  her  ear  would  have 
remained  dull,  her  voice  timber-tuned,  and  she  would  have 
been  as  unsusceptible  of  sweetness  of  sound  as  a  blind  man 
is  to  colour.  The  faculty  of  language  is  also  imparted. 
No  man  is  a  linguist  by  birth  or  intuition.  Language  is 
learned,  and  learned  by  imitation.  The  Eastern  Prince, 
confined  from  infancy  to  mature  years,  deprived  of  the 
privilege  of  listening  to  articulate  sounds,  was  wholly 
unable  to  articulate.  People  who  are  absolutely  deaf  can- 
not speak — simply  because  the  want  of  hearing  hinders 
them  from  imitating  the  sounds  of  the  more  fortunate. 
Let,  however,  their  ears  be  opened,  and  place  them  under 
training,  and  the  faculty  of  speech  will  gradually  come. 
A  hard-working  mind,  by  severe  study  and  prolonged 
application,  develops  new  faculties  in  itself,  and  these 
again,  brought  to  bear  upon  mankind,  propagate  themselves 
in  a  remarkable  manner.  He  who  has  the  musical  faculty 


strong  and  highly  cultivated,  will  produce  that  faculty  in 
others.  The  mathematician  who  has  cultivated  in  himself 
the  faculty  for  the  right  adjustment  of  figures,  will  produce 
the  mathematical  faculty  in  others.  The  philanthropist 
makes  philanthropists;  the  man  of  science  produces  the 
scientific  faculty  in  his  fellows ;  and  by  the  influence  of 
the  philosopher,  races  of  men  possessed  of  the  philosophical 
faculty  spring  up.  Men  are  not  all  gifted  alike.  Inventors 
and  discoverers  have  faculties  which  other  men  have  not. 
Every  man  is  not  a  Sir  Isaac  Newton  or  a  Columbus.  For 
ages  men  had  seen  apples  fall  from  trees;  but  it  was  left 
to  the  self-developed  discovering  faculty  of  Newton  to  infer 
from  the  fall  of  the  apple  that  there  was  a  law  in  nature 
which  might  properly  be  called  the  law  of  gravitation. 
Thousands  of  men  in  earlier  times  had  put  the  question, 
"  Has  the  whole  world  become  known?"  But  it  was  left  to 
the  observant  Columbus,  blest  with  the  faculty  of  fresh 
discovery,  to  find  out  the  Western  Hemisphere.  Wise  men 
wrought  hard,  and  developed  in  themselves  faculties  which 
others  did  not  possess;  and  those  again,  working  back  upon 
mankind,  produced  their  like,  and  quickened  discovery  in 
men.  The  necessity  for  the  Davy  Lamp  was  felt  for  ages 
among  miners;  but  never  until  Sir  Humphrey  developed 
in  himself  the  faculty  of  invention  was  that  lamp,  so  useful 
to  those  who  work  underground,  brought  to  perfection. 
Who  can  read  the  lives  and  study  the  works  of  such  men 
as  these  and  others,  such  as  George  Stephenson,  and  yet 
believe  that  there  are  as  many  faculties  in  one  man's  mind 
as  there  are  in  another?  The  system  of  reading  mental 
faculties  by  physical  signs  in  the  human  body  is  undoubt- 
edly the  only  system  by  which  the  end  can  be  rightly 
reached ;  but  Gall  was  perfectly  right  when  he  somewhat 
humorously  said  that  the  would-be  seers  had  christened  the 
babe  before  it  was  born,  when  they  called  it  "  Craniology," 
thus  confining  observation  exclusively  to  the  head.  He 


took  a  wider  view  of  things.  Ke  saw  that  mind  wrought 
through  every  part  of  the  body,  and  that,  in  order  to  study 
the  faculties  inherent  or  developed  by  cultivation  in  the 
mind  of  man,  every  part  of  the  body  must  be  taken  into 
account;  and  this  system  he  called  Physiognomy,  a  name 
•which  we  have  adopted,  as  covering  the  whole  field  of 
that  investigation  of  which  we  speak. 

Standing,  then,  on  this  platform,  we  are  able  to  discover 
what  the  dogmatic  mind  has  never  yet  seen.  Faculties  are, 
yearly  being  noted,  and  their  signs  observed,  that  hereto- 
fore have  been  unindicated.  Still,  we  dare  not  say,  even 
from  the  stand-point  of  the  Physiognomist,  that  all  the 
faculties  in  the  human  mind  have  been  discovered.  Lying 
between  the  zoophite  and  the  man  of  cultivation,  there  is  a 
strange  gradation  of  faculties;  but  we  cannot  say  that  all. 
that  is  possible  within  the  sphere  of  mental  activity  and 
development  has  been  brought  to  pass,  .even  in  the  most 
thoroughly  educated  and  cultivated  of  minds.  We  can  tell 
what  we  have  discovered,  but  can  say  nothing  of  that 
which  has  been  unexplored.  We  know  that  Physiognomy 
reveals  many  new  faculties,  and  calls  attention  to  their 
signs,  but  we  dare  not  say  that  Physiognomy  has  as  yet 
revealed  all.  There  are  depths  yet  unsounded.  Progress 
is  the  law  of  nature  and  the  law  of  the  human  mind.  As 
men  continue  going  forward,  so  will  their  mental  faculties 
increase.  Already  in  some,  as  many  as  a  hundred  and  even 
two  hundred  have  been  discovered;  but  who  can  tell  what 
Physiognomy  will  bring  to  light,  when  the  science  has  been 
brought  to  perfection?  Who  can  say  what  number  of 
faculties  will  be  possessed  by  the  human  mind  when  the 
present  sustains  the  relation  to  the  future  that  the  past 
sustains  to  the  present?  As  the  petals  of  the  flower  are 
unfolded  by  the  light  of  the  sun,  so  are  men's  minda 
wrought  upon  by  minds  greater  than  themselves.  Truth 
begets  truth,  science  begets  science,  faculties  beget  faculties: 

THE    NUMBER    OF   FACULTIES   IN    THE   MUM  AS    MIND.       109 

so  that  the  time  may  come  when  it  will  be  seen  that  the 
powers  of  the  human  mind  are  as  innumerable  as  the  sands 
d?  the  sea  shore. 

"Curb,  then,  tkming  dogmatists,  your  piou.»  wrath  .t 
Canute-like,  ye  may  sit  upon  the  shore 
Opposing  angry  foam  with  angry  froth; 
But  with  encroaching  wave  and  growing  roar 
It  comes,  your  sand -placed  thrones  must  topple  o'er, 
Whelmed  in  the  wave  that  but  recedes  to  gain 
A  higher  leap  and  wider  than  before. 
Scold  not  the  waves,  they  but  obey  the  plain 
Resistless  destiny,  that  rulee  Mind,  like  the  main." 

GEORGE  CANNING,  a  famous  British  statesman,  poet,  wit,  brilliant 
debater,  sapient  intellect,  and  powerful  leader  of  his  party,  notwithstand- 
ing his  squat  and  undersized  forehead.  This  profile  denotes  untiring  per- 
severence,  sterling  energy,  thorough  education,  and  a  judicious  and  honest 


THE  word  "Faculty,"  as  is  clearly  shewn  by  its  derivation, 
simply  denotes  the  possession  of  ease  or  facility,  in  a  greater 
or  less  degree,  in  performing  actions,  or  in  carrying  out  to 
their  ultimate  results  a  given  class  of  propensities  or 
proclivities.  It  is  derived  from  the  Latin  "facultas,"  a 
substantive  closely  allied  to  the  adjective  "facilis,"  easy, 
and  from  which  we  have  direct  our  English  words,  facile, 
facility,  facilitate,  facilitation,  &c.,  &c.  A  faculty,  therefore, 
whether  regarded  from  a  physical  er  mental  point  of  view, 
is,  as  the  etymology  of  the  word  plainly  demonstrates,  the 
amount  of  ease  or  facility  which  attends  the  performance 
of  actions  or  thoughts,  and  irrespective  of  whether  the 
particular  faculty  which  may  happen  to  be  under  consi- 
deration be  of  an  inborn  origin,  or  superinduced  in  whole, 
or  in  part,  by  cultivation.  The  degree  of  endowment 
between  one  individual  and  another  is,  as  might  be 
expected,  exceedingly  varied,  and  may  almost  be  said 
to  be  co-extensive  with  the  expanse  of  the  human  race 
itself.  This  variety  is  not,  of  course,  confined  to  the  element 
of  number,  though  even  in  this  limited  sense  the  remark  as 
to  the  great  diversity  of  endowment  would  still  hold  good ; 
and  it  is  in  the  degree  of  strength  or  intensity  of  faculty,  aa 


developed  in  different  individuals,  that  we  may  probably 
expect  to  find  the  most  prominent  exhibition  of  variation. 
In  some  individuals  we  find  present  in  a  greater  or  less 
degree  of  development,  an  astonishing  number  of  different 
faculties.  In  such  a  case,  we  have  the  "Jack  of  all  trades 
and  master  of  none,"  when  the  great  variety  of  faculties 
with  which  the  individual  is  endowed  or  cursed  is  but 
feebly  backed  up  in  point  of  degree  of  strength  or  intensity; 
when  great  variety  of  faculties  and  a  high  degree  of  strength 
or  intensity  combine  in  harmonious  action,  as  they  very 
rarely  do,  we  have  as  the  result  an  "Admirable  Crichton," 
who  does  everything  and  everything  well.  Every  faculty 
appertaining  to  the  human  family  is  of  a  two-fold  character 
— the  physical  and  the  spiritual — and  these  double  charac- 
teristics are  closely  interwoven,  and  intertwine  with  each 
other,  acting  harmoniously  and  in  unison,  but  without 
obliterating  the  line  of  demarcation  which  exists  between 
them.  The  vast  variety  in  the  degree  of  endowment,  and 
the  phenomena  of  the  spiritual  existing  in  excess  of  the 
physical,  and  vice  versa,  are  clearly  traceable  to,  and  the 
results  are  directly  deducible  from,  the  preponderance  of  one 
set  of  elements  over  another  set  in  the  human  bodily 
structure.  As  an  easily  understood  illustration  of  this,  we 
have  only  to  examine  the  salient  points  of  the  human 
edifice,  to  be  furnished  with  the  following  indisputable  data: 
The  Abdomen,  when,  relatively  to  the  other  members  of  the 
body,  of  large  development,  indicates  will  of  self  or  selfish- 
ness; the  Thorax,  of  a  largeness  of  size  m  disproportion  to 
the  other  members,  is  an  indication  of  the  excess  of  will  of 
action  or  courage;  the  undue  development  of  the  Muscle* 
is  an  unfailing  index  of  the  presence  of  the  will  of  con- 
trariety; the  Bones,  large  relatively,  indicates  the  preponder- 
ance of  the  will  of  inertia  or  obstinacy;  while  the  Brain, 
large  out  of  proportion  to  the  other  members,  shews  the 
presence  of  will  of  opinion,  or  the  capacity  of  overpowering- 


antagonists  in  intellectual  warfare.  The  number  of  distinct 
faculties  existing  in  the  different  individuals  of  the  human 
race  is  really  much  larger  than  we  would  be  disposed  to 
imagine,  after  a  cursory  and  superficial  glance  at  the  subject. 
Many  of  them  are  particularized  in  the  Physiognomical 
books  which  we  have  already  given  to  the  public;  but 
these  publications  have  by  no  means  exhausted  the  list. 
Amongst  numerous  others  not  commented  upon  in  the 
works  referred  to,  we  may  here  mention  the  human  facul- 
ties of  walking,  swimming,  skating,  horsemanship,  labour, 
clothing,  marriage,  morality,  metaphysics,  common  sense, 
consciousness,  mediumship,  intelligence,  instinct,  conception, 
judgment,  archness,  intention,  psychology,  idealism,  clair- 
voyance, comprehension,  intellection,  apprehension,  and 
intelligensitiveness.  The  list  might  still  be  extended  very 
considerably,  but  those  given  will  suffice  to  give  the  reader 
some  conception  of  the  comprehensiveness  of  the  subject. 
The  physiological  explanation  of  the  causes  and  effects 
which  we  have  attempted  to  illustrate,  in  reference  to  the 
relative  preponderance  of  the  five  varieties  of  faculties 
which  advance  themselves  most  prominently,  is  not  very 
far  to  seek.  The  Abdomen,  when  relatively  large,  denotes 
the  presence  of  a  selfish  will,  in  virtue  of  the  grasping  and 
craving  nature  of  that  part  of  the  body,  and  of  the  juicea 
which  are  engendered  and  secreted  there.  These  urgently 
demand  primary  attention,  and  they  will  countenance 
no  consideration  for  the  wants  of  any  of  their  brother 
functionaries,  until  their  own  demands  have  been  conceded 
to  the  uttermost.  This  granted,  they  acquiesce  actively, 
as  well  as  passively,  in  the  conveyance  to  its  various 
destinations  of  the  support  which  is  necessary  for  the 
existence  of  the  other  members  of  the  human  functional 
body.  This  is  the  very  essence  of  selfishness.  The  selfish 
individual  is  not  averse  to  the  contemplation  of  content- 
ment and  enjoyment  in  others,  and  he  will  even  contribute 


to  bring  about  this  result;  but  with  the  inevitable  proviso 
that  he  must  first  be  served,  or  serve  himself  to  repletion. 
When  relatively  large,  the  Thorax,  which  is  mainly  made 
up  of  the  heart  and  lungs,  is  indicative  of  the  will  of 
action  or  courage  largely  developed,  because  these  parts 
of  the  human  frame  exhibit,  during  every  second  of  the 
existence  of  life,  an  unceasing  and  incessant  activity.  Here 
we  find  the  grand  principle  of  action  displayed  to  its  fullest 
extent;  and  not  a  moment  of  our  life  but  the  heart  beats 
and  the  lungs  dilate  with  dauntless,  unwearied,  and  un- 
ceasing regularity  and  fidelity.  The  less  sensitive  and  less 
active  of  the  human  functions  may  sink  to  rest  their 
wearied  faculties,  secure  in  the  assurance  that  the  heart 
and  lungs  will  courageously  and  unweariedly  carry  on 
the  needful  action,  and  maintain  the  heat  necessary  for  the 
welfare  of  the  body  corporate.  When,  therefore,  the  pro- 
portions of  the  Thorax  are  large,  we  may  be  sure  the  mental 
part  of  the  individual  is  richly  endowed  with  motion, 
activity,  or  courage.  The  uninitiated  may  not  be  aware 
to  how  large  an  extent  the  principle  of  contrariety  pervades 
the  functionary  arrangement  of  the  muscles.  It  would 
seem  as  if  it  were  the  very  nature  of  the  muscles  of  the 
human  frame  to  act  contrary  or  in  opposition  to  other 
muscles  forming  part  of  the  same  bodily  structure.  If  we 
examine  the  Muscular  arrangement  of  one  of  our  hands,  we 
find  that  its  action  is  the  reverse  of  the  arrangement  on  the 
other  hand,  to  which  it  acts  in  direct  contrariety 
thereby  demonstrating  the  existence  of  a  two-fold  power 
of  action.  When  a  volume  of  air  is  received  into  the 
lungs,  it  instantly  enlarges  the  thoracic  part  of  the  bouy; 
but  immediately  the  principle  of  contrariety,  which  we  are 
now  noticing,  displays  itself  in  the  elasticity  of  the  pulmo- 
nary cells  and  abdominal  muscles,  which,  by  a  contrary 
motion,  at  once  expel  the  air  that  has  just  been  admitted. 
When  the  heart  receives  blood,  it  is  extended  and  dilated; 


but  instantly  the  various  layers  of  muscles  which  form  its 
walls,  acting  with  what  we  may  be  pardoned  for  calling 
instinctive  contrariety,  put  themselves  in  action,  and 
drive  out  the  blood  which  has  been  received.  This 
principle  of  contrariety  pervades  the  entire  Muscular 
arrangement  of  the  human  frame;  and  where  we  find  in 
the  individual  a  Muscular  development  in  excess  of  the 
other  -bodily  functions,  we  may  be  sure  of  the  presence  oi 
the  will  of  contrariety,  or,  in  other  words,  the  presence  oi 
an  easiness,  facility,  or  faculty  of  going  and  doing  contrary, 
and  of  working  to  cross  purposes.  This  is  the  pig  character, 
and  the  human  variety  will  be  found  built  broad  and  low 
like  his  porcine  brother.  When  Bones  predominate  in  the 
individual  human  structure,  the  ruling  principle  of  the 
individual  will  be  found  to  be  obstinacy.  The  quality  oi 
obstinacy,  when  dissected  and  examined,  will  be  found 
to  be  simply  a  disinclination  to  move;  a  predispositioD  to 
inertia,  such  as  the  ass,  which  may  be  regarded  as  obstinacy 
itself  on  four  legs,  and  endowed  with  life,  displays  with  so 
frequent  a  recurrence.  The  ass  has  a  large  Bone  develop- 
ment, and  it  is  mainly  due  to  this  peculiarity  that  it  has 
acquired  so  unenviable  a  notoriety  for  obstinacy.  The 
component  parts  of  bone  are  largely  made  up  of  lirne, 
phosphates,  and  other  rocky  material.  Now,  this  rocky 
substance,  which  enters  so  largely  into  the  composition  of 
bone,  is  inert  matter,  which  is  moved  with  difficulty,  and 
never  in  consequence  of  any  action  from  within.  When 
this  tendency  to  inertia  or  obstinacy  is  individualized  by  a 
predominance  of  bone,  the  individual  has,  as  the  most  pro- 
minent feature  of  his  character,  a  distaste  to  motion,  an 
inertia,  obstinacy,  in  fact.  The  last  spiritual  manifestation 
deducible  from  an  excess  of  development  in  the  five  salient 
features  of  the  human  frame  is  what  we  have  termed  "  will 
of  opinion,"  traceable  back  to  predominance  of  brain,  and 
which  may,  in  other  words,  be  described  as  a  "  positive  or 


vivid  power  of  sensation."  When  the  idea  of  a  material 
form  is  conveyed  to  the  brain,  through  the  medium  of  the 
material  eye ;  or  when  an  abstract  or  immaterial  entity  is 
looked  at  and  examined  by  the  eye  of  the  mind,  an  impres- 
sion is  made  upon  the  nervous  system;  these  impressions 
become  mentally  solidified  into  convictions,  and  the  indi- 
vidual forms  positive  conclusions  respecting  the  object, 
whether  material  or  abstract.  The  conclusions  arrived  at 
in  this  way  are,  in  common  parlance,  his  opinions,  and  his 
capacity  for  forming  and  retaining  opinions  will  be  in  pro- 
portion to  the  real  strength  of  his  mind.  Man's  endow- 
ment in  this  respect  leaves  even  the  most  advanced  of  the 
rest  of  the  animal  world  far  behind ;  and  this  fact  is  directly 
dedncible  from  the  nearer  proportion  of  his  parts.  This  will 
of  opinion,  where  inordinately  developed,  has  led  to  the 
sacrifice  of  millions  of  human  lives,  for  causes  spiritual, 
intellectual,  commercial,  political,  and  polemical.  We  hope 
we  have  made  it  plain  to  our  readers  to  how  great  an  extent 
the  two  phases  of  each  of  the  five  particularized  faculties 
depend  on,  and  are  regulated  by,  each  other.  All  the  other 
faculties  maintain  a  parallel  attitude,  and  hinge  equally  with 
those  we  have  detailed  on  the  predominance  of  one  part  of 
the  human  edifice  over  another;  and  it  is  in  a  proper  under- 
standing of  this  comparative  structure  that  the  key  is 
to  be  found  to  the  phenomena  and  mystery  of  the  human 

As  we  have,  we  hope,  shewn  that,  in  special  and  pro- 
minent cases,  the  faculties  appertaining  to  humanity  are 
dependent  for  their  existence  on  their  various  material 
prototypes  resident  in  the  bodily  structure,  so  may  the  rule 
be  accepted  as  universally  applicable  in  general  and  less 
prominent  cases.  All  faculties,  however  subtle  and  com- 
plex their  composition,  are  dependent  for  their  existence 
and  support  on  particular  elements,  forming  constituent 
parts  of  the  material  structure  of  the  bodily  frame.  The 


faculties  have  no  patent  of  self-existence;  and  continued 
and  adequate  support  is  absolutely  necessary  to  their  living 
and  healthful  action.  If  this  support  be  vitiated  at  its 
springs,  or  totally  withdrawn,  the  faculty  becomes  unhealthy 
in  its  action,  and  finally  ceases  to  exist.  According  to  the 
character  of  the  faculty,  support  is  sought  from  the  various 
members  of  the  material  body,  the  spiritual  character  of 
the  faculty  bearing  a  close  resemblance  to  the  character- 
istics of  the  region  from  which  it  draws  its  supplies.  As 
an  illustrative  example,  the  faculty  of  appetite,  or  appe- 
titiveness,  has  for  the  object  of  its  existence  the  furnishing 
and  regulation  of  the  supplies  of  food  necessary  for  the 
keeping  alive  of  the  bo\ly ;  and  accordingly,  as  the  Abdomen 
first  assimilates  and  then  regulates  in  the  interior  the 
distribution  of  the  requisite  aliment  demanded  by  the 
other  organs,  so  is  it  the  prototype  or  sign  of  the  supplyant 
faculties,  of  which  that  of  appetentiveness  is  one.  A 
parallel  case  is  that  of  aquasorbitiveness,  or  that  faculty 
which  regulates  the  reception  of  liquids  into  the  human 
system.  The  admission  of  a  stipulated  supply  of  liquids 
is  equalty  necessary  with  the  supply  of  solids  for  the  due 
nourishment  and  support  of  the  frame;  and  therefore,  as 
the  Abdomen  or  stomach  is  the  internal  assimilator  and 
distributor  of  nourishment,  the  faculty  of  aquasorbitive- 
ness looks  to  the  Abdomen  or  stomach  for  its  guidance, 
and  for  the  degree  of  vigour  and  judgment  which  may  be 
necessary  for  the  proper  performance  of  its  functions. 
When  the  Abdomen  is  distended  with  easy  repletion,  a 
calm  contentedness  and  acquiesciveness  supervenes ;  this 
placidity  is  immediately  communicated  to  the  faculties  of 
appetitiveness  and  aquasorbitiveness,  and  for  the  time 
being  a  peaceful  harmony  reigns  supreme  throughout  the 
entire  range  of  the  supplyant  powers.  Animalimitation- 
ality  is  the  faculty  which  enables  one  individual  of  the 
animal  creation  to  copy  or  imitate  the  actions  and  motions 


of  another.  In  the  human  variety  the  very  first  exhibition 
which  we  have  of  animalimitationality  is  in  the  lately 
born  infant  teaching  itself,  or  being  taught  by  example, 
the  motions  and  actions  necessary  for  the  admission 
of  nourishment ;  and  therefore  animalimitationality  will 
come  under  the  natural  law  in  belonging  to  that  part 
wherein  the  faculty  is  first  brought  into  use,  which,  in  the 
instance  on  which  we  are  now  engaged,  is  in  and  around 
the  mouth,  and  in  immediate  combination  and  connection 
with  the  supplyant  powers.  The  mouth  and  its  immediate 
surroundings,  in  virtue  of  the  great  mobility  or  power  of 
motion  which  is  seated  there,  is  eminently  adapted  for 
producing  imitations  of  animal  actions,  and  the  facial 
power  of  expression  seems  here  to  reach  its  acme,  culmin- 
ating in  a  wonderful  range  of  power  in  the  direction 
of  animalimitationality.  The  conditions  reigning  in  and 
around  the  mouth  also  are  faithfully  indicative  of  the  con- 
ditions which  subsist  in  and  around  its  prototype  of  the 
interior,  the  Abdomen;  and  it  is  closely  allied  to,  and 
conscientiously  illustrative  of,  the  whole  of  the  signs 
connected  with  the  supplyant  powers.  The  mouth  is, 
moreover,  the  commencement  of  the  alimentary  canal, 
with  the  entire  course  of  which  it  must  correspond,  rela- 
tively, in  point  of  size  and  conditions.  It  is  not,  therefore, 
difficult  to  see  to  what  a  large  extent  the  mouth  and  its 
concomitants  form  an  index  of  the  size  of  the  abdomen, 
or  how  its  width  corresponds  to  the  strength  of  the  faculty 
of  animalimitationality  and  its  fulness,  or  the  extent  to 
which  it  reaches  forward  to  its  activity.  This  law  of 
necessity  and  convenience,  as  illustrated  in  the  harmonious 
regulations  of  the  supplyant  powers,  as  well  as  in  those  of 
the  other  classes,  offers  a  tempting  opportunity  for  an 
incisive  examination  and  elucidation  of  the  springs  of  action 
whence  those  beautiful  arrangements  have  their  origin; 
but  as  this  is  not  an  essay  on  the  principles  of  the  signs 


of  the  faculties  and  powers  of  man,  we  must  leave  that 
phase  to  be  dealt  with  by  the  student  of  natural  law.  A 
curious  law  operating  in  connection  with  the  human 
faculties  is,  that  it  is  not  within  the  power  of  any  indi- 
vidual to  do  or  perform  anything  which  does  not  already 
exist  and  reside  within  his  organization.  When  a  man 
finds  himself  unsuited  for  any  particular  calling  or  occupa- 
tion, his  incapacity  proceeds  purely  from  the  non-existence 
of  the  thing  within  him;  and  there  is  therefore  a  very 
considerable  amount  of  truth  and  aptness  in  the  expression, 
rashly  set  down  by  many  as  slangy  and  indecorous,  "it  is 
not  in  him  to  do  it."  The  simple  fact  is,  that  we  cannot 
do,  or  judge  of,  outside  of  ourselves,  what  we  do  not  already 
possess  within  our  systems.  A  man  need  not  attempt  to 
become  a  carpenter  or  architect,  or  to  build  a  house,  if  he  is 
not  himself  constructed  on  the  mechanical  principle.  If  he 
does  not  possess  the  faculty  of  structurodexterity,  that  is 
to  say,  if  he  is  not  himself  built  upon  the  mechanical 
principle,  with  square  form,  and  provided  with  large  bones, 
he  will  be  quite  unable  to  distinguish  himself  in  dealing 
with  square  objects,  or  things  with  angles  and  straight 
lines,  and  he  would  fail  utterly  in  any  attempt  to  expend 
his  energy  in  an  architectural  or  mechanical  direction.  To 
afford  a  prospect  of  success  in  this  quarter,  the  beginner 
must  already  possess  the  elements  of  the  art  within  him, 
and  be  constructed  on  the  principles  we  have  mentioned. 
If  so  endowed  and  possessed  of  the  requisite  Muscular 
strength,  he  will  find  no  difficulty  in  acquiring,  by  the 
necessary  amount  of  practice,  an  easiness,  a  facility,  or 
faculty  of  performing  and  judging  of  mechanical  work. 
Again,  to  enable  a  man  to  do  and  judge  of  round  work,  it 
is  necessary  that  he  should  be  himself  built  on  the  round 
plan  of  human  architecture.  It  would  be  futile,  for  instance, 
to  set  an  individual  to  learn  the  art  of  watch  and  clock 
making,  if  he  were  wanting  or  deficient  in  the  corporeal 


elements  of  motion,  roundness,  stability,  and  mechanism. 
The  result  would  inevitably  be  a  signal  failure,  arising  from 
having  disregarded  the  fitness  of  things,  and  the  universal 
law  of  the  relations  subsisting  between  the  functions  or 
faculties,  as  such,  and  those  portions  of  the  human  structure 
on  which  they  are  severally  dependent  for  existence  and 
support.  One  man  is  abundantly  endowed  in  the  matter 
of  colour,  and  he  becomes,  or  would  become,  if  circumstances 
led  him  to  make  the  attempt,  a  great  painter.  Another  mau 
has  only  one  colour  in  his  form,  and  thousands  of  pounds 
might  be  spent  in  vain  in  trying  to  teach  him  to  paint. 
The  thing  itself  does  not  exist  within  him  ;  and  it 
were  as  reasonable  to  attempt  the  manufacture  of  some- 
thing out  of  nothing,  as  to  endeavour  to  supply,  by  artificial 
means,  that  wealth  of  colour  which  nature  has  denied  him. 
The  same  principle  applies  with  equal  force  throughout  the 
entire  scope  of  the  subject,  and  in  every  case  deals  equally 
powerfully  with  all  the  human  faculties,  whether  in  their 
spiritual  or  physical  phases.  A  man  cannot  regard  money 
from  the  miser's  point  of  view,  unless  there  is  within  him  a 
preponderance  of  the  material  over  the  spiritual.  A  would- 
be  painter  cannot  picture  on  the  canvas  what  he  is  unable 
to  originate  and  conceive  within  his  own  mind.  It  would 
be  worse  than  idle  or  unreasonable  to  expect  a  song  from 
a  man  who  had  no  music  in  his  soul.  You  might  as  well 
hope  to  get  five  hundred  dollars  from  one  who  did  not 
possess  a  cent. — to  get  a  dove  to  carry  the  load  of  an  ox, — 
or  a  spider  to  spin  a  web  of  sufficient  strength  to  arrest  the 
rapid  motion  of  a  train  of  cars!  These  latter  expectations 
everyone  will  readily  admit  to  be  in  the  highest  degree 
absurd;  and  yet  they  are  not  one  whit  more  absurd  than 
to  hope  to  attain  to  usefulness — not  to  speak  of  eminence — 
in  any  particular  walk  of  life,  if  the  candidate  does  not 
exhibit  in  his  bodily  conformation  that  particular  fitness 
and  aptitude  which,  by  the  eternal  law  of  nature,  governs 
the  oarticuiar  faculty  which  is  in  questic  n. 


The  faculty  of  deraolitiousness  is  the  presence  of  a  prone- 
ness,  a  facility,  or  faculty  for  destruction.  To  have  the 
power  to  bring  about  wreck  and  destruction,  strength  is 
absolutely  necessary,  and  this  strength  is  only  obtainable 
in  a  large  development  of  the  Muscular  system.  Large 
muscular  development,  perforce  entails  width  of  body,  and 
wherever  we  find  exhibited  an  unusual  width  or  breadth  of 
bodily  structure,  we  may  accept  that  as  excellent  prima 
facie  evidence  of  the  existence  in  the  individual  of  a  power- 
ful development  of  the  faculty  or  principle  of  physical 
destructiveness.  And  as  a  corollary  of  this,  wherever  we 
tind  the  head  narrow,  and  long  from  front  to  back,  that  is 
to  say,  in  its  anterior  and  posterior  diameter,  accompanied 
by  wide  shoulders,  and  a  prominent  and  rather  thin  nose, 
we  may  take  it  for  granted  that  we  have  before  us  an 
example  of  the  embodiment  of  spiritual  destructiveness,  by 
which  we  mean,  a  facility  or  faculty  for  the  demolition  of 
erroneous  and  mischievous  ideas.  This  is  the  description  of 
great  reformers  of  thoughts  and  morals.  When  we  find  an 
unusually  large  development  of  the  flexor  muscles,  we  may 
be  assured  that  we  have  discovered  a  safe  repository  for 
secrets;  this  development  of  the  flexor  muscles  denoting 
the  power  of  retaining  possession  of  secrets  without  the 
least  pain  or  exercise  of  self-denial.  The  very  genius  of  the 
entire  system  of  such  a  specimen  is  secrecy,  and  it  delights 
in  nothing  so  much  as  in  the  possession  and  retention  of 
exclusive  information  and  intelligence. 

We  have  admitted  the  possibility,  under  certain  condi- 
tions and  within  somewhat  narrow  limits,  of  the  cultivation 
and  partial  development  of  faculties;  but  let  it  be  borne  dis- 
tinctly in  mind  that  this  is  possible  only  to  the  extent — and  no 
farther — that  it  is  practicable  to  modify  by  cultivation,  use 
and  wont,  the  bodily  proportions.  This  action  is  very  limited 
and  circumscribed ;  and  the  influence  exerted  by  the  bodily 


proportions  upon  the  faculties  themselves  is  in  exact  ratio 
with  the  changes  which  they  have  first  undergone.  It 
will,  however,  sometimes  appear  as  if  the  entire  mental 
action  were  reversed,  and  this  is  explained  by  taking  the 
material  example  of  the  steam-engine.  A  very  slight 
exertion  of  power  on  the  part  of  the  engineer  acting  upon 
the  lever  or  valve-handle  will  gradually  slacken  the  speed 
of  the  machine,  until  it  comes  to  a  stand;  and  a  further 
movement  will  cause  the  power  of  the  steam  to  be  exerted 
in  such  a  way  on  the  machinery  as  to  engender  a  contrary 
motion,  and  the  engine,  which  was  before  proceeding  east- 
ward, now  proceeds  westwards,  impelled  by  the  same 
power  acting  on  the  same  machinery  which  formerly  pro- 
pelled the  machine  in  an  easterly  direction.  The  organiza- 
tion of  man  is  infinitely  finer  and  more  complex  than  that 
of  a  steam-engine,  and  the  forces  which  act  upon  it  are 
vastly  more  numerous  than  those  of  heated  water  and  air, 
and  it  is  therefore  capable  of  an  infinitely  greater  variety  of 
action  and  motion.  To  strengthen  the  spiritual  power  of 
man,  we  have  no  other  means  than  that  of  purifying  his 
material  proportions,  and  enlarging  the  sensorium  or  Brain 
and  Nerve  form.  Gradually,  and  in  exact  proportion  as  his 
system  becomes  purified  and  etherealized,  the  spiritual 
phase  of  his  faculties  becomes  improved  and  enriched.  Let 
the  body  undergo  deterioration  by  physical  drudgeries, 
unwholesome  food,  filth,  or  excessive  indulgence  in  ardent 
spirits,  and  the  human  engine  is  immediately  reversed,  and 
runs  in  the  direction  of  the  animal,  instead  of  the  spiritual. 
The  operation  necessary,  therefore,  to  awaken  a  latent 
faculty,  or  to  change  the  direction  and  aim  of  an  existing 
active  one,  is  simply  that  of  effecting  a  change  of  the 
conditions  of  the  bodily  proportions.  To  secure  the  healthy 
and  useful  action  of  the  faculties,  it  is  necessary  to  have 
each  individual  faculty  existing  in  harmony  with  the 



and  where  this  harmony  is  exhibited  in  its  fullest  extent,  there 
do  we  find  specimens  of  humanity  constructed  on  the  suret-t 
principles  for  the  furtherance  of  their  own  happiness,  and 
the  amelioration  of  the  conditions  of  the  world  at  large. 

DR.  E.  B.  FOOTE,  the  distinguished  author  and  physician,  of  New 
York,  known  by  his  writings  throughout  the  civilized  world.  (Portrait 
copied  from  frontispiece  of  his  "  Plain  Home  Talk,"  a  popular  work  upon 
topics  relating  to  health,  marriage,  heredity,  etc.,  etc.) 







Full  cheeks  and  placidity  of  countenance  indicate  acquies- 
civeness  or  contentment  generally,  especially  if  the 
aspect  is  cheerful. 


EVERYTHING  that  exists  within  the  range  of  nature,  and, 
whether  embodying  material  or  abstract  ideas,  has  as  a 
fundamental  accompaniment,  an  underlying  principle  that 
ranks  before,  and  in  precedence  of,  the  fact,  idea,  or  faculty 
itself.  In  observing  the  fall  of  an  apple  to  the  ground, 
from  the  particular  branch  or  twig  whereon  it  has  grown, 
the  most  superficial  observer  may  recognize  the  fact  that 
the  apple  has  fallen;  but  under  and  preceding  the  simple 
fact  of  the  apple  having  changed  its  place  and  position, 
there  is  the  infinitely  more  interesting  consideration  of  the 
cause  or  principle  whence  the  change  of  place  has  sprung, 
and  this  underlying  cause  or  principle  we  call  the  "  natural 


law  of  gravity."  But  for  the  operation  of  this  law  of 
gravity,  that  attracts  every  atom  of  natural  matter  in  the 
direction  of  the  centre  of  the  earth,  the  apple  might  have 
remained  for  ever  in  its  elevation  of  a  few  feet  above  the 
surface  of  the  earth,  or  it  might  have  been  left  to  be 
operated  upon  by  other  forces  in  any  other  direction.  From 

Acqniesciveness  Large — 
Welsh  Woman. 

Acquiesciveness  Small — 
Mrs.  Bachus,  of  California. 

this  illustration,  we  perceive  by  a  train  of  logical  reasoning 
which  all  may  comprehend,  that  facts,  occurrences,  or  by 
whatever  name  we  may  choose  to  call  them,  are  invariably 
preceded  by  natural  originating  principles — these  facts  being 
the  natural  outcome  of  the  forces  exerted  by  those  prin- 
ciples, and  not  independent  occurrences  constituting  cause 
and  effect  in  themselves.  Simply  to  observe  facts  is  one 
thing;  but  to  trace  back  from  effect  to  cause — to  sift  and 
elucidate  the  underlying  principles,  and  to  unfold  and  explain 
the  time  and  mode  of  action,  is  quite  another  thing, 
requiring  a  much  higher  order  of  logical  reasoning  power. 
In  this  article  we  propose,  briefly  and  simply,  to  open  up 
this  feature  of  the  question,  by  indicating  the  principles 
acting  in  precedence  of  each  faculty  or  power,  in  the  parti- 


cular  order  in  which  the  faculties  have  been  arranged 
The  underlying  principles  will  be  placed  as  the  last  verse 
under  each  faculty,  in  their  respective  order,  as  in  the 
following  paragraph  — 

Acquiesciveness  makes  its  presence  manifest  in  a  full 
development  of  the  muscles  and  tissues  of  the  cheeks, 
temples,  &c.,  conclusive  evidence  of  an  abundant  supply  of 
animal  juices,  and  consequently  of  the  possession  on  the 
part  of  the  individual  of  excellent  digestive  powers,  and  of 
an  ample  and  well-working  assimilative  apparatus.  As 
there  is  no  time  when  what  we  may  call  bodily  content- 
ment, or  the  absence  of  any  kind  of  craving  or  uneasiness 
is  more  conspicuous  than  immediately  after  a  wholesome 
and  well  regulated  meal,  so  is  there  no  time  when  mental 
tranquillity  or  contentment  is  more  fully  displayed  than 
immediately  after  the  bodily  wants  have  been  attended  to, 
and  when  the  juices  are  actively  engaged  in  the  assimilation 
of  the  nutritious  ingredients  that  have  just  been  submitted 
to  their  action,  for  the  purpose  of  being  worked  up  and 
elaborated  into  invigorating  life.  We  thus  at  once  perceive 
the  intimate  relationship  subsisting  between  a  fulness  in 
the  cheeks,  temples,  &c.,  and  the  faculty  of  contentment  or 
acquiesciveness — the  cause  being  the  excellence  of  the 
digestive  organs,  and  the  consequent  abundant  presence 
of  the  animal  juices,  the  effect  being  the  development  of 
the  faculty  of  acquiesciveness.  Good  digestion  communi- 
cates its  signs  to  the  Physiognomy,  and  spreads  itself 
throughout  the  entire  character  which  the  face  represents. 




A  wide  mouth,  in  a  narrow  face,  may  safely  be  defined  as 
indicative  of  Animal  Imitation. 

Animalimitationality  Large — 
A  Fort  Rupert  Indian. 

Animalimitationality  Small — 
Horace  Greeley. 

The  most  mobile  and  expressive  part  of  the  face  by  far 
is  the  mouth  itself,  and  here  we  find  the  seat  of  powers  of 
imitation  of  a  character  almost  illimitable.  In  particular 
individuals  we  find  occasionally  an  amazing  capacity  for 
imitating  the  sounds  of  man  and  animals,  and  in  no  speci- 
mens is  this  power  not  developed  in  a  certain  degree. 
These  powers  of  imitation  are  seated  in  and  around  the 
mouth,  and  accordingly  to  this  part  of  the  Physiognomy 
we  assign  as  a  natural  consequence  the  outward  sign  or 
manifestation  of  animalimitationality ;  for,  if  we  are  not  to 
look  for  the  sign  of  a  particular  faculty  in  that  part  where 
it  is  most  manifested,  how  can  we  hope  to  discover  it 
elsewhere?  We  measure  the  swallow  of  the  whale  by  the 
dimensions  of  the  animal's  throat,  and  by  the  same  proce* 


of  reasoning  we  measure  the  capacity  of  an  individual  for 
producing  imitations  of  the  sounds  given  forth  by  his 
brother  man  and  by  the  inferior  animals,  by  the  form  and 
degree  of  mobility  of  that  part  of  the  face  wherein  resides 
the  highest  powers  in  this  direction.  The  degree  of 
development,  therefore,  of  the  faculty  of  animalimitation- 
ality  is  determined  by  the  size  of  the  mouth. 



A  rounding  or  puffy  fulness  of  the  cheeks,  from  one-half 
to  three-fourths  of  an  inch  outwards,  backwards,  and 
slightly  upivards  from,  the  mouth  is  that  part  of  the  face 
where  the  love  of  liquid  first  inanifests  itself. 

Aquasorbitiveness  Large— George  Aquasorbitiveness  Small — 

Morland,  a  talented  painter.  Nicholas  Copernicus. 

This  faculty  directs  the  quality,  quantity,  and  frequency 
of  the  supplies  of  liquid  that  are  necessary  for  the  healthy 
working  of  the  body  corporate.  It  receives  its  inspiration 
from  the  condition  of  the  juices  of  the  stomach,  and  we  may 


predicate  with  absolute  certainty  its  intimate  relations  to 
these  juices.  Of  a  soft  character,  they  would  naturally 
operate  upon  the  soft  parts  of  the  face,  and  accordingly  we 
find  the  outward  sign  of  the  faculty  located  in  the  soft 
parts  of  the  cheeks,  and  just  before  the  masseter  muscle. 
The  faculty  may  become  unduly  developed  or  vitiated  by 
immoderate  drinking,  as  in  the  case  of  George  Morland,  and 
other  intemperate  people,  and  in  proportion  as  this  phase  01 
disease  develops  itself,  we  find  the  growth  and  enlargement 
of  the  outward  sign  itself  more  fully  manifested  in  the 
swelling  out  of  that  part  of  the  cheeks  in  which  it  is 
situated.  This  is  a  development  of  the  law  of  use  and 
wont,  in  this  case  operating,  and  naturally  so,  upon  that 
part  of  the  face  set  in  motion  by  drinking.  The  sign  of 
the  faculty  of  aquasorbitiveness  is  accordingly  situated  in 
the  cheeks,  just  before  the  masseter  muscle. 



Full,  moist  eyes,  plump  cheeks,  large  neck,  and  an  elastic 
springy  step,  can  be  safely  relied  upon  as  signs  of  physical 
hope.  The  sunken,  dull  eye,  hollow  cheek,  and  drooping 
corners  of  the  mouth  are  physiognomical  indications  of  a 
gloomy  nature. 

As  this  description  of  hope  relates  only  to  the  animal  or 
material  department  of  wants,  and  is  confined  to  the  natural 
bodily  craving  for  the  sustenance  which  is  necessary  to  the 
existence  of  life,  it  is  natural  that  we  should  look  for  its 
bigns  in  that  part  of  the  body  which  first  touches  and 
receives  the  bodily  aliment  on  its  way  to  the  interior,  viz., 
ir  and  around  the  mouth  and  the  lower  part  of  the  face. 



As  the  amount  of  animal  hope  depends  entirely  upon  the 
amount  of  life  force  which  is  present,  so  would  we  naturally 
look  for  the  outward  sign  or  manifestation  of  this  faculty 
rn  that  part  which  indicates  the  presence  of  a  reserve  of 
vitality,  and  we  accordingly  find  that  results  bear  out  this 
chain  of  reasoning. 



Heavy  jaws,  large  neck,  and  heavy  chest,  are  signs  of  large 


The   conformation   of    the   mouth    generally,   but   more 
especially  of  the  jaws,  which  are  the  means  that  Nat:ire 

Graspativeness  Large.— Robert 
Gregson,  a  notorious  English 

Graspativeness  Small. — Nana 
Narian,  an  East  Indiaman. 

.ias  provided  to  man  and  to  the  lower  animal  kingdom  for 
grasping  and  retaining  possession  of  their  food,  denotes  in 



proportion  to  its  relative  development  and  prominence  of 
size  and  position,  the  degree  of  the  predatory  proclivities  of 
the  individual.  This  graspativeness  is  not  confined  to  the 
matter  of  food  alone,  but  comprises  everything  within  the 
range  of  human  experience,  on  which  the  grasping  faculty 
can  be  expended.  The  outward  sign,  therefore,  resides  iu 
the  mouth  and  jawa. 




Open,  protruding,  red  lips,  full  cheeks,  and  large  abdomen, 
are  signs  of  sociality. 

This  is  a  genial  interchange  of  sympathetic  thought  and 
feeling;  a  magnetism  and  a  vital  force  which  spring  up  in 

Associativeness  Large. — Samuel  R. 
Ward,  a  Negro  remarkable  for 
bis  social  disposition. 

A.ssociativeness  Small. — David  Don* 
can,  a  Hermit  of  Michigan. 


human  intercourse,  and  warm  up  into  full  action  before  the 
extracting  influence  of  appropriate  and  loveable  companion- 
ship. To  be  capable  of  a  full  display  of  this  genial  effer- 
vescence, the  individual  must  be  well  and  fully  endowed 
in  the  matter  of  vital  force.  His  living  action  must  be  in 
the  enjoyment  of  the  fullest  and  the  freest  play;  his  animal 
juices  must  be  abundant,  and  the  whole  ^machine  must  be 
throbbing  in  the  exuberance  of  overflowing  life  and  action. 
In  such  a  subject  we  find  the  lips  full  and  protruding,  the 
cheeks  plump,  eyes  sparkling,  and  a  warm  and  healthy 
glow  overspreading  the  entire  Physiognomy.  These  are 
infallible  indications  of  sociativeness,  being  the  natural 
outcome  of  the  superabundance  of  life  and  energy,  which 
is  the  unfailing  accompaniment  of  a  high  degree  of  sociality. 



Width  and  general  fulness  of  the  cheeks  opposite  the  molar 
teeth,  and  a  large  mouth  are  never-failing  testimonials  of 
good  sustentative  propensities. 

Appetitiveness  Large.  — David 
Hume,  a  celebrated  historUn. 

Appetitiveness  Small  — Gustavut 
III.,  King  of  Sweden. 


This  faculty  shews  its  presence  in  a  fulness  of  the  cheeks 
opposite  to  the  maseter  muscles,  and  the  reason  of  this  is  at 
once  plain  and  evident.  The  maseter  muscles  being  those 
used  in  the  mastication  of  food,  they  are  seldom  idle  for  any 
length  of  time ;  and,  by  the  natural  law  of  development  by 
use,  the  result  is  arrived  at  of  a  fulness  in  the  face  over 
the  place  where  those  useful  and  industrious  workers  are 
silently  and  efficiently  performing  their  duties. 



This  disposition  being  stronger  in  the  dark  races  and 
animals  than  in  the  light,  we  conclude  that  persons  are 
retalialive  relatively  in  proportion  to  the  depth  of  their 
colour.  Another  sign  of  revenge  is  a  hollow  in  the  centre  of 
the  forehead.  The  elephant  is  an  example  of  a  revengeful 
character;  and  the  hippopotamus  and  rhinoceros  are 
exceedingly  retaliative.  Horses  with  this  deep  indent  in 
the  forehead  should  never  be  trusted. 

By  the  term  Retaliativeness  we  are  generally  understood 
to  signify  the  returning  of  evil  for  evil;  but  this  meaning  is 
by  far  too  restricted  in  its  comprehensiveness.  It  is  in  fact 
the  reflection  back,  or  reaction  of  any  set  of  feelings  from 
one  individual  to  another;  and  it  is  quite  as  much  to  be 
regarded  as  the  returning  of  good  for  good,  as  any  less 
worthy  motive  or  action.  This  capability  of  reaction  or 
reflection  is  only  highly  developed  in  those  who  are 
endowed  with  a  superabundance  of  the  Fibrous  and  Muscular 


form,  accompanied  with  a  predominance  of  the  Abdominal 
Now  the  Abdominal  form  being  largely  made  up  of  the 
soft  or  semi-fluid  portions  of  the  body,  its  natural  tendency 
is  to  reflect  back  as  with  a  shadow  the  impressions  that 
come  in  contact  with  it.  It  is  the  nature  of  water,  as 
well  as  of  all  other  kinds  of  fluid,  to  reflect  back  blows  or 
shadows,  or  whatever  may  be  received  on  their  surfaces; 
and  this  reflection  or  reaction  becomes,  when  accompanied 
by  an  impelling  force,  the  faculty  of  Retaliativeness:  and 
it  is  thus  that  we  account  for  the  fact,  that  a  man  with  a 
large  development  of  fat  is  given  to  retaliative  propensities; 
and  when  we  add  a  large  abdomen  and  sufficient  depth  of 
colour,  we  have  combined  in  one  individual  all  the  elements 
that  are  necessary  for  the  vigorous  throwing  back  of  all 
impressions,  whether  these  impressions  be  good  or  bad, 
that  come  in  contact  with  this  form.  The  faculty  has  its 
sign,  therefore,  in  a  full  development  of  the  Muscular,  the 
Fleshy,  and  a  superabundance  of  the  Abdominal  form. 

FRANCOIS  P.  G.  GUIZOT,  a  celebrated  French  historian,  with  vast 
retentative,  speculative,  and  practical  powers  co-ordinated  becomingly  with 
inflexible  resistance  to  what  he  considered  wrong. 


O  L  .A.SS    II. 





Great  fulness  of  the  forehead,  immediately  above,  and 
close  to  the  junction  of  a  long  nose  with  the  forehead,  evinces 
a  desire  to  be  guarded  and  sentinelled  against  danger. 

THE  outward  signs  of  this  faculty  are  to  be  found  in  the 
expansion  of  the  forehead,  immediately  above  its  junction 
with  a  nose  of  more  than  the  ordinary  length.  This  indi- 
cates the  degree  of  strength  which  resides  in  that  part  of 
the  facial  conformant*  set  apart  Tor  watching  over,  or 
setting  sentinels  upon  the  safety  and  general  welfare  of  the 
whole.  It  shows  the  amount  of  assistance  afforded,  and 
the  degree  of  power  accorded  to  the  eyes,  in  the  fulfilment 
of  their  duties  of  watching  for,  and  recognizing  the  approach 
of  danger.  To  augment  the  ocular  power,  an  enlargement 



of  the  surrounding  forces  rnust  take  place,  and  this  neces- 
sitates an  enlargement  of  the  bones,  muscles,  and  brain, 
which  are  the  main  constituents  of  the  surrounding  and 
aiding  forces,  and  it  is  thus  we  are  enabled  to  estimate  the 
amount  of  watching  power  or  Sentinelitiveness  present  in 
the  individual 



A  long  prominent  nose,  which  rises  high  from  the  face  in 
its  upper  part,  is  the  very  best  evidence  of  large  moral 

Morivalorosity  Large— Thomas  Becon, 
formerly  Professor  of  Divinity  at 

Morivalorosity  Small — Thomas 
Molineaux,  a  brutal  English 

This  may  be  described  as  the  higher  phase  of  mere  animal 
courage,  and  it  exhibits  itself  morally  in  a  dauntless  reach- 
ing forward  for  what  is  good  and  pure,  and  a  capacity  for 


overcoming  the  obstacles  which  may  bar  the  way  on  its 
onward  progress.  Courage  of  the  common  sort  is  positive 
activity,  and  moral  courage  is  the  same  thing,  only  with 
the  addition  of  a  high  moral  sense.  Positive  activity,  as 
we  have  already  demonstrated  in  another  part  of  the  work, 
resides  in  the  thorax,  of  which  the  lungs  or  breathing 
apparatus  comprise  a  considerable  part.  The  thorax  being 
the  sign  of  positive  activity,  and  positive  activity  being 
a  high  moral  courage  or  Morivalorosity,  it  is  clear  we  must 
look  for  the  outward  sign  of  the  latter  in  the  degree  of 
expansion  of  the  facial  breathing  accessories,  and  accord- 
ingly we  find  that  it  has  its  seat  in  the  nostrils,  or  breathing 
avenues.  The  breathing  capacity  is  estimated  by  the 
widening  out  of  the  nostrils,  and  the  amount  of  breathing 
capacity  indicates  the  degree  of  development  of  positive 
activity,  which  in  its  turn  is  the  indice  of  the  amount  of 
moral  courage  or  Morivalorosity.  The  very  essence  of 
morality  is  a  reaching  forward  for  what  is  good;  and  when 
we  find  the  nose  expansive,  and  reaching  forward,  we  may 
conclude  that  the  aspirations  and  aims  of  the  individual 
are  in  the  direction  of  the  moral  and  the  good. 



The  nose  that  stands  well  out,  and  up  at  the  point,  accom- 
panies the  elevative  disposition  in  men  and  animals. 

The  desire  and  capacity  for  that  species  of  energetic  and 
overcoming  action  that  carries  an  individual  up  an  acclivity 
has  a  twofold  origin,  and  the  forces  which  act  may  be 



terra ed  shortly,  the  force  of  strength,  and  the  force  of 
direction.  The  working  of  the  former  has  already  been 
explained  under  the  head  of  Morivalorosity,  and  the  other 
is  the  guiding  or  steering  element,  which  regulates  the 
direction  that  the  force  of  strength  or  activity  is  to  take. 

Elevativeness  Large— Lavater.  Elevativeness  Small—  Chinese  woman. 

The  direction  of  the  character  of  the  individual,  whethei 
that  be  aspiring  or  grovelling,  is  measured  by  the  direction, 
which  is  taken  by  the  features  in  rising  out  of  the  plane  of 
the  face;  and  when  the  growth  is  outward  and  upward, 
we  may  assume  that  the  proclivities  are  towards  Elevative- 
ness in  both  mind  and  body. 



Long  sharp  noses  invariably  accompany  great  smelling 
or  olfactory  abilities. 

We  may  recognize  a  high  degree  of  Olfactiveness  when 
•v*e  see  a  long,   sharp,  straight  nose;   and   the  reason  of 


this  is  not  difficult  to  discover  or  far  to  seek.  This 
kind  of  nose  indicates  a  great  surface  for  the  operation 
of  the  olfactory  nerves;  and  in  the  increase  of  strength 
with  length,  it  bears  a  striking  resemblance  to  the  tele- 
scope, the  reaching  powers  of  which  are  increased  in  the 
ratio  of  the  increase  of  the  length  of  the  inner  barrel 
surface.  The  longer  and  larger  is  the  instrument — grant- 
ing, of  course,  that  it  is  otherwise  constructed  on  the 
requisite  scientific  principles — the  greater  the  power  of 
reach :  and  in  like  manner  with  the  nose — the  longer  and 
wider  the  nostril  the  greater  is  the  olfactory  surface,  and 
the  more  fully  developed  is  the  faculty  of  Olfactiveness. 



The  elevated  nose,  short  neck,  and  scowling  brow  are 
sure  indications  of  the  faculty  of  resistativeness. 

The  lion,  the  tiger,  the  dog,  and  in  fact  the  whole  of 
the  combative  species,  when  in  the  act  of  springing  upon 
any  object  that  is  placed  in  antagonism  to  them,  whether 
for  purpose  of  necessary  food,  or  from  more  questionable 
motives,  may  be  observed  to  draw  back  the  head  as  into 
a  sheath,  and  expand  the  chest  with  a  full  inspiration  of 
air,  with  the  instinctive  object  of  contributing  greater  force 
to  the  impending  blow.  These  acts  unquestionably  add 
greater  power  to  the  aggressive  force  which  is  about  to 
be  exercised;  but  that  which  would  augment  the  power 
of  aggression  would  equally  lend  force  for  resistance;  and 


we  therefore  recognize  in  the  short  neck  and  scowling 
brow,  displaying  to  the  utmost  the  muscular  action  of 
that  part  of  the  body,  the  indication  of  a  high  degree  of 
Resistativeness,  and  we  might  safely  predicate  a  uniform 
muscular  condition  reigning  throughout  the  entire  body. 



The  nose  that  stands  out  far  from  the  face,  in  the  region 
of  the  bridge  or  its  centre,  can  safely  be  regarded  as  a 
certain  sign  of  an  AGGRESSIVE  NATURE. 

The  vicious,  biting,  and  kicking  horse  is  almost  invariably 
found  to  possess  a  nose  of  the  bow  shape,  and  with  no 
very  remote  resemblance  to  that  build  of  the  human 
variety  that  we  designate  the  commanding  nose.  This 
peculiar  conformation  of  the  nasal  organ  is  the  natural 
result  of  the  conformation  within,  which  is  the  cause  of 
the  animal  being  cursed  with  a  vicious  or  assaultative 
disposition.  The  same  rule  holds  good  in  the  human  family; 
and  it  will  invariably  be  found  that,  a  man's  Assaultative- 
ness  can  be  measured  by  the  degree  of  tendency  which 
his  nose  evinces  towards  the  form  we  have  indicated. 



Anxious  expression,  uneasy  manner,  with  full  eyes  and 
a  rather  long  nose,  strongly  indicate  this  idiosyncrasy. 


Earnest  and  sustained  watching  quickly  produces  an 
anxious  and  careworn  expression  of  countenance,  this 
being  the  direct,  inevitable,  and  natural  result  of  the 
action  of  a  watchful  and  vigilant  mind  upon  the  outward 
lineaments  of  the  entire  bodily  structure,  and  we  may 
take  it  for  granted  that  most  of  the  bodily  signs  are  the 
outcome  of  the  working  of  the  mind  inside. 



The  visible  evidence  of  suspicion  is  the  length  from  the 
face,  directly  forward,  to  the  point  of  the  nose.  The  crow 
is  one  of  the  best  examples  of  suspicion. 

Snspiciousness  Small — Owl.  Suspiciousness  Large— Crow. 

The  altitude  or  protuberance  that  any  individual  or 
animal  assumes  for  the  head  and  the  forepart  of  the  body, 
when  they  are  apprehensive  of  the  approach  of  any  kind 
of  danger,  is  a  throwing  forward  in  an  advancing  direction 
of  the  centre  of  the  face,  as  if  to  carry  that  part  of  the 
body  in  which  reside  the  active  and  watchful  faculties — 
that  is,  those  lying  in  and  around  the  eyes  and  nose — as 


near  as  possible  to  the  place  from  which  the  suspected 
danger  is  expected  to  proceed.  This  instinctive  action  is 
born  of  the  desire  for  the  greatest  possible  facility  for 
surveying,  recognizing,  and  guarding  against  the  dreaded 



The  faculty  of  locomotion  manifests  itself  physiognomi- 
cally  by  a  long  and  thin  nose.  The  greyhound  and  stag- 
hound  are  fine  eocamples  of  locomotive  construction;  while 
the  sloth's  nose  indicates  the  opposite  extreme,  and  the  fact 
is  verified  by  its  motion  being  only  a  few  feet  each  day. 

The  long  slim  form  of  animals  is  accompanied  invariably 
with  great  speed  of  motion,  and  vice  versa  in  the  case  of 
the  short  thick  form.  Take  the  ravenous  pike,  for  instance 
— the  fresh  water  shark,  as  he  is  called,  and  not  without 
justice.  His  great  length  enables  him  to  dart  through  the 
aqueous  element  with  inconceivable  speed.  There  is  not, 
indeed,  any  animal  whatever,  constructed  on  the  long  form, 
that  is  not  also  endowed  with  swiftness;  and  by  the  same 
rule,  all  those  built  on  the  short  and  thick  plan  are  slow 
of  foot  and  sluggish  in  motion.  The  great  length  of  the 
long  animal  gives  a  great  extent  for  the  action  of  the  mus- 
cular power,  and  a  proportionally  long  distance  for  the 
nerve  fluid  to  act,  and  the  result,  as  a  natural  consequence, 
is  excess  of  activity.  This  lengthy  distribution  of  the 
motary  nerves  enables  the  animal  to  exert  its  will  suddenly 
and  at  once  on  a  great  expanse  of  surface,  and  to  give 
birth  at  will  to  great  efforts  of  locomotion. 




A  long  prominent  nose  and  thin  cheeks  are  evidences  of  an 
inquiring  disposition. 

When  the  face  assumes  a  wedged  appearance,  sharpening 
out  into  a  long  protruding  nose,  we  may  with  safety  con- 
clude that  the  delight  of  the  possessor  is  to  pry  into,  and 
minutely  investigate  matters  that,  to  others  of  a  different 
form,  would  appear  trivial  and  childish,  and  that  especially 
the  individual  with  the  round  face,  or  possessing  the  round 
form,  would  pass  by  without  arousing  or  wasting  a  thought. 
This  is  the  natural  consequence  of  the  unalterable  law  of 
outward  manifestation;  and  it  would  be  idle  to  look  for 
traits  of  character  in  antagonism  to  the  natural  constructive 
bent  of  the  individual.  The  thin-faced,  long-nosed  man 
revels  in  close  inquiry,  while  his  short-nosed  and  round- 
faced  brother  rolls  contentedly  through  life,  uncaring  for 
what  does  not  concern  himself. 



Thoroughly  defined  and  well-marked  features  are  nature's 
recorded  evidences  of  a  keen  aim  in  life,  and  wide,  grasp* 
ing,  and  far-reaching  AMBITION. 

All  the  individual  members  of  the  human  family  seek 
assiduously  after  that  for  which,  by  reason  of  the  particu- 


larity  of  their  structure,  they  have  the  most  proclivitiea 
Those  who  are  ambitious  of  the  possession  and  exercise  of 
power  are  so  in  virtue  of  being  built  upon  the  plan  of 
power.  Such  a  man  as  Napoleon  the  Great,  for  instance, 
was  eminently  furnished  with  those  peculiarities  of  internal 
structure,  that  have  for  their  outcome  an  unquenchable 
thirst  for  dominion  and  sway  over  their  brethren  of  man- 
kind. The  evidence  of  a  powerful  ambitious  mind  is  to 
be  found  in  features  of  the  coarse,  strong,  and  well-defined 
character,  joined  with  heavy  jaws,  large  neck  and  chest. 
Features  of  this  description  are  the  natural  indications  of 
the  presence  of  a  large  development  of  Ambitiousness,  or  the 
love  of  power,  because  they  denote  outwardly  the  inward 
power  of  the  man,  and  power,  like  everything  else  in  nature, 
has  a  tendency  to  assert  itself  and  leave  its  mark. 



Carrying  the  head  well  back,  and  relatively  great  length 
from  the  point  of  the  nose  to  the  lower  part  of  the  chin,  are 
indications  ivhich  belong  only  to  those  who  fully  appreciate 
their  own  merits,  and  in  many  instances  overrate  them- 
selves. Beau  Brummel,  the  fop  in  the  reign  of  George  IV. 
of  England,  was  intensely  egotistical.  Hence  we  have  given 
his  likeness  as  an  illustration  of  large  or  exaggerated  self' 
appreciation.  Immanuel  Kant,  the  eminent  German  philo- 
eopfter,  was  very  deficient  in  self-appreciation. 

A  high  appreciation  of  one's-self  is  exhibited  in  the  action 
of  the  mind  upon  the  body  in  such  a  way  as  to  draw  back 


within  itself,  like  a  hedgehog,  the  whole  of  the  Muscular 
system.  The  natural  tendency  of  the  mental  part  of  man 
is  to  influence  the  body  in  the  direction  of  the  thing  or 
series  of  things  upon  which  the  most  of  the  love  of  the 

Autobegemony  Large — Beau  Brummel,         Autohegemony  Small -Immanuel 
a  noted  fop  and  courtier  of  Geo.  IV.  Kant,  a  German  Metaphysician 

and  Philosopher. 

individual  is  lavished;  and  in  this  case,  as  the  most  dearly 
cherished  being  is  the  individual  himself,  the  natural  bent 
of  the  whole  structure  of  the  body  is  inwards  and  towards 
himself.  A  specimen  highly  endowed  in  this  direction 
would  display  the  trapezius  muscle  in  the  back  of  the 
neck,  situated  as  if  dragging  the  head  backwards  and 
upwards.  This  action  would  have  the  effect  of  lifting  up 
the  chin ;  and  as  the  direction  of  the  force  exercised  by  the 
depressor  muscles  is  of  a  downward  character,  there  would 
naturally  result  a  lengthening  out  of  the  face  from  the 
nose  to  the  point  of  the  chin.  The  actual  momentary  force 
exerted  by  the  muscle  is  certainly  slight,  and  might  be 
eet  aside  by  unreflective  investigators  as  comparatively 
unimportant;  but  when  it  is  remembered  that  this  force 


is  being  constantly  exerted  during  the  slow  elapse  of  the 
years  of  a  lifetime,  we  are  compelled  to  concede  to  it  an 
importance  of  no  ordinary  kind ;  and  we  must  admit  that 
no  inconsiderable  change  would  be  wrought  upon  the 
Physiognomy  by  the  silent  but  unceasing  working  that  has 
been  indicated. 

BISHOP  MATTHEW  SIMPSON,  an  eloquent  preacher,  master  of  the 
Latin,  Greek,  Hebrew,  German,  and  English  languages,  and  one  of  the 
most  profound  thinkers  of  this  century.  A  countenance  indicative  of 
veracity,  industry,  oratory,  and  chastity.  His  facile  capacity  for  spoken 
language  is  manifested  by  his  protruding  and  flexible  lips,  large  moutb 
and  jaws,  but  not  by  his  eyes. 







The  round  form  of  the  face  and  physique  bespeak  for 
the  individual  the  ability  to  comprehend  and  produce 
natural  time. 

Temporinaturalitiventss  Large — 

Temporinaturalitiveness  Small- 
A 11  Indian  of  Callam  Bay. 

THOSE  mysterious  orbs  of  heaven,  that  keep  their  unceasing 
journey  around  their  respective  systems  of  suns  in  a  multi- 


plicity  of  universes,  dazzling  and  bewildering  to  sublunary 
contemplation,  afford  us  an  apt  and  conclusive  illustration 
in  the  elucidation  of  our  science.  Those  planets  comprising 
the  members  of  our  own  system,  and  with  which  we  have  a 
more  intimate  acquaintance,  such  as  the  Moon,  Saturn, 
Neptune,  Pallas,  and  the  rest,  are  all  constructed  on  the 
round  form,  and  all  their  motions  are  in  circles  more  or 
less  precise.  They  are  essentially  round  in  their  confor- 
mations, and  in  the  actions  which  they  perform  there  is  the 
unvarying  principle  of  time  which,  if  we  may  be  allowed 
the  expression,  seems  to  be  the  paramount  consideration, 
and  one  to  which  all  others  are  secondary  and  subservient. 
This  principle  of  the  exact  measurement  of  time,  conjoined 
to  rotundity  of  form  and  motion,  give  us  the  key  to  the 
fact,  that  humanity  built  on  the  round  form  is  more  adapted 
to  the  judging  of  anything  in  which  time  is  an  element, 
than  are  individuals  of  the  other  types.  There  is  a  beauti- 
ful harmony  of  design  reigning  throughout  the  entire 
domain  of  nature,  and  this  is  only  one  of  the  innumerable 
illustrations  which  present  themselves  to  the  intelligent 



The  wide  nostril,  short  neck,  large  thorax,  and  eyes  set 
directly  in  front,  instead  of  outside  of  the  head,  are  indubi- 
table indications  of  physical  courage;  while  timidity  is 
physiognomically  recognizable  by  a  long  slim  neck;  large 
eyes  set  on  the  sides  of  the  head  rather  than  in  front;  and 
narrow  long  ears.  The  rabbit  and  giraffe  are  fine  examples 
of  timidity 


Physiovalorosity  Large — John  Broughton,     Physiovalorosity  Small — Joseph 
a  base  pugilist  of  England.  Justus   Scalliger,   who   tilled 

the  Chair  of  Belles  Lettres  in 
the  University  of  Leyden. 

Physiovaloroeity  Large — A  Lion. 

Physiovalorosity  Small— A  Giraffe, 
taken  from  life  in  the  Zoological 
Gardens  of  London. 


As  physical  courage  is  the  direct  result  of  large  lung 
development,  giving  rise  to  a  superabundance  of  the  active 
forces  of  life,  and  as  this  form  is  invariably  accompanied 
outwardly  by  nostrils  expanding  at  their  base,  we  find 
that  the  presence  of  physical  strength,  which  is  the  natural 
result  of  these  conjunctions,  denotes  also  width  of  head, 
nose,  jaws,  and  neck,  along  with  depth  of  chest,  the 
immediate  causes  of  the  widening  out  of  the  nostrils,  which 
we  have  referred  to.  In  the  above  cuts  of  Physiovalorosity 
large,  there  may  be  found  an  excellent  illustration  of  the 
operation  of  this  law. 



Sophistry  shadows  itself  forth  on  the  facial  lineaments 
by  giving  them  a  smooth  and  round  expression. 

Sophistry — that  consists  of  a  false  and  misleading,  though 
fair,  promising,  and  specious  style  of  reasoning — is  the 
natural  outcome  of  a  round,  smooth,  oily  organization, 
adapted  for  rounding  corners,  wheeling  and  turning,  and 
generally  endeavouring  to  avoid  coming  to  the  point.  The 
man  of  the  straight  or  rough  form  is  perforce  compelled 
to  perform  all  his  actions  in  a  straightforward  manner, 
and  to  him  falsity  and  deceit  are  foreign  and  uncongenial. 
These  two  kinds  take  as  naturally  to  their  respective 
modes  of  action  as  the  young  duckling,  on  breaking  from 
the  shell,  takes  to  the  water.  The  inborn  nature  asserts 
itself:  and  "  what  is  bred  in  the  bone  cannot  come  out  of 
the  flesh,"  as  the  old  proverb  hath  it. 





Fulness  in  the  centre  of  the  forehead,  face,  and  every 
bone  of  the  whole  frame,  indicates  a  playful  nature. 

A  small  Osseous  construction,  combined  with  a  large 
Muscular  development,  give  this  peculiarity  to  the  bones, 
that  they  are  most  attenuated  towards  their  extremities 

and  attain  their 
greatest  fulness  half 
way  between  those 
points.  The  natural 
tendency  of  the 
muscles  is  one  of 
action,  which  action, 
when  it  is  super- 
abundant and  over- 
flowing, becomes 
playfulness,  and 
consequently,  in  ac- 
cordance with  the 
above  peculiarity,  when  we  find  the  frontal  bone,  or  indeed 
any  other  bone  in  the  body,  attaining  its  greatest  fulness 
in  its  centre,  we  predicate  the  predominance  of  muscular 
activity,  which  predominance  is  the  index  of  proclivities 
of  a  sportive  or  playful  character. 

Playfulness  Large— A  Squirrel. 




INTERMUTATIVENESS,  which  is  the  ability  to  put  one 
thing  or  person  in  the  place  of  another,  may  be  discovered 
by  a  general  fulness  in  the  centre  of  the  face,  from  the  hair 
to  the  centre  of  the  chin  inclusive. 

This  faculty  is  manifested  in  a  general  fulness  extending 
perpendicularly  along  the  entire  length  of  the  face.  This 
fulness  denotes  activity  on  the  part  of  the  muscular  forces, 
and  these  forces  subjected  to  the  will  are  the  conditions 
requisite  for  producing  the  tendency  to  Interrnutativeness. 
Fulness  along  the  centre  line  of  the  face  is  always  indica- 
tive of  activity,  while  width  of  face  or  body  shews  the 
presence  of  mere  strength  rather  than  great  activity. 



Vertical  wrinkles  in  the  forehead  above  the  nose,  and  no 
oblique  curved  wrinkles  starting  near  the  top  of  the  nose, 
or  in  the  above  wrinkles  and  curving  outwards  and  up- 
wards over  each  eye,  with  full  round  cheeks  indicate 
that  you  may  feel  assured  that  such  individuals  are 
inclined  to  have  a  home,  with  the  desire  to  remain  in  it,  if 

Locative  habits  have  their  origin  in  the  protracted  con- 


tinuance  of  a  settled  and  uneventful  life,  combined  with  the 
action  of  two  faculties.  Consecutiveness  large  renders  the 
possessor  averse  to  change  of  any  kind,  and  this  form  is 
always  marked  by  vertical  wrinkles  above  the  nose,  and 
the  other  conducive  faculty,  Acquiesciveness,  superadds  a 
mental  condition  of  perfect  contentment.  The  former  espe- 
cially bars  the  way  to  any  desire  for  change  of  place ;  the 
latter  gives  tranquil  contentment  with  the  existing  state  of 
things,  while  continued  habit  ultimately  welds  the  whole 
into  settled  and  unalterable  disposition  and  inclination. 



The  round  ear  which  stands  well  forward  and  outward 
from  the  head  is  well  adapted  to  catch  the  fine  or  coarse 
sounds,  and  convey  the  wave  motions  to  the  tympanum 
of  the  ear,  and  especially  musical  sounds.  An  ear  lying 
Jlat  on  the  side  of  the  head,  or  angular  or  pointed  in  form* 
is  not  adapted  to  receive  and  judge  musical  tones. 

Tonireceptionality  Smaii- 
J  H.  Newman,  D.D. 

Tonireceptionality  Large - 


The  only  medium  through  which  musical  tones  can  pos- 
sibly reach  the  interior  and  lend  their  soothing,  cheerful, 
or  hilarious  effects  to  the  nerves  of  the  brain,  is  that  of  the 
ear,  and  it  is  natural  that  the  contour  of  this  member 
should  afford  some  unmistakable  outward  indications  of 
the  capacity  of  the  individual  for  the  appreciation  and 
enjoyment  of  music.  This  faculty  of  appreciation  and 

Tonirecepttonality  Small — 
The  unmusical  ear. 

Tonireceptionality  Large— 
The  ear  of  Adelina  PattL 

enjoyment  consists  in  its  power  of  collecting  and  conveying 
to  the  auditory  nerve  by  the  drum,  the  sonorous  atmos- 
pheric vibrations  of  which  music  is  made  up,  and  in 
accordance  with  the  degree  of  resemblance  subsisting 
between  the  form  of  the  ear  and  the  round  curving  form  of 
music,  the  individual  is  endowed  with,  or  deficient  in,  this 
power  of  appreciation.  The  sound  of  music  is  essentially 
round  and  rolling.  There  can  be  no  doubt  of  this.  Othc'r 


kinds  of  noises  are  square,  angular,  rough,  uneven,  or  of 
no  describable  form  at  all ;  but  musical  tones  are  certainly 
round  or  wavy,  and  ears  constructed  on  the  round  and 
wavy  form  are  certainly  better  adapted  for  the  reception 
and  appreciation  of  music  than  those  of  the  square  or  irre- 
gular type. 



Secretiveness  may  be  known  by  thin  closely  compressed 
lips,  hollowed  and  flexed  hands,  arched  or  cat-shaped  foot, 
closing  of  the  eyes,  &c.  The  principle  of  this  faculty  is  to 
hold  on,  its  action  affects  all  the  flexor  muscles  of  the 
organization.  It  may  be  seen  largely  developed  in  the 
feline  species  with  the  round  face,  and  small  in  the  goose 
or  ox-foot.  Flat  feet  are  indicative  of  small  secretiveness. 
Other  signs  of  this  faculty  there  are — such  as  archness  of 
look,  and  a  peculiar  shy  and  side-long  glance  of  the  eyes. 

To  conceal  is  to  hide  and  put  away  for  the  purpose  of 
retaining  it,  any  object  or  thought,  and  individuals  with 
strong  proclivities  in  this  direction,  will  be  found  to  possess 
great  action  in  the  flexor  or  closing  muscles  of  the  organiza- 
tion. When  these  muscles  have  an  excess  of  development 
the  entire  system  will  be  formed  on  the  plan  of  conceal- 
ment ;  and  in  this,  as  in  all  other  cases,  the  actions  of  the 
individual  are  simply  in  accordance  with  the  nature  of  hia 
bodily  structure. 


Concealativeness  Small — Mr.  E.  F. 
Simms,  Father  of  the  Author  of 
this  book. 


Concealativeness  Large  —  Miss 
Stuart,  of  Portland,  Oregon. 



The  broad,  square,  full  face,  like  Franklin's,  is  the 
physiognomical  premonstration  of  economy. 

The  inclination  to  frugal  and  economical  management 
of  affairs  is  found  to  be  associated  with  a  broad  or  square 
face,  and  is  the  result  of  the  presence  of  a  broad  and  sound 
judgment  reflecting  itself  in  the  conformation  of  the  face, 
as  well  as  in  a  careful  and  judicious  behaviour;  the  ever 
recurring  feature  of  the  spirit  acting  through,  and  leaving 
its  impress  upon,  the  Physiognomy. 




Relative  width  between  the  eyes,  rounding  face,  limbs, 
ears,  nose,  and  head,  are  indications  of  the  faculty  of 

Curvativeness  Large— Miss  Harriet  C.  Curvativeness    Small  —  Jim,   a 

Hosmer,  the  famous  Sculptress.  Piute  Indian  of  Utah  Ter. 

When  an  individual  is  formed  upon  the  curved  or 
circular  plan,  it  will  always  be  found  that  he  is  possessed 
of  great  aptitude  for  remembering  and  noting  the  curves 
and  turns  of  rivers,  roads,  &c.,  as  well  as  a  capability  of 
judging  of  them  accurately,  and  with  precision.  The 
curved  principle  being  inherent  in  his  framework,  he  can 
do  and  judge  outside  of  himself  the  same  kind  of  work 
which  goes  to  make  up  the  structure  within. 




Whenever  the  face  is  rather  broad  in  the  centre,  and  rather 
long,  with  a  prominent  nose,  the  individual  will  have  the 
capacity,  if  well  used,  to  accumulate. 

Accumulativeness  Large- 
Commodore  Vanderbilt. 

Accumulativeness  Small- 
A  squanderer. 

The  natural  law  which  manifests  itself  in  the  attraction 
that  one  kind  of  mineral  has  for  an  atom  of  another  kind  is 
every  whit  as  active  within  the  human  organization  as  it 
is  anywhere  throughout  the  range  of  the  universe.  The 
individual  into  whose  construction  there  enters  a  large 
proportion  of  earthy  or  mineral  matter,  is,  as  a  matter  of 
course,  an  amasser  of  riches;  and  where  the  proportion  is 
abnormal  to  a  large  degree,  we  have  the  miser,  who  hoards 
up  his  gold,  not  for  the  love  of  anything  that  gold  may 
purchase,  but  for  the  undisguised  purpose  of  gloating  over 



it,  and  feasting  his  eyes  with  it.  On  the  other  hand,  the 
man  of  spiritual  tendencies,  being  naturally  deficient  in  earthy 
ingredients,  has  no  undue  fondness  for  acquiring  riches, 
and  remains  poor  without  discontentment  or  grumbling. 
The  signs  of  those  abounding  in  material  desires  are  given 
above  under  the  head  of  Accumulativeness. 



The  dove  or  round  shape  of  the  eye  openings  is  the  most 
unexceptionable  evidence  of  large  mating  love. 

Monoeroticity  Large— Mrs.  Margaret 
Fuller  Osoli,  who  preferred  to 
drown  rather  than  to  leave  her 

Monoeroticity    Small  —  Brigham 
Young,    the  noted    polygamist. 

The  attention  is  riveted  upon  the  being  on  whom  we 
have  lavished  our  love  and  affection,  to  the  exclusion,  for 
the  time-being,  of  any  other  object  that  may  be  within 
the  range  of  vision,  and  we  find  that  a  tendency  to  unity 



of  affection  is  very  generally  allied  to  the  possession  of  the 
round  form  of  eye  which,  unlike  the  form  which  is  long 
from  side  to  side,  and  adapted  for  surveying  a  broad  sur- 
face, is  circumscribed  in  its  range,  and  not  likely  to  see 
many  objects  instead  of  one.  We  conclude  from  this  that  a 
tendency  to  unity  of  love  is  the  result,  not  only  of  oneness 
of  vision,  but  also  of  unity  of  structure,  of  which  round 
eyes,  limbs,  form,  &c.,  &c.,  are  only  the  outward  indications. 



Tlie  ability  of  exercising  the  will,  or  of  forming  a  pur- 
pose, may  be  known  by  the  fulness  of  the  posterior  part  of 
the  neck,  near  the  point  of  junction  with  the  head.  The 
neck  of  George  III.  of  England  indicated  the  strength  of 
wilt,  for  which  he  became  notorious,  and  was  the  primary 
cause  of  the  freedom  of  North  America. 

Voluntativeness  Small — A  Chinese 
woman  without  optative  power. 

Voluntativeness  Larg«— 
George  ILL 


This  is  embodied  in  an  over-development  of  the  Muscular 
department,  in  comparison  with  the  sizes  of  the  other  com- 
ponent parts  of  the  body.  Now,  as  contrary  action  is  an 
inherent  principle  in  the  movement  of  the  muscles,  the  one 
with  the  other,  an  excess  of  muscular  power  is  the  infallible 
indication  of  an  inclination  to  work  at  cross  purposes — to 
thwart  and  obstruct  at  every  corner  and  turning  of  life, 
with  his  own  will.  The  individual  is  constructed  through- 
out his  entire  system  upon  the  contrary;  and  will,  or 
Muscular  principle,  and  his  pig-headed  disposition  is  only 
the  natural  outcome  of  the  peculiarity  of  the  structure 



Wrinkles  obliquely  outwards  and  downwards  from  the 
eyes,  open  lips,  and  a  round  large  forehead  are  evidences 
of  large  merriness.  Mirth  also  gives  an  expression  of 
half -smile  and  funny  look,  and  an  arch  and  knowing 
expression  of  countenance. 

An  excess  of  indulgence  in  the  merry  inclinations  will 
result  in  wrinkles  stretching  obliquely  outwards  and  down- 
wards from  the  eyes,  and  these  wrinkles  will  ultimately 
assume  a  fixity  of  form,  and  indicate  a  stratum  of  past 
hilarity,  as  well  as  give  a  foretaste  of  explosions  in  the 
future.  By  the  same  rule,  the  mouth  of  an  inveterate 
laugher  will  ultimately  assume  the  open  form,  as  if  to  be 
prepared  for  an  abrupt  emergency,  or  a  sudden  outburst-  of 
mirth,  and  to  be  ready  on  all  occasions  for  the  performance 
of  its  favourite  duties.  Much  laughter  also  causes  a  rush  of 
blood  to  the  brain,  and  thereby  gives  an  inclination  to  the 
round,  large  form  of  the  forehead.  The  half-formet1  smile 


and  amused  look  lingering  on  the  visage  of  the  laugher,  are 
the  vestiges  of  previous  outbursts  of  merriment. 

Merriness  Large — Thos.  C.  Halihurton, 
"Sam  Slick."  Humorous  writer 
of  Nova  Scotia. 

Merriness  Small— Charles  I., 
who  never  laughed  after  he 
became,  kin  g. 



Wide  hips  and  full  muscles  are  the  distinctive  signs  of  a 
provident  person.  When  this  characteristic  is  excessively 
large,  it  is  accompanied  with  protrusion  of  the  lower  part 
of  the  face. 

Providentness  has  its  origin  in  strength,  guided  and  regu- 
lated by  a  coot  and  cautious  judgment,  capable  of  restraining 
and  purifying  passion  and  unbridled  energy.  The  con- 
junction of  wide  hips  with  largely  developed  muscles 
demonstrate  the  allied  presence  of  strength  and  judgment — 


strength  reposing  in  the  muscles,  and  width  of  form  bespeak- 
ing breadth  of  mind,  as  body  and  mind  bear  due  proportion 
to  each  other. 



The  capacity  of  Contrativeness  exhibits  its  indices  by 
width  through  the  face,  at  the  angle  of  the  jaws.  It  i* 
large  in  the  hog  and  the  Hottentot. 

Contrativeness  very  Large — Najxdeon  I.     Copied  from  a  cast  taken 
from  his  head  after  death. 

Contrativeness  occupies  the  same  platform  with  that  of 
Voluntativeness,    with   this   difference,  that   th*  former  is 


more   moderate  in   action,   and   more  considerate   than   is 
evinced  in  the  exercise  of  pure  will 



The  amount  of  love  for  the  opposite  sex  may  be  known  by 
the  fulness  of  the  eyes,  and  its  quality  by  the  shape  of  the 
commissures,  or  opening  between  the  lids  of  the  eyes.  When 
the  opening  is  quite  almond-shaped,  promiscuous  love 
prevails  in  that  form  ;  if  the  commissure  has  great  vertical 
measurement,  the  love  is  connubial. 

Polyeroticity  Small— The  eye  of 
Mrs.  Margaret  F.  Osoli. 

Polyeroticity  Large— The  eye  of 
Brigham  Young. 

tolyeroticity  Large— The  head  of 
a  Hog  (GemuSiu.} 

Polyeroticity  Small — the  head  of 
a  Turtle-dove  (Turtur  Auritus). 


In  the  range  of  Physiognomy  everything  partakes  of  a 
lower  nature  when  built  upon  the  wide  and  low  form,  and 
as  eyes  that  are  wide  or  almond-shaped  in  their  openings 
have  a  less  vertical  measurement  than  in  cases  where  the 
round  form  predominates,  we  find  the  mind  putting  itself 
forward  by  broad  channels,  as  it  were,  in  search  of  objects 
of  love,  and  totally  regardless  of  worth  in  the  unfastidious 
breadth  of  its  grasp.  This  exhibition  of  love  is  more 
bestial  in  its  nature,  and  has  little  in  common  with 
Monoeroticity,  which  is  pure  and  angelic  in  its  tone. 



Memory  of  names  manifests  itself  by  a  forehead  full  in 
the  centre,  from  the  nose  to  the  hair,  and  a  pair  of  lips  full 
ind  flexible. 

A  fulness  of  the  lips  bespeaks  the  power  of  catching  up 
3nd  reproducing  sounds  of  names,  &c.,  which  the  individual 
has  heard  uttered.  A  sharpness  of  the  centre  of  the  fore- 
head indicates  the  presence  of  acute  sensations,  and  that 
there,  whatever  sensations  are  received  are  also  faithfully 
retained.  Those  two  combined  (if  the  throat  and  the  other 
vocal  organs  be  well  formed),  endow  the  possessor  with  the 
faculty  of  faithfully  retaining  and  reproducing  the  utter- 
ances which  are  given  forth  in  his  presence. 



A  pale  or  miUc  colour  of  eyes,  and  a  livid,  white  hue  to 


the  skin,  indicate  a  poor  judge  of  colours.  When  we  find 
all  the  boncz  of  the  nose  and  lower  part  of  the  forehead  very 
prominent  relatively,  as  compared  with  the  other  portions 
of  the  face,  the  person  with  such  features  can  readily  judge 
colour.  But,  should  the  centre  of  the  eyebrows  be  narrow 
and  sunken  backwards,  the  person  will  be  partially,  if  not 
entirely  colour-blind.  Chromato-pseudopts  are  quite  com- 
mon; as  the  late  Dr.  George  Wilson,  of  Edinburgh,  while 
investigating  the  subject,  discovered.  Out  of  11 54  persons, 
whom  he  examined,  he  found  that  there  were  over  five  per 
cent,  who  were  idiopts,  or  colour-blind. 

Chromaticalness  Small — Win.  Ross, 
who  is  a  chromo-pseudop,  or 

Chromaticalness  Large — Antonio 
Allegri,  or  Corregio,  a  dis- 
tinguished Italian  painter. 

The  general  law  or  principle  upon  which  the  human 
faculties  are  founded  is  well  illustrated  ia  the  matter  of 
colour,  and  the  power  of  judging  and  appreciating  shades 
and  hues  of  colour.  The  cadaverous,  colourless  individual  ia 
entirely  devoid  of  taste  or  judgment  in  the  matter  of  colour, 
and  he  is  so  simply  because,  by  the  infallible  law  of  nature, 


no  man  can  judge,  outside  of  himself,  that  which  does  not 
enter  into  his  own  composition. 



The  loiv,  flat  nose,  which  is  particularly  wide  where  the 
wings  of  the  nostrils  join  the  face;  the  wide,  short  ear, 
broad  foot,  deep  chest,  large  neck,  heavy  jaw,  and  low  fore- 
head, are  the  signs  uhich  point  out  large  destructiveness  as 
unerringly  as  the  shadow  on  the  dial  indicates  the  direction 
of  the  sun. 

Demolitiousness  Small — B.  Gosse,  Esq., 
of  London,  who  gave  indiscriminately 
to  every  object  regardless  of  •worthi- 
ness, and  disliked  to  destroy  any- 

Demolitiousness  Large— John  H. 
Webster,  a  murderer  ainl 
natural  thief,  confined  for  Ufa 
in  the  Penitentiary  at  Jackson, 
idichigyf,,  since  1854. 


Demolitiousness  Small —  Demolitiousness  Large — 

The  head  of  a  Hnre.  The  head  of  a  Tiger. 

To  produce  the  capacity  of  destroying,  the  chief  element 
required  is  strength,  and  where  there  is  an  absence  of 
strength,  there  can  be  no  power  of  destruction.  Now,  to 
endow  an  organization  with  strength,  it  is  absolutely 
necessary  that  that  organization  should  be  constructed  on 
the  wide  plan,  and  therefore  the  wide  form  in  all  depart- 
ments of  animal  life  shews  the  presence  of  strength  and  the 
faculty  of  demolitiousness.  To  contribute  additional  strength 
to  a  board  of  wood,  the  width  would  naturally  be  extended, 
while  an  extension  of  the  length  would  only  contribute 
to  its  weakness.  Nature  certainly  conducts  her  operations 
with  vastly  more  intelligence  than  man,  and  accordingly 
we  find  her  producing  strength  by  widening  also,  and  not 
lengthening.  The  caraivora,  or  the  animals  that  subsist  on 
the  flesh  they  have  killed,  require  sufficient  strength  to 
overpower  and  kill  their  prey,  and  they  are  therefore  built 
on  the  wide  and  strong  plan  throughout.  This  width  is 
an  indication  of  an  excess  of  muscular  power,  and  being  an 
excess,  it  is  unbalanced  and  unguided  by  a  relative  share 
of  the  other  forms,  and  necessarily  demands  the  slaughter 
to  which  it  is  addicted,  on  which  to  expend  its  superabun- 
dant Demolitiousness.  Each  form,  in  proportion  to  its 
degree  of  development,  contributes  its  share  to  the  proper 
and  government  of  the  whole,  and  iroui  this 


general  rule  we  may  draw  the  conclusion,  that  the  man  is 
nicely  balanced  in  his  desires  who  has  an  equal  growth  of 
each  form;  and  that  the  man  who  is  powerfully  developed 
in  all  is  the  most  happily  and  usefully  constructed. 



Watery  or  moist  eyes,  and  lips  thick  in  the  centre,  an 
Indicative  of  the  love  of  children. 

Philonepionality  Large — A  loving  Italian  m 
Costume  dtlla  Duitua  di  Marieniidla, 


The  governing  inclinations  of  any  individual  may  be 
discovered  by  watching  the  individual  while  a  certain  pro- 
pensity is  greatly  exerted.  The  mother,  bursting  with 
tenderness  for  her  child,  passionately  presses  her  lips  to  its 
tiny  form.  It  would  therefore  be  highly  analogical  to  con- 
clude that  love  of  offspring  manifested  itself  in  the  lips  by 
kisses,  or  pathognomy,  as  well  as  by  physiognomical 
strength.  To  sift  the  laws  of  nature  to  their  first  origin, 
and  demonstrate  why  she  has  placed  the  sign  of  Philone- 
pionality  in  a  fulness  of  the  lips,  would  be  a  divergence 
from  our  subject  proper,  and  a  raid  upon  the  domain  of 
metaphysics.  Nature  causes  the  production  of  fruit  only 
when  there  is  abundance  of  juice  in  the  plant,  and  in  like 
manner  children  can  only  be  brought  to  life  when  there  is 
an  abundance  of  the  vital  fluids  of  life,  and  in  conferring 
the  power  of  producing  young,  she  also  gives  the  love  of 
offspring,  which  is  necessary  for  its  preservation  during  the 
helpless  years  of  infancy  and  youth.  Nature  makes  provi- 
sion for  the  preservation  of  all  her  vast  family  during 
those  early  stages,  when  they  can  do  nothing  for  their 
own  maintenance  in  life,  and  this  preserving  care  we 
see  in  the  full  lips,  caused  by  the  abundant  juices,  the  moist 
eyes,  and  flowing  saliva  of  the  mother. 



Protruding  and  flexible  lips,  capacious  mouth  and  jaws,  a  full  throat,  are  determining  evidences  of  large 
spoken  language. 


Lmgtutiveness  Large  -John  B.  Gough, 
the  eminent  temperance  lecturer. 

Linguitiveness  Small — A  beau- 
tiful and  intelligent  deaf  and 
dumb  girl  of  Illinois. 

Speech  is  produced  by  the  united  efforts  of  mouth, 
throat,  lips,  teeth,  tongue,  and 
palate,  and  the  relative  sizes 
and  flexibility  of  these  parts  may 
be  taken  as  evidences  of  the 
power  of  uttering  articulate 
sounds;  because  that  which  pro- 
duces should,  and  by  a  law  of 
nature  does,  bear  due  relation 
to  that  produced  in  size,  shape, 
texture,  quality,  power,  elasti- 
city, &c. 

Lin  guitiveness  Large— A  Parrot. 




1  \ose  who  prize  most  highly  sexual  pleasures,  and  devote 
most  time  to  their  enjoyment,  will  have  a  thick  under 
eyelid,  which  croiuds  up  upon  the  eyes,  except  in  those 
given  to  indulge  in  intoxicating  beverages,  whose  lower 
eyelids  in  age  will  fall  away  from  the  eyeball,  as  if  tired 
oj  their  situation,  or  weary  in  assisting  the  eyes  to  such 
low  desires;  they  turn  away  in  disgust  from  screening 
the  drunken  stare  of  their  degraded  owner. 

Physiodelectatiousness    Small  — 
Marchioness  of  Hertford. 

Physiodelectatiousness  Large —Henry 

Excessive  indulgence  in  sexual  or  other  physical  pleasure 
causes  the  crowding  upward  upon  the  eyeball  of  the  under 
eyelid,  and  the  reason  is  obvious.  During  the  performance 
of  pleasureable  acts,  the  under  eyelids  are  drawn  upwards  so 
as  almost,  if  not  quite,  to  close  the  eye;  and  much  indulgence 
of  this  kind  has  the  tendency  to  cause  the  eyelid  to  remain 
permanently  in  the  position  into  which  it  is  forced,  at  a 
time  when  the  whole  system  is  wrought  up  into  an  intense 


state  of  nervous  excitement  Yet  much  nervous  excite- 
ment will  cause  the  under  lids  to  fall  away  from  tlia 
eyeballs  in  old  age,  as  a  result  of  muscular  exhaustion, 
arising  from  over-excitement  of  the  nerves  of  sensation. 

Oft  repeated  acts  of  the  body  have  a  tendency  to  cause 
the  parts  acted  upon  to  assume  permanently  the  positions 
into  which  they  are  so  often  forced.  The  habits  of  the 
individual  become  indelibly  stamped  in  readable  characters 
upon  his  exterior;  and  reflective  people  may  well  look  to 
these  as  warnings  or  guides,  as  the  case  may  be. 



The  physiognomical  evidences  of  this  faculty  are,  strength 
of  form  and  healthy  vigour  of  constitution. 

To  contribute  to  the  health  of  others  we  must  first  be 
in  possession  of  health  ourselves,  in  accordance  with  the 
unfailing  law  of  nature,  that  we  cannot  impart  that  which 
we  do  not  possess  already.  When  strong  and  weak  come 
together,  there  is  an  imperceptible  transference  of  vital 
energy  or  magnetism  from  the  strong  to  the  weak;  and 
though  the  former  may  not  be  conscious  of  that  loss  that 
is  soon  repaired  by  the  resources  of  a  vigorous  constitution, 
yet  none  the  less  does  the  latter  derive  benefits  wherewith 
to  assist  in  rebuilding  the  breaches  that  have  been  made  in 
the  constitutional  wall.  The  signs  of  Curative-ness  that  we 
have  given  above  are  the  signs  of  health  and  strength — 
the  panacea  that  the  enfeebled  most  desire. 




Thin-skinned  or  red-lipped  people  are  always  sensitive 
to  the  opinion  of  others  about  them.  The  head  turned  a 
little  to  one  side,  the  voice  low  and  insinuating,  courteous 
and  obliging  manners,  are  stable  signs  of  a  strong  desire 
of  approbation. 

When  we  find  a  brain  large,  joined  to  a  thinness  of 
skin,  we  may  predicate  with  safety  that  the  possessor  is 
very  sensitive  to  the  influence  of  external  circumstances; 
and  if  to  these  be  added  a  fulness  of  muscular  development, 
we  have  before  us  the  organization  most  liable  to  feel  the 
action  of  both  things  material  and  things  immaterial,  such 
as  adverse  opinions,  &c.  The  man  who  is  sensitive  in  one 
department  of  his  structure  is,  by  the  operation  of  a  natural 
law,  sensitive  in  all ;  and  we  consequently  conclude  that 
thin-skinned  people — as  indicated  by  a  redness  of  the  lips — 
are  sensitive,  not  only  to  material  touch,  but  to  anything 
else  having  a  tendency  to  disturb  the  mental  equilibrium. 



A  cross,  inexorable  look,  an  aversion  to  laugh,  and  a 
protruding  under-lip  beyond  the  upper,  are  unmistakable 
indications  of  an  implacable  disposition. 

This  tendency  limns  out  on  the  exterior  of  the  Physiog- 


nomy,  a  striking  picture  of  what  is  going  on  within,  and 
the  labour  that  is  being  performed  by  each  and  every  of 
the  faculties.  A  predominance  of  feelings  of  this  kind 

Inexorableness   Small — Mary         Inexorableness  Large  —  An  Irish  woman 
F.  Scott  Siddons.  of  Edinburgh.     A  gabbler. 

gives  a  cross-grained  disagreeable  appearance  to  the  fea- 
tures; a  studied  avoidance  of  laughter,  which  has  no 
sympathy  whatever  with  anything  of  this  kind. 



Perpendicular  wrinkles  in  the  forehead,  immediately 
above  the  nose,  and  horizontal  wrinkles,  or  a  wrinkle,  across 
the  nose,  near  its  junction  with  the  forehead,  are  unfailing 
signs  of  large  CONSECUTION. 


Consecutiveness  Large — Cyrus  W.  Field,  a  projector  of 
the  Atlantic  Telegraph  Cable. 

When  the  mind  is  riveted   for  a  continuance  of  time  upon 
one  subject,  or  one  set  of  subjects,  the  brow  at  the  top  of 

the  nose  is  naturally 
drawn  together  by  the 
contraction  of  the 
corrugator  supercilii 
muscles ;  and  if  this 
action  be  indefinitely 
prolonged,  the  final 
result  will  be,  that  the 
brows  remain  fixed  in 
the  positions  so  often 
assumed,  with  a 
wrinkle  or  two  of  a 
vertical  kind  dividing 
the  series.  This  is  the 
natural  result  of  a 
oneness  of  action,  in- 
dulged in  without  stint,  and,  like  most  of  the  characteristic 

Uonsecutiveness  Large— A  selfish  Cat, 
taken  from  life. 


signs,   it   is  simply   the   superabundance  of  longj  and  oft 
indulged  habit 



A  full  throat,  large  thorax,  open  nostrils,  and  protruding 
lips,  with  good  length  from  the  point  of  the  nose  to  the 
point  of  the  chin,  and  full  cheeks,  are  faithful  signs  of  the 
poiuer  to  give  forth  tone,  if  the  ear  be  round  and  promi- 
nent, so  that  it  can  first  receive  the  tone. 

Sonidiffusitiveness  Small — An  Irish          Sonidiffusitiveness  Large— Parepa 
peasant,  who  could  not  sound  a  Rosa,  a  celebrated  singer, 

note  correctly. 

The  mouth  being  the  only  point  of  egress  throughout 
the  system  from  which  it  is  possible  to  give  forth  sounds 
of  a  musical  character,  it  naturally  follows  that  in  the 
mouth  and  its  concomitants  only  have  we  any  hope  of 
being  able  to  judge,  from  external  appearances  at  all  events, 
of  the  capacity  of  any  individual  for  music.  It  is  utterly 


useless  to  go  elsewhere  to  look  for  the  outward  musical 
signs;  and  if  desired  to  estimate  the  capacity  of  a  water- 
pipe  for  the  delivery  of  a  certain  quantity  of  water,  we 
might  as  reasonably,  for  that  purpose,  measure  minutely 
the  size  and  dimensions  of  the  nearest  fence  post,  as  to 

Sonidiffusitiveness  Small — A  Duck.       Sonidiffnsitiveness  Large— A  Canary. 
The  flat  bill  of  the  duck  gives  a  The  round  beak  of   the    canary 

flat  unmusical  sound.  gives  a  round  musical  sound. 

investigate  any  other  part  of  the  body  than  the  mouth 
for  an  idea  of  the  musical  capacity  lodged  therein.  It  is, 
therefore,  by  the  mouth  only  and  its  surroundings,  such  as 
the  throat,  palate,  teeth,  tongue,  &c.,  that  we  can  judge 
of  the  extent  of  the  development  of  the  musical  power. 



A  full  eye,  accompanied  by  arching,  thin,  long  eyebrows, 
are  emblematic  of  decorativeness. 

Decorativeness  is  the  faculty  that  delights  in  an  arrange- 
ment of  things  S3  as  to  constitute  an  adornment  that  has 



a  pleasing  and  satisfactory  effect  upon  the  eye;  and  it  is, 
therefore,  from  the  conformation  of  the  eye  that  we  must 
gather  materials  for  estimating  the  decorative  capacity  of 

Decorativeness  Large — A  Digger,  an  Indian,  of  California, 
adorned  for  the  war  dance. 

the  individual,  or  his  power  of  appreciation  in  regard  to 
the  beauties  of  decoration.  That  kind  of  eye  that  is 
adapted  for  taking  in  at  a  glance,  and  comprehending  a 
large  range  of  beautiful  scenery,  will  be  found  invariably 
to  stand  out  from  its  sockets,  and  by  reason  of  this  con- 
formation it  can  turn  conveniently  within  a  great  visual 
range  to  take  in  as  much  as  possible  of  the  thing  in  which 
it  takes  the  greatest  delight.  Thin  long  eyebrows,  again, 
denote  a  fineness  of  organization  capable  of  judging  of, 
and  delighting  in,  fine  objects.  We  have  already  shewn 
that  fullness  of  the  under  part  of  the  forehead  indicates 
the  possession  of  strength  of  sight,  and  a  conjunction  of 
all  of  the  above  varieties  allied  to  comprehension  mark 
the  able  and  artistic  decorator. 




Some  of  the  physiognomical  records  of  this  endowment 
are,  fulness  in  the  forehead,  immediately  above  the  top  oj 
the  nose,  good  muscular  and  bony  systems,  with  the  head 
carried  well  forward  from  the  body. 

Unlike  the  dog,  or,  at  all  events,  most  of  the  canine 
species,  we  do  not  hunt  after  any  object  by  the  sense  of 
smell,  but  invariably  call  in  the  assistance  of  the  eye;  and 
by  one  of  her  unchangeable  laws,  when  nature  invests  any 
particular  member  with  unusual  strength,  she  strengthens 
the  surrounding  parts,  as  if  to  lend  the 
greatest  amount  of  countenance  and 
assistance  to  the  central  figure.  For 
example,  a  powerful  knee  is  accompanied 
by  a  strong  leg,  and  strength  of  arm  is 
allied  to  breadth  of  shoulders  and  chest. 

So  also,  when  an  individual  is  gifted  with 

i  /.      .   •         ,  i      Huntativeness  Large 

a  great  and  piercing  range  of  vision,  the    _The  Chetah>  sor 

eyes  are  found  strongly  reinforced  by  a  hunting  Leupard  of 
fulness  in  the  immediately  overlying  por-  India  and  Africa< 
tion  of  the  forehead,  and  as  this  conformation  of  eye  and 
accompanying  frontal  development  are  the  necessary  attri- 
butes of  a  successful  hunter,  we  may  conclude  that  a  fulness 
in  the  lower  forehead,  immediately  above  its  junction  with 
the  top  of  the  nose,  is  at  least  one  sign  of  such  an  individual. 
Another  requisite  for  a  successful  hunter  is  unwavering 
attention,  and  the  exercise  of  close  attention  on  the  object 
in  pursuit,  having  the  immediate  effect  of  carrying  the  head 
in  a  forward  direction,  as  if  to  place  it  as  near  as  possible 
to  the  desired  goal.  We  may  discern  in  this  projecting 
carriage  of  the  head  an  infallible  sign  of  Huntativeness. 




The  short,  round  neck  is  one  of  the  natural  accompani- 
ments of  Sagacitiveness.  Napoleon  I.  had  an  extremely 
short  neck,  his  head  apparently  resting  upon  his  shoulders; 
and  all  Europe  learned,  by  sad  experience,  his  overwhelming 

Sagacitiveness  Large — Thomas  Parr,  who  lived  to  the  rare  old  age 
of  152  years.  At  the  age  of  120  years,  he  married  a  second  wife, 
by  whom  he  had  issue. 

The  closer  we  approach  the  brain,  or  seat  of  sensation,  to 
the  heart  and  lungs,  from  which  the  blood  is  derived  for 
the  maintenance  of  that  sensation;  and  the  more  capacious 
the  neck  and  its  arteries  for  conducting  the  supply  of  blood 
to  the  brain,  the  more  vivid  will  be  the  sensations,  and  the 
sounder  and  more  critical  will  be  the  prompt  decisions  of 
the  judgment — judgment  being  the  coalition  of  strength 


Sagacitiveness  Large— A  Chimpanzee, 
taken  from  life,  in  the  Zoological 
Gardens  of  London. 

Sagacitiveness  Small— An 

8aiiat'.it"'«n«"»«  Large — An  Asiatic  Elephant. 


with  acuteness  of  sensation,  the  one  giving  the  strength 
and  the  other  the  precision  for  arriving  at  sound,  prompt, 
and  judicious  conclusions.  A  large  brain  gives  rapid  and 
strong  sensations ;  large  heart  and  lungs  give  strength; and 
accordingly,  when  brain  and  thorax  are  near  each  other, 
and  connected  by  capacious  and  smoothly-working  canala, 
we  have  the  conjoint  result  of  shrewdness 



A  wide  rounding  jaw,  plump,  short,  elastic,  and 
springy  person,  always  very  active,  are  symbols  of  a 
trading  tendency. 

1  radativeness  Large— Jacob  Strawn,  the  great  fanner  and  cattlt 
dealer  of  Illinois. 


Those   who   are    formed    on    the    muscular    plan,   with 
moderately  sized  bones  that  will  admit  of  an  easy  change 

Tradativeness  Large— Mr.  T.  Glover,  a  dry  goods  merchant 
of  Quebec. 

of  place  are  adapted  for  the  acquirement  of  money  and 
other  kinds  of  property,  and  are  consequently  the  very 
people  to  succeed  as  merchants  or  tradesmen.  A  wide 
jaw  indicates  the  presence  of  predacious  energy,  and  this 
is  an  important  element  in  the  composition  of  a  successful 



A  long  narrow  chin  that  reaches  well  forward  is  the 
sign  of  appropriateness;  and  the  individual  possessing 
largely  this  dispositiont  will  be  a  good  judge  of  the  adapta- 
tion of  one  thing  or  person  to  another. 


Adaptativeness  Large — Thomas  Cook  and  Wife,  who  were  well  adapted 
to  live  together,  for  one  was  as  avaricious  as  the  other  was  miserly. 

When  the  chin  stretches  well  forward,  it  will  be  found 
that  in  accordance  with  the  law  of  correspondence  the 
whole  of  the  perpendicular  range  of  the  face  will  also 
have  a  projecting  tendency,  and  as  these  parts  of  the 
face  are  indicative  of  sensation,  on.  account  of  the  greater 
number  of  sensations  being  situated  relatively  in  the 
centre  of  the  face,  as  'those  of  taste,  smell,  and  sight;  this 
portion,  when  full,  would  denote  great  sensational  quickness 
which  is  requisite  for  determining  the  fitness  of  persons  01 
obiecte  for  each  other. 

ALVAN  CLARK,  an  American  mechanician  who  formerly  worked  as  a 
portrait-painter,  but  is  chiefly  distinguished  as  the  telescope  manufacturer, 
has  a  studious,  thoughtful,  and  industrious  face  which  is  far  more  mechan- 
ical than  artistic. 


.A.  S  S     IV. 





The  nose  that  seems  divided  at  the  point  into  a  right  and 
left  part,  and  has  a  firm  appearance,  and  a  fulness  of  the 
lower  brow,  should  not  be  passed  by  when  looking  for  signs 
of  discrimination. 

Discriiniiiativeness  Large— I/nnaeus, 
a  celebrated  Swedish  Naturalist. 

Discriminativeness  Small- 
A  Chinese  woman. 

THE  first  element  of  discrimination  is  the  proper  survey  of 
the  object  by  means  of  the  eye,  and  it  is  in  and  around  the 



eye,  therefore,  that  we  must  look  for  the  signs  of  discern- 
ment or  discrimination  of  objects.  Fulness  over  and  around 
the  eye  denotes  strength  of  comprehension  A  division  at 
the  tip  of  the  nose  indicates  a  double  or  very  powerful 
organization  in  the  direction  of  strength  of  mind,  and  the 
stronger  the  mind,  the  greater  power  does  it  possess  of 
analysis  and  discrimination. 



Square  faces  with  the  bony  form  slightly  in  the  ascend- 
ancy are  the  requisite  physical  indications  of  a  good 

Strncturodexterity  Large  -  James 
Watt,  the  celebmtecl  Inventor 
and  MecA«muai*. 

Structurodexterity  Small— P.  T. 
Barnum,  who  said  he  never 
could  whittle  a  barrel  tap  round. 


The  main  characteristics  of  mechanical  labour  are  the 
manipulation  of  solid  material  into  angles  and  straight 
lines,  and  it  is  therefore  not  surprising  to  find  that  those 
who  are  constructed  on  the  straight  or  angled  form,  and 
into  whose  construction  there  enters  a  predominance  of  the 
hard  or  bony  material,  should  prove  t.he  best  adapted  for 
work  of  this  kind.  As  a  general  rule,  the  light-haired  man 
does  not  succeed  as  a  worker  in  iron,  and  this  arises  simply 
from  the  deficiency  of  iron  ingredients  in  the  composition 
of  his  frame;  while,  on  the  other  hand,  the  dark-haired, 
swarthy  man,  in  virtue  of  the  nature  of  the  construction 
of  his  body,  is  eminently  adapted  for  such  work,  the  iron 
which  he  receives  into  his  frame  from  his  daily  occupation 
agreeing  with  him,  and  failing  to  produce  the  bad  conse- 
quences which  would  accrue  to  his  brother  of  the  light- 
haired  form,  after  a  protracted  continuance  in  work  for 
which  he  is  constitutionally  unsuited. 



Compressed  lips  of  medium  thickness,  regular  and  rather 
thin  'well-defined  features,  accompanied  with  a  systematic 
and  regular  pendulation  of  the  hands,  as  well  as  precision 
and  regularity  of  step,  are  unmistakable  signs  of  material 
order.  The  language  of  physical  order  is  an  impulse  to 
arrange  articles  so  that  they  may  bear  due  and  systematic 
relation  to  each  other. 

Whenever  it  appears  that  nature  has  arranged  in  lines 
and  orderly  method  the  different  parts  of  the  body,  so  as 


to  produce  regular  and  systematic  action  throughout,  the 
individual  will  be  endowed  with  a  large  manifestation  of 

Ordiniphysicality  Large— Edwin  Booth,  Ordiniphysicality  Small  —A 
who  is  remarkable  for  the  arrange-  disorderly  Flat-head  Indian, 
rnent  of  material  objects. 

Ordiniphysicality,  in  accordance  with  the  law  of  nature 
which  ordains  that  man  must  act  in  unison  with  the  general 
character  of  his  structure. 



Angular  form  of  ear,  nose,  malar  or  cheek-bones,  brows, 
knuckles,  knees,  and  every  part  of  the  human  structure 
cannot  be  mistaken  by  a  natural  Physiognomist  as  the 
hieroglyphics  of  Angularity. 

Large  bones  of  an  angular  conformation  naturally  endow 
the  possessor  with  a  jubt  understanding  of  angles  and 



straight  lines,  whether  manifested  in  fellow  beings  or  in 
material  objects;  this  law  being  in  strict  accordance  with 

Angular! tiveness  Small  —  Edward 
V.  of  England,  born  1470, 
smothered  with  his  brother  in 
the  Tower  of  London  in  1483. 

Angularitiveness  Large — An  old 
Cardinal,  who  was  quite  eccen- 
tric and  angular. 

the  elements  of  correspondence  and  fitness,  the  principles 
on  which  the  capacity  rests. 



The  long  face  joined  to  a  receding  forehead  and  a 
prominent  nose,  are  nature's  intimation  of  a  naturally 
beneficent  individual.  Peter  Cooper  has  the  above  form 
of  features,  and  he  annually  educates  several  hundred 
children  free  of  cost  in  the  city  of  New  York. 



Beneticentness  Large — Peter  Cooper, 
the  Founder  of  Cooper  Institute. 

Jieneticentness  Small — An  Austra* 
lian  man. 

Before  it  is  possible  for  an  individual  to  do  good,  it  ia 
absolutely  necessary  that  he  should  possess  the  qualification 
of  goodness  himself;  and  an  indispensable  condition  of  the 
possession  of  this  quality  of  goodness,  is,  that  the  nobler 
aspirations  should  predominate  over  selfish  and  animal 
desires.  On  the  law,  therefore,  that  elevation  of  mind 
bears  with  it  elevation  of  features,  we  rest  the  principle  of 
Beneficentness.  See  the  signs  of  Beneficentness  above. 





Prominent  and  well  defined  features,  in  connection  with 
a  large  active  Brain  form,  are  nature's  records  in  favour 
of  decision  of  character. 

Decisiveness  Large — Montesquieu,  a 
French  philosopher  and  publicist; 
possessed  of  great  decision  and 
integrity  of  character. 

Decisiveness  Small  —  Louis  W. 
Jackson,  an  ignorant  hireling, 
who  murdered  a  man  in  Illinois 
for  five  hundred  dollars. 

The  reason  why  prominent  features,  accompanied  with 
a  large  active  brain,  are  the  index  of  the  possession  of 
decisiveness  of  character,  is  because,  while  the  latter  is 
adapted  for  receiving  vivid  impressions,  and  founding 
strong  opinions  thereon,  the  former  denotes  the  element  of 
strength  and  executive  force,  without  which  the  formation 
of  strong  opinions  is  not  possible. 



Full  long  arching  eyebrows,  which  are  lowered  down 
dose  to  the  eyes,  are  the  visible  physiognomical  expression 


of  a  desire  and  capacity  for  observation, 
excellent  example  of  large  observation. 

Darwin  is  an 

Observativeness  Large— Mr.  Charles  Darwin,  the  Author  of  "The 
Origin  of  Species  by  Means  of  Natural  Selection,"  and  several 
other  valuable  works. 

In  looking  intently  at  any  object  of  curiosity  or  inquiry, 
the  eyebrows  are  drawn  down  and  crowd  around  the  eyes, 
in  order  to  shut  out  more  than  the  exact  amount  of  light 
that  is  necessary.  Long  practice  in  action  of  this  kind  will 
ultimately  have  the  effect  of  inducing  the  muscles  called  so 
frequently  into  action  permanently  to  assume  their  eagerly 
observant  position,  and  to  be  permanently  ready  for  the 
performance  of  the  duties  to  which  they  have  been  accus- 
tomed so  frequently  to  recur. 



The  body  or  ramus  of  the  lower  jaw,  when  long,  may 


safely  be  considered  the  certain  evidence  of  remarkable 
PERSEVERANCE.  This  faculty  is  large  in  the  bull-dog, 
and  small  m  the  fox  and  wolf. 

Persistenacity  very  Large— In 
confirmation  of  an  examina- 
tion of  this  gentleman  by  the 
Author,  he  said,  "  I  have 
lost  thousands  of  dollars  by 
my  excessive  Persistenacity." 

Persistenacity  very  Small- Johnny,  who 
could  not  persevere  in  any  under- 
taking sufficiently  to  succeed. 

The  long  under  jaw  indicates  tenacity  of  purpose,  inas- 
much as  the  formation  shews  the  presence  of  great  strength 

Persistenacity  Small— A  prairie  Wolf,        Persistenacity  Large— A  Bull-dog 
or  Coyote. 

to  hold  on  with  the  jaws  when  once  they  seize  an  object, 



and  nature  inclines  the  possessor  to  exercise  whatever 
strength  may  be  possessed.  Whenever  the  jaws  indicate 
that  the  disposition  to  hold  on  is  good,  that  character 
will  permeate  every  fibre  of  the  entire  being,  as  the  faculty 
is  general  in  that  form.  With  this  strength  to  hold  on, 
there  is  also  perseverance  or  persistency,  sticking  like  a 
leech  to  any  project  until  success  has  crowned  the  effort. 
A  Kentucky  negro  once  gave  me  a  very  good  definition 
of  this  capacity  of  leech-like  tenacity — perseverance:  his 
idea  being  that  it  was  to  "seize  right  hold  and  neber  let 
go  no  more." 



Square  bones,  a  bony  chin,  prominent  cheek-bones,  and 
eyes  which  are  at  right  angles  to  the  mesial  line  of  the  face, 
or  which  cut  straight  across  the  face,  are  signs  of  HONESTY 


Rectituditiveness  Small — John  Tetzel, 
the  dishonest  face. 

Rectituditiveness   Large — 
Andrew  Jackson,  tbe  honest  face. 


Square  find  prominent  bones  conjoined  to  eyes  that  cut 
directly  across  the  vertical  line  of  the  face,  ai«  distinctive 
marks  of  Rectituditiveness ;  and  this  is  the  case  in  virtue 
of  the  character  of  the  structure;  because,  wherevev  the 
square-boned  form  predominates,  the  individual  is 

llectituditiveness  Small  —  Lizzie 
Smith,  a  notorious  pickpocket 
of  the  city  of  New  York. 

llectituditiveness  Large — William 
Tyndale,  a  translator  of  the 
Bible,  and  martyr  for  the  same. 

pelled,  by  a  natural  law,  to  act  in  accordance  with  his 
structure,  and  go  straight  and  clear  at  his  object.  He 
cannot  arrive  at  anything  by  devious  or  crooked  ways,  that 
being  a  mode  of  action  entirely  foreign  to  his  nature,  and 
his  bones  being  on  the  straight-angled  plan,  he  must  act 
in  accordance.  Rectitude  is  derived  from  the  Latin,  reel  us, 
straight,  and  rectitude  is  therefore  the  capacity  of  going 
straight,  and  according  to  the  recognized  and  open  methods 
in  common  usage  in  whatever  state  of  society  the  individual 
may  be  placed. 




Whenever  we  observe  the  outward  extremities  of  the  eye- 
brows running  towards  tlie  top  of  the  ears,  or  horizontally 
backwards,  it  is  a  sure  sign  of  a  quick,  ready  CALCULATOR; 
but  when  the  external  terminus  of  the  brows  curve  down- 
wards to,  or  towards  the  malar  bone,  as  in  Lord  Lyttleton, 
it  is  a  trustworthy  indication  that  the  person  thus  facially 
marked  sadly  lacks  the  ability  to  perform  accurate  numeri- 
cal calculations. 

Computationumericality  Small— Lord        Computationumericality    Large — 

Geo.  Lyttleton,  an  eminent  historian 
of  England,  who  was  unable  to 
master  the  Multiplication  Table,  or 
any  of  the  common  rules  of  Arith- 

Thos.  Allen,  a  scholar  in  the 
reign  of  Queen  Elizabeth,  the 
first  Mathematician  of  his  day. 

The  instinctive  drawing  together  and  downwards  of  the 
interior  portion  of  the  eyebrows,  as  it  is  the  facial  position 
assumed  when  one  is  in  close  numerical  thought,  shews 
an  inclination  to  a  precision  or  exactness  of  thought  which 


is  indispensable  to  the  study  of  Mathematics  and  the  exact 
sciences;  and  when  we  find  that  long-continued  habit  has 
resulted  in  fixity  of  position,  we  may  predicate  of  the 
individual  that  he  possesses  the  capacity  for  this  kind  of 
3xact  thought  in  a  high  degree. 



When  density  is  large,  it  reveals  itself  by  a  firm,  quick 
step,  and  a  well  balanced  gait;  and  in  the  face  it  betrays 
itself  by  a  quiet,  steady,  thoughtful  expression  of  the  eyes. 

The  man  who  is  built  on  the  solid  or  compact  plan,  is 
naturally  well  adapted  for  judging  of  anything  into  which 
the  elements  of  solidity  and  compactness  enter;  because, 
having  a  high  development  of  these  qualities  within  him- 
self, he  can  judge  outside  of  himself  that  which  he  possesses 
inside,  and  the  signs  above  given  are  only  the  expressions 
of  a  dense  organization. 



The  annexed  engraving  of  Mr.  Holcraft,  of  California, 
in  which  the  septum  of  the  nose  is  long  at  the  place  to  which 
the  index  finger  points,  indicates  an  unusual  amount  oj 



When  the  nose  is  longer  in  the  septum,  or  its  central 
portion,  than  in  the  aleque  nasi,  or  wings  of  the  nostrils, 
we  have  the  evidence  of  the  presence  of  a  desire  of  doing 
good,  and  here  suggestion  is  only  offering  practical  aid  in 
thought  and  words.  The  forms  that  partake  of  the  long, 

slim-like  grass,  or  pine  and 
fir  tree,  have  for  the  aim 
of  their  existence  the  fur- 
therance of  the  good  of 
others,  rather  than  their 
own;  whereas  those  of  a 
short,  squat,  and  thick 
build,  live  first  and  fore- 
most for  self,  although,  in 
the  days  of  their  old  age  and 
repentance,  they  may  take  to 
charities,  alms-giving,  carl- 
tas,  beneficentia,  benevolen- 
tia,  &c.,  for  the  still  selfish 
purpose  of  squaring  their 
accounts  with  Heaven. 
When  the  central  range  of 

the  face  is  full,  in  a  vertical  line  with  the  nose,  the  possessor 
will  delight  in  succouring  others;  but  when  the  sides  of  the 
face  are  full,  so  as  to  produce  a  general  roundness,  self  is  the 
sole  passion  of  the  individual. 

Suggestiveness  Large — Mr.  Holcraft, 
of  California. 




Prominence  of  the  frontal  bone  immediately  over  the 
inner  corner  of  the  eye,  together  with  a  prominent  and 


nose,  are  unfailing  evidences  of  keen  perception  oj 

Characterioscopicity  Large — J.  B. 
Porta,  a  learned  mathematician 
and  Neapolitan  writer,  author  of 
works  on  Physiognomy,  Natural 
History,  Optics,  Hydraulics,  and 
Agriculture.  He  was  the  inven- 
tor of  the  Camera  Obscura.  Born 
at  Naples  in  1540,  where  he 
died  in  1615. 

Characterioscopicity  Large—  Rev.  J. 
G.  Lavater,  a  Swiss  Poet,  and 
author  of  several  works  on  Physi- 
ognomy. He  was  a  talented  Divine, 
and  became  pastor  of  the  Church 
of  St.  Peter,  at  Zurich.  His  works 
have  been  translated  into  several 
European  languages.  Born  at 
Zurich  in  1741,  where  he  died  in 

In  order  to  possess  the  qualification  in  a  high  degree  for 
detecting  strength  and  weakness  of  character,  it  is  necessary 
to  inherit  or  acquire  habits  of  close  observation,  and  this 
endowment  is  indicated  by  a  fulness  of  the  frontal  bone, 
immediately  over  the  inner  corner  of  the  eye.  The  close 
observer  must  also  have  all  his  senses  fully  on  the  alert,  and 
possess  the  essential  element  of  caution,  to  avoid  drawing 
erroneous  conclusions,  and  this  latter  indispensable  qualifi- 
cation is  indicated  by  length  of  nose.  A  high  development 
of  the  frontal  bone,  accompanied  by  sufficient  length  of 
nose,  is  therefore  the  index  to  power  of  reading  and  analys- 
ing character. 




A  broad  forehead  and  open  eye  are  evidential  of  true 

Amicitiveness  Large— Mrs   Lydia  H.         Amicitiveness    Small  —  Catharine 
Sigonrney,    a  talented     authoress  II.,  who  possessed  great  intellec- 

and  faithful  friend  to  woman,  tual  powers,  gross  passions,  and 

was  void  of  amity. 

The  forehead  expansive  and  indicative  of  largeness  of 
brain,  is  strong  evidence  of  acuteness  of  sensation,  whether 
that  sensation  be  produced  by  friends  or  by  other  causes, 
and  a  man  thus  endowed  is  more  capable  of  receiving  strong 
sensations  of  friendship,  and  of  recollecting  friends  for  a 
longer  time  than  in  forms  of  a  di.ierent  nature.  An  open, 
fearless  eye  bespeaks  an  open  communicative  person,  ever 
responsive  to  the  genial  influence  of  companionship,  while 
concealment  and  reserve  are  to  amicitiveness  what  sterility 
and  drought  are  to  vegetation, — shrinking,  withering,  and 
shrivelling  up  the  germs  of  life  and  vivacity. 





Coarse,  large  features,  such  as  a  large  nose,  well  raised 
from  the  plane  of  the  face,  ample  mouth,  wide  clieek- 
bones,  and  a  strong  look,  rather  than  a  fine  and  effeminate 
face,  are  indications  of  originality  of  mind.  Professor 
Morse,  th#  inventor  of  the  Electric  Telegraph,  was  a  good 
example  of  originality. 

Originativeness  Large  -Professor  S.  F.  B.  Morse,  the  inventor 
of  the  Electric  Telegraph. 

To  discover  new  modes  of  thought,  and  to  strike  out 
upon  fresh  felds  and  pastures  new,  require  great  strength. 


and  the  physiognomical  indications  which  we  have  given 
above  are  only  marks  of  this  strength  of  mind  which  is 
necessary.  To  follow  a  beaten  thoroughfare  requires  little 

Originativeness  Small — Geo.  IV.,  a  servile  follower  of  fashions, 
and  the  practices  of  the  demireps  of  his  time. 

jffort  and  strength  in  comparison  to  the  exertion  necessary 
to  break  through  hedges  or  forests,  and  establish  a  new 
route.  This  same  requisition  for  strength  is  ever  presenting 
ner  demands  upon  him  who  ignores  the  old  ruts,  scales 
walls,  and  dashes  across  streams  impassable  to  the  weak,  in 
quest  of  new  fancies  and  original  thoughts. 




A  general  fulness  across  the  lower  forehead,  long  eye- 
brows, with  a  bony  and  square  face,  are  excellent  assur- 
ances of  capability  in  recognizing  and  judging  of 
magnitude  or  distance. 

Mensurativenesa  Large  —Mr.  J.  Q.  A.  Ward,  Sculptor. 

To  measure  and  estimate  anything  by  observation  re- 
quires great  strength  of  observance,  and  it  is  in  that  part 
of  the  head  near  the  eyes,  and  in  the  eyes,  that  this  strength 
resides,  and  it  is  by  the  degree  of  this  crowding  around  the 
eye  that  we  are  enabled  to  judge  of  the  powers  and  accuracy 
of  observation  on  the  part  of  any  individual.  A  preponder- 
ance of  bony  material  in  the  face,  conjoined  to  the  frontal 
peculiarities  which  we  have  just  mentioned,  shew  the 


capacity  of  accurate  measurement  by  a  glance,  because  the 
ingredients  are  already  within  the  system,  and  strength  ol 
eye  is  ready  to  assist  the  judgment. 



The  power  of  OBSTINACY  manifests  itself  by  relative  length 
in  the  limb  of  the  jaw. 

Pertinaciousness  Large — Charles  XII. 
of  -'weden,  the  most  stubborn  ruler 
of  Europe,  called  "  the  madman  of 
the  North." 

Pertinaciousness  Small — Ristori, 
a  talented  actress  in  the  Italian 

The  bone  element  being  one  of  absence  of  movement  or 
inertia,  where  largely  developed,  and  under  excitement,  we 
have  obstinacy,  stiffness,  or  inertia  of  character.  Now, 
length  in  the  limb  of  the  jaw  being  an  unfailing  accompani- 
ment of  this  form,  we  may  take  it  as  the  true  index  of  the 
amount  of  Pertinaciousness  present 


Pertinaciousness  Small  — The  head 
of  a  hunting  Horse. 

Pertiuaciousness  Large — The  head 
of  an  Ass. 



Mechanical  time  is  known  to  a  physiognomist  by  <* 
squareness  of  the  face,  joined  with  a  large  numerical 
capacity  (See  signs  of  Computationumericality). 

Tempurimechanicality  Small 
A  Chinese  girL 

Temporimechanicality  Large — The  Duke 
of  Wellington.  Taken  from  a  bust  in 
the  Gallery  of  Art  in  Edinburgh. 



Mechanical  time  is  the  result  of  the  blending  of  two 
faculties,  which  produce  a  new  faculty.  A  slight  predo- 
minance of  bony  structure  gives  the  mechanical  element, 
and  the  round  or  circular  form  gives  the  quality  of  time. 
The  conjunction  of  the  two  is  termed  Temporimechanicality 
— a  faculty  of  the  highest  usefulness  to  the  possessor. 



Receding  foreheads  are  never  found  except  on  persons 
of  great  PRACTICAL  INCLINATIONS.  Dr.  John  Hunter, 
whose  genius,  cultivated  taste,  and  profound  research  have 
placed  him  among  the  most  eminent  philosophers  and 
scholars  of  his  time,  had  a  low,  receding  forehead.  He 
remarked  that  his  first  consideration  of  a  subject  was  in 
regard  to  its  practical  usefulness,  and  that,  if  considered 
impractical,  he  abandoned  it  for  ever. 

Practicalitiveness  Small  —  Thomas 
D'Urfey,  a  facetious  and  imprac- 
tical English  poet. 

Practicalitiveness  Large — C.  M. 
Wieland,  an  elegant  and  learned 
writer  and  poet  of  Germany. 


The  brain  being  that  part  of  the  frame  which  denotes 
the  capacity  for  sensation,  it  follows  that  that  part  nearest 
the  visual  organs  would  shew  the  strength  of  the  sensa- 
tions most  nearly  connected  with  the  departments  of  sight 
or  practical  life;  and  thus,  by  the  fulness  of  the  forehead 
over  the  eyes,  we  estimate  the  degree  of  approach  to  the 
practical  form. 



A  low  coronal  region,  and  a  high  superior  front  head,  and 
eyes  which  naturally  lurn  upwards  on  meeting  another's 
gaze,  indicate  large  respect;  but  when  they  stare  boldly  into 
the  eyes  of  fellow  kind,  and  care  not  to  turn  their  glance, 
and  when  it  seems  to  require  effort  to  do  so,  it  indicates 
small  reverence  and  no  respect. 

No  part  of  the  human  structure  acts  so  obedient  and 
submissive  a  part  as  the  bony  element.  It  has  no  wilful 
motion  of  its  own  to  prefer  to  that  which  it  receives  and 
obeys  from  the  other  parts  of  the  body.  It  is  set  in  motion 
only  in  obedience  to  the  high  behests  of  muscle,  brain, 
thorax,  or  abdomen,  and  while  life  exists  it  never  refuses 
to  act  upon  the  impulses  which  are  received  from  these 
centres  of  action.  Submission  and  respectful  obedience  to 
the  will  of  God  or  laws  of  man  being  the  sum  and  substance 
of  Reverentialness,  arid  the  bones  being  that  part  of  the 
bodily  structure  which  most  strictly  embodies  that  action, 
we  conclude  by  analogy  that  a  predominance  of  bone  is 
an  indication  of  the  presence  of  diffidence,  dependence,  and 
respectful  submission,  which  cause  the  eyes  to  turn  upward 


or  away  from  the  rude  stare  of  another.  We  have  power* 
ful  auxiliaries  to  this  reasoning  in  the  facts  that  there  are 
no  animals  so  submissive  to  man  as  the  large-boned  ones, 
such  as  the  horse,  ass,  ox,  camel,  &c. ;  while,  on  the  other 
hand,  none  are  more  aggressive  and  less  submissive  than 
those  of  the  largely  developed  Muscular  form,  such  as  the 
lion,  tiger,  leopard,  panther,  puma,  lynx,  rhinoceros,  hippo- 
potamus, all  of  which  have  muscles  in  abundance,  rounding 
off  every  bone  in  contradistinction  to  the  horse  kind,  which 
exhibit  the  hip  and  other  bones  standing  out  in  salient 
points,  and  which  are  generally  submissive  and  obedient 
to  their  owners.  The  feline,  with  the  pachydermatous 
species  already  mentioned,  display  no  weak  reverence  for 
man,  but  will  savagely  stare  him  in  the  face,  with  an 
impudence  and  a  ferocity  which  is  as  much  removed  from 
the  respectful  attitude  of  the  other  species,  as  night  is 
removed  from  day.  We  have  thus  conclusive  evidence  that 
the  bony  form  is  essentially  the  form  of  Revereutialness  and 
respectful  submission. 

HUMBERT  L ,  King  of  Italy,  may  be  classed  among  the  few  rulers  who 
are  popular  with  their  poor  subjects. 


S  S    V. 





Mental  order  gives  its  indication  in  Physiognomy  by  a 
square  head  and  forehead,  with  a,  prominent,  straight 

Oiiliiiiutentality  Large — Ambrose 
Pare,  the  most  celebrated  of 
the  old  French  surgeons. 

Ordinimentality  Small  — 
Prince  of  Madagascar, 

To  be   capable  of  arranging  and  classifying  our   thoughts 
and   impressions   according   to  system   and   method,  it   is 


absolutely  necessary  that  harmony  of  arrangement  should 
first  exist  in  our  bodily  structure;  because  the  mind  and 
body  through  which  those  thoughts  and  impressions  require 
to  be  elaborated  and  perfected  must  stand  in  harmonious 
relationship  the  one  with  the  other,  the  one  being 
the  instrument  of  the  other.  A  man  having  an  auger 
wherewith  to  bore  a  hole  in  a  piece  of  wood  cannot, 
by  any  possibility,  accomplish  the  boring  of  a  hole  larger 
than  the  diameter  of  the  auger  he  is  using;  and  in  like 
manner  he  cannot  accomplish  anything  which  his  instru- 
ment, the  body,  is  incompetent  to  perform,  however  much 
he  may  yearn  and  long  after  greater  results.  If  the  struc- 
ture of  the  body  is  arranged  witli  harmony  and  system,  the 
mind  is  capable  of  harmonious  and  efficient  action,  in 
proportion  to  the  extent  to  which  these  qualities  are 
developed  in  his  body,  and  no  further.  If  the  bodily 
structure  is  deficient  in  these  desiderata,  it  is  idle  to 
strive  after  anything  not  in  accordance  with  thU  deficiene/ 
of  structure. 



Prescience  is  most  readily  discovered  by  its  producing 
a  dreamy  eye,  and  bending  the  entire  body /awards,  imme- 
diately at  the  armpits. 

Prescience  is  the  faculty  of  arriving  at  accurate  con- 
clusions regarding  the  events  looming  in  the  future.  The 
dreamy  eye  indicates  the  disposition  to  gaze  inquiringly 
into  the  future,  and  as  in  those  cases  the  waking  dreams  are 
generally  about  as  shadowy  and  evanescent  as  the  visions 


superinduced  by  sleep,  a  protracted  waking  indulgence  in 
reverie  ultimately  gives  a  permanent  dreamy  expression  to 
the  eye.  Another  indication  of  a  propensity  for  peering 
into  the  future,  is  the  form  bent  forward  from  the  armpits 
upwards,  as  if  to  advance  that  part  of  the  body  in  the 
direction  to  which  the  thoughts  are  continually  tending; 
and  this  position  is  assumed  quite  as  naturally  as  that 
assumed  by  trees,  in  obedience  to  the  breezes  with  which 
they  are  fanned.  The  mind  being  the  master  and  con- 
troller of  the  body,  the  latter  may  be  warped  by  the  former 
into  any  position  by  continuance  and  recurrence  of  action 
in  one  direction.  Men  who  attain  a  weight  of  years  in 
the  incessant  contemplation  of  things  to  come  invariably 
assume  this  posture  of  anticipation  in  advance. 



Large  eyes,  sharp  features,  quick  step,  with  sudden  move- 
ments of  the  headt  indicate  an  excitable  nature. 

Susceptibleness    Small  —  Charles          Susceptibleness  Large— John  Elwep, 
JamesFox,  a  distinguished  Eng-  a  miser  of  London,  who  died  worth 

lieh  statesman  and  orator.  half  a  million  sterling. 


A  large  Brain  and  highly  developed  Nerve  form  are  indis- 
pensable to  a  high  degree  of  susceptibility,  because  these 
are  the  seats  of  the  higher  powers  of  sensation,  without 
which  it  is  impossible  to  be  to  any  great  extent  suscep- 
tible to  external  influences,  and  it  is  necessary  also  to  have 
the  Bone  form  large  and  angular  in  shape,  so  as  to  produce 
a  framework  angular  and  easily  excited. 



Superior  width  across  the  top  of  the  forehead,  when  com- 
pared with  the  rest  of  the  face,  can  safely  be  considered  an 
indication  that  tJiat  person  desires  to  copy,  and  is  capable 
of  IMITATING  the  INTELLECTUAL  and  worthy  efforts  of 

Mentimitativeness  Large—  Mentimitativeness   Small  — 

Elizabeth  Canning.  Mary  Squires,  the  gipsy. 

To  estimate  the  capacity  of  power  of  sensation,  we  take 
the  width  and  size  of  the  brain  in  its  upper  part  as  com- 
pared to  the  remaining  facial  development  of  the  individual, 
und  as  it  is  impossible  to  imitate  a  thought  unless  we  have 


the  powers  of  receiving  a  vivid  impression  of  it,  those  who 
have  a  large  development  of  the  form  indicated  above, 
alone  have  the  power  in  any  great  degree  of  imitating 



A  long  thin  neck  in  mankind  will  ever  testify  as  indi- 
cative of  AFFABILITY;  while  a  short-necked  person  v4tt 
care  little  for  grace  or  affability  of  manners. 

AfTableness  Small— Rulof, 
\iung  at  Binghamton  for 
•mirder  in  1871. 

Affableness  Large — Mrs.  Josephine  A. 
Prosch,  a  talented  elocutionist  of  the 
city  of  New  York. 

Affability  is  a  desire  to  be  pleasing  to  others,  with  the 
view  of  producing  in  them  a  like  state  of  feeling,  a/id  so 


contributing  to  the  enjoyment  of  the  first  by  the  reflex 
action  of  his  own  affability.  Self-sufficient  and  indepen- 
dent people  have  short  necks  as  the  outward  sign  of  their 
deficiency  in  affability,  and  by  reason  of  this  they  are  not 
prone  to  bowing  or  rendering  themselves  agreeable  by 
demonstration  of  this  kind;  while  on  the  other,  those  of 
an  opposite  disposition  are  furnished  with  longer  necks, 
which  naturally  adapt  them  for  obeisance  and  submission 
in  the  prtjsence  of  others. 



"  True  wit  is  nature  to  advantage  dressed; 
What  oft  was  thought,  but  ne'er  so  well  expressed." 

A  face  very  wide  in  the  upper  portion,  and  tapering 
dowmvards  like  an  inverted  pear  or  pyriform,  always 
denotes  the  very  witty  person,  provided  the  health  is  good 
and  no  bad  habits  exhaust  the  vitality. 

The  face  of  expansive  width  in  its  upper,  and  narrowing 
proportions  in  its  lower  hemisphere,  shews  the  predomin- 
ance of  vivid  sensations,  which  are  forced  by  natural 
pressure,  and  with  increasing  vivacity  downward  to  find 
an  outlet  at  the  mouth,  or  still  farther  downwards  through 
the  arm  and  hand  to  the  pen.  Those  condensed  currents 
comprise  the  thing  we  call  wit,  and  the  happy  and  joyous 
surprises  which  its  exercise  affords  in  others  is  only  the 
reflection  of  the  vivid  reality  having  its  origin  within 


Salitiveness  Small — Ute  Indian,  of        Salitiveness  Large  —  Mark  Twain, 
Salt  Lake,  aa  witless  as  a  dry  ai'thor of  "  Innocents  Abroad,"  and 

stump.  several  other  amusing  works. 



This  quality  or  faculty  of  the  mind  largely  abounds  in 
a  fine  organization  in  'which  the  upper  portion  of  the 
face  is  larger  and  wider  than  the  lower.  Also  the  towering 
form,  if  well  cultivated  mentally,  indicates  nobleness  of 

Alone  of  all  the  animal  kingdom  man  maintains  a 
posture  erect  and  towering  to  heaven;  and  he  alone  is 
capaHo  of  lofty  aspirations  and  of  ennobling  contemplation. 
Argiv  -g  a  priori,  we  naturally  conclude  that  the  form 


which  is  large  in  the  upper  portion  and  relatively  small 
below,  is  the  most  capable  of  dwelling  upon  the  more 
exalted  themes,  and  of  rearing  his  soul  upwards  free  from 
the  grossness  of  material  existence ;  and  by  the  same 
reasoning  we  find,  that  where  a  man  is  formed  upon  the 
opposite  plan  with  his  richest  development  in  the  grosser 
portion  of  his  body,  his  character  is  upon  a  par  with  the 
structure  of  his  body.  Like  the  hog,  which  he  resembles 
in  form,  his  mind  never  soars  far  above  the  gratification 
of  his  selfish  desires.  The  grossness  of  his  body  seems 
to  crush  out  and  annihilate  anything  better  that  would 
else  take  root,  and  by  continued  and  close  association 
with  the  mere  interests  of  vulgar  matter,  the  body  ulti- 
mately becomes  the  envelope  of  a  grovelling  mind,  alike 
dead  to  decency  and  worthy  ambition. 



The  stooping  form,  thin  chest,  wide  and  high  top  head 
and  upper  face,  narrow  superior  and  inferior  maxillaries 
or  jaws,  thin  and  well-defined  nose,  and  a  thin  ear,  are 
palpable  indications  of  a  desire  for  future  life. 

As  many  are  floating  down  the  dimstreamof  the  future 
before  us,  with  vague  and  fear-laden  notions  of  the  here- 
after to  come,  when  we  have  shot  the  cataract  of  death, 
the  thoughts  of  many  of  us  arj  irresistibly  riveted  on 
the  shadowy  confines  of  "that  bourne  whence  no  travellers 
return,"  but  to  which  we  all  are  hastening.  A  constant 
turning  of  our  thoughts  in  advance  of  time,  quite  naturally 
has  the  effect  on  the  upper  part  of  the  body  of  making 
it  incline  permanently  to  an  advance  of  position,  and  as 


it  stoops  forward  and  the  thoughts  ascend,  the  top  ol 
the  head  and  the  upper  part  of  the  face  widen  out,  while 
the  lower  part  becomes  narrowed  down;  and  it  would 
appear  that  purity  of  thought  has  the  effect  of  purifying 
and  thinning  the  features  as  if  by  the  extrusion  of  the 
grosser  ingredients. 



A  high  or  prominent  nose  is  nature's  evidence  of  a  love 
and  appreciation  of  the  beautiful. 

.Estheticalness  Small— Kettle,  a  selfish 
and  cunning  Indian  Chief,  of  Wash- 
ington Ter. 

uEst heticalness  Large — Charl  e- 
magne,  a  great  warrior,  and 
zealous  promoter  of  thesciencea 
and  the  arts. 


Love  of  the  beautiful  is  a  rising  of  the  mind  above 
ihe  region  of  common-place  and  common-looking  or  vulgar 
things,  and  soaring  into  a  contemplation  of  the  beau- 
tiful, whether  to  be  found  in  material  objects  or  in  the 
brighter  emanations  of  the  higher  conceptions  of  the 
individual.  The  capacity  for  rising  above  the  common 
order  of  things  is  evidenced  outwardly  by  a  somewhat 
high  development  of  the  nasal  organ  rising  well  out  from 
the  general  plane  of  the  face,  and  this  being  the  evidence 
of  the  possession  of  strong  power  of  sensation,  we  have 
the  fundamental  reason  of  large  ^Estheticalness 



The  palpable  manifestation  of  caution  is  a  long  nose. 
TJie  elephant  is  the  best  example  of  this,  as  his  nose  extends 
to  the  extreme  end  of  his  trunk. 

The  immediate  function  of  the  nose  being  to  protect  the 
mouth,  lungs,  stomach,  &c.,  from  foulness,  rancidity,  or 
other  elements  of  danger  arising  from  gases  or  putridity; 
and  being  constantly  in  the  exercise  of  the  greatest  of 
care  and  watchfulness  for  arriving  at  the  requisite  con- 
clusions, we  may  predicate  from  the  length  of  the  nose, 
which  will  also  give  the  extent  of  surface  on  which  the 
olfactory  nerve  has  to  act,  and  the  degree  of  efficiency 
which  accompanies  the  performance  of  its  functions,  the 
extent  of  the  development  in  the  individual  of  the  faculty 
of  Carefulness. 



Carefulness  Large— Flavins  Josephus,  Carefulness  Small— Thomas  Hnd- 
an  eminent  and  illustrious  Jewish  son,  a  very  careless  man,  wh« 
Historian,  who  was  an  exceedingly  was  ever  blundering  into  mis- 
careful  and  correct  author.  fortune!. 




Spiritual  hope  may  be  known  as  large  when  we  see  a 
large  open  eye  and  high  forehead,  with  great  comparative 
measurement  from  the  point  of  the  nose  to  the  ftair  of  the 

If  the  relative  measurement  of  the  face  announces  the 
undue  development  of  any  part  of  it,  we  may  accept  the 


fact  as  evidence  of  the  undue  growth  and  power  of  a  par- 
ticular desire,  according  to  the  particular  part  shewn  by 

Spementality  Small— James  Fisk,  Jr., 
of  Erie  Railroad  notoriety. 

Spementality  Large — John  Milton, 
en  illustrious  English  poet. 

measurement  to  be  unduly  proportioned.  Spementality 
or  mental  hope  being  simply  the  sensation  of  desire  after 
a  future  life,  and  the  high  spiritual  welfare  of  humanity, 
and  the  power  of  sensation  being  always  in  full  accord  with 
the  size  of  the  brain  and  nerves,  whose  exclusive  offices 
are  to  receive  sensations,  it  follows  tliat  a  high  forehead, 
being  the  index  of  large  development  of  brain,  must  indi- 
cate the  amount  of  spiritual  hope,  or  in  other  words,  the 
amount  of  desire  after  mental  and  elevating  sensation. 
Large  comparative  measurement  from  the  point  of  the  nose 
to  the  beginning  of  the  growth  of  the  hair  on  the  upper 
part  of  the  forehead  is  another  indication  of  the  faculty 
under  treatment,  because,  ra  addition  to  the  brain,  it 
includes  great  length  of  nose,  having  for  its  office  the 
special  sense  of  smell.  A  large  eye  is  always  indicative  of 
the  presence  of  the  faculty,  because  it  denotes  largeness 



of  the  optic  nerve,  in  which  there  resides  great  capability 
of  sensation,  and  they  are  all  usually  in  harmony  with 
desires  of  a  sensational  nature. 



A  clear,  bright  eye,  a  broad,  high  forehead,  evenly  devel- 
oped lips,  with  a  refined  and  intelligent  countenance,  are 
wme  of  the  signs  of  purity  of  mind. 

Puritativeness  Small — A 

Puritativeness  Large— Lucretia  Mott, 
a  Quakeress  preacher. 

Like  all  other  variations  of  character,  purity  of  mind  is 
faithfully  imaged  on  the  exterior  of  the  body,  and  that 
with  no  less  exactitude  than  is  a  material  object  reflected 
upon  the  surface  of  a  good  glass.  The  mirror  cannot  pos- 
sibly reflect  any  object  which  does  not  occupy  the  requisite 
fronting  relationship  to  it;  and  equally  impossible  is  it  for 



the  facial  mirror  to  reflect  faculties  which  have  not  their 
abode  within.  The  faculties  permeate  through  every  par- 
ticle and  fibre  of  the  body,  and  wherever  purity  of  mind 
exists,  it  must  perforce  make  patent  its  existence  by 
means  of  its  allotted  facial  peculiarity;  and  as  purity  of 
mind  consists  in  those  things  which  have  a  tendency  to 
enlighten  and  ennoble,  the  outward  effect  will  be  an  expan- 
sion of  the  forehead,  and  the  overspreading  of  a  "  spirituelle" 
expression  throughout  the  entire  countenance. 



The  signs  of  the  FACULTY  OF  INTUITION  are  a  high  /ore- 
head,  with  large,  open  eyes. 

Intuitiveness  Small  — Simon  Eraser 
Lovat,  a  Scottish  chieftain  aud 
rebel,  who  was  beheaded. 

Intuitiveness  Large  —  Giuseppe 
Mu/./mi,  a  talented  Italian 

The   faculty  of  arriving  at   a   seemingly   instantaneous 
recognition  of  truth  without  ratiocination,  or,  at  all  events, 


without  a  degree  of  ratiocination  large  enough  to  bo 
capable  of  appreciation,  must  have  its  abode  in  the  sensa- 
tional parts  (Brain  and  Nerves  of  sensation)  of  our  nature,  as 
these  alone  are  equal  to  approximately  instantaneous  acts, 
and  it  is  therefore  in  the  forehead  that  we  must  look  for 
the  development  of  high  sensational  susceptibilities  or 
powers.  A  large  and  open  eye  is  indicative  of  largeness  of 
the  optic  nerve,  which  in  its  turn  demonstrates  a  high  devel- 
opment of  the  Nerves  of  sensation  upon  which  this  faculty 
depends,  and  with  which  it  is  immediately  associated. 



A  full  broad  high  forehead,  with  a  pyriform  face,  are 
signs  of  excellence  in  written  language. 

Literativencss  Small — Mr.  Thomas 
Hogerson,  a  very  poor  writer. 

Literati veness  Large— John  Buskin, 
a  brilliant  author  and  art  critic. 


A  full  high  forehead,  with  a  pyriform  face,  shew  love 
of,  and  ability  for,  literary  writing,  when  these  are  accom- 
panied with  education.  Vivid  and  strong  sensations  are 
necessary  to  the  success  of  a  writer,  and  these  are  indicated 
by  the  broad  high  forehead  which  denote  intellectual 
imitation.  The  presence  of  these  qualities  are  also  indicated 
by  width  in  the  front  top  of  the  head  (see  signs  of  Men- 
timitativeness).  These  structural  provisos  being  granted, 
Education  and  experience  are  alone  required  to  produce 
an  able  and  accomplished  literary  writer. 



Fine  hair,  as  in  the  rabbit,  is  a,  sure  sign  of  NEATNESS; 
while  coarse  hair,  as  in  the  hog,  may  be  known  as  nature's 
testimonial  of  a  dirty  animal. 

Cleanness  Large — The  Duchess  of  Kent, 
the  mother  of  Her  Majesty,  Queen 
Victoria,  The  Noble  Queen, 

Cleanness  Small  —  Nathaniel 
Bently,  the  dirtiest  man  in 


Cleanness.  Dirt  has  been  well  expressed  as  "  very  ordi- 
nary matter  in  the  wrong  place,"  and  such  it  is  when  it 
is  allowed  to  accumulate  on  the  person  or  on  the  clothing. 
Where  there  exists  a  high  organization,  the  individual — 
be  he  man  or  animal — is  endowed  with  a  greater  or  less 
elevation  of  nature,  and  in  virtue  of  this  he  recoils  from 
the  useless  contact  with  inorganic  matter,  or  organic  matter 
of  a  very  low  type.  This  feeling  springs  from  the  natural 
law  which  attracts  like  to  like.  On  the  other  hand,  where 
the  organization  of  the  individual  is  of  a  low  type,  as 
evinced  by  coarse  hair,  skin,  &c.,  there  is  no  great 
revulsion  against  close  association  with  dirt,  because  there 
is  a  large  proportion  of  the  grosser  materials  in  the  com- 
position of  his  frame,  in  comparison  with  the  amount  of 
soul  he  is  able  to  boast  of.  The  hog  being  essentially 
coarse  in  his  structure  with  little  of  the  spiritual  essence 
in  his  composition,  lives  uncaring  and  contented  surrounded 
by  filth  and  dirt.  The  dainty  rabbit,  on  the  other  hand, 
having  fine  downy  hair  and  a  highly  nervous  form,  is 
miserable  unless  allowed  to  perform  regular  ablutions  and 
keep  itself  thoroughly  free  from  the  hateful  dirt 



An  eye  that  looks  upon  an  object  with  lingering  softness,  is 
an  evidence  of  large  PITY.  When  this  quality  is  strong  it  bows 
the  head  forwards,  and  softens  the  manners. 

The  essence  of  the  action  of  pity  is  a  softening  of  the 
higher  feelings,  and  a  melting  of  the  virility  of  the 
individual  upon  whose  soul  the  angel-like  influence  is  at 


work  The  eyes,  quickly  responsive  to  the  mysterious 
pj'eading  that  wells  up  from  its  compassionate  depths, 
become  eloquent  in  nature's  language,  and  advocates  the 

Pitifulness  very  Small — Nero,  one 
of  the  most  cruel  Emperors  of 
Rome.  Copied  from  the  bust  iu 
the  British  Museum. 

Pitifulness  very  Large— Miss  Gontta, 
of  London,  England,  th«  j«es* 
compassionate  lady  of  tb.e  present 

cause  which  is  thrilling  throughout  the  inmost  recesses 
of  the  frame.  This  is  only  the  operation  of  the  great 
natural  law  which  ordains  that  mind  must  control  matter, 
and  in  this  case  an  outlet  of  manifestation  is  found  in 
the  eyes,  which  are  ever  the  most  active  in  the  cause  of 
pain  and  suffering. 



Remarkable  intelligence  evinced  by  facial  expression 
denotes  vivid  imagination 


Tliis  faculty  is  born  of  largeness  of  Brain  form,  as  compared 
with  the  ether  proportions,  and  it  indicates  the  capacity 
for  Tiaperior  sensations.  Imagination  is  simply  this  power 

Imaginativeness  Large — Lamartine.          Imaginativeness  Small — A  babbler, 
a    celebrated    French    poet  and  aii  ignorant  Irish  woman  of  Edin- 

historian.  burgh, 

of  sensation  developed  in  an  extraordinary  degree,  and  this 
subtle  power  acts  directly  from  an  elevating  cast  of  Brain 
upon  every  part  of  the  face,  in  expressions  of  intelligence 
nnd  refinement,  which  are  the  outcome  01  a  hignly  sensa- 
tional organization. 




Memory  of  incidents  and  general  affairs  manifests  itself 
by  general  fulness  of  tlie  forehead. 

Factimemoriativeiiess  Large  -Frederick 
H.  A.  Baron  vou  Humboldt.  a  dis- 
tinguished German  philosopher  and 

Factimemoriativeness  Small — 
Miss  Catherine  Dunn,  whose 
•weight  is  425  pounds. 

The  reception  of  facts  is  accompanied  by  sensation  of  a 
more  or  less  intense  character,  according  to  the  amount  of 
interest  for  the  hearer,  which  each  particular  fact  bears 
with  it:  und  as  fhe  more  intense  sensations  are  those  which 
grave  the  deepest  mark  upon  the  mind,  and  are  most 
enduring  in  consequence,  and  most  readily  recalled  ,  it  is 
clear  that  to  determine  the  capacity  of  any  individual  for 
receiving  and  storing  UD  impressions  and  facts,  we  must 
examine  the  front  portion  of  the  br»>n  as  that  i<*  the  region 


assigned  tc  the  sensations,  while  the  back  part  contains 
the  Nerves  which  regulate  the  motary  powers.  It  is  there- 
fore in  the  front  part  of  the  forehead  that  we  must  expect 
to  find  the  material  for  estimating  the  comparative  activity 
of  this  faculty. 

Under  this  faculty  we  introduce  numerous  accounts  of 
remarkable  facilities  of  recollection,  interspersed  with  advice 
regarding  the  care,  cultivation,  and  improvement  of  the 
memory.  After  retiring  to  rest  every  night,  think  over 
all  the  transactions  and  incidents  of  the  preceding  day; 
read  the  works  of  Cuvier,  Leibnitz,  Goethe,  Humboldt, 
Lyell,  Agassiz,  Liebig,  Sir  Walter  Scott,  Prescott,  Alison, 
Maeaulay,  as  well  as  other  scientific  and  historical  writers, 
and  at  least  once  every  day  repeat  all  the  events  of  import- 
ance which  have  tianspired  during  the  last  twenty- four 
hours,  and  business  negociations,  as  well  as  every  ordinary 
incident  of  life.  Commit  condensed  portions  of  history  to 
memory ;  impress  all  leading  incidents  firmly  on  the  mind, 
by  giving  intense  and  concentrated  attention  to  them  when 
they  come  to  your  notice;  associate  much  with  those  of 
superior  memories.  Employ  the  memory,  and  it  will  give 
you  retentive  power.  The  Greeks  continually  exercised 
their  memories  by  treasuring  in  their  minds  the  works  of 
their  poets,  the  instructions  of  their  philosophers,  and  the 
problems  of  their  mathematicians;  and  such  practice  gave 
them  vast  power  of  retention.  Pliny  informs  us  of  a  Greek 
called  Charmidas,  who  could  repeat  from  memory  the 
contents  of  a  large  library.  One  should  write  out  every 
speech  or  whatever  it  is  desired  to  retain.  This  practice 
is  recommended  by  Cicero  and  Quintilian.  Memory  is 
facilitated  by  regular  order  and  distributive  arrangement 
of  facts,  and  by  conversing  on  the  subjects  you  wish  to 
remember.  Themistocles,  Csesar,  Cicero,  and  Seneca  were 
possessed  of  very  great  memories.  Themistocles  mastered 
the  Persian  language  in  one  year,  and  could  call  by  their 


names  all  the  citizens  of  Athens,  when  its  population  was 
20;000.  Cyrus  knew  the  name,  of  every  soldier  in  his 
army.  Julius  Caesar  was  able  to  dictate  to  three  secre- 
taries at  the  same  time,  and  on  perfectly  distinct  subjects. 
Portius  Latro,  as  Seneca  informs  us,  remembered  every- 
thing that  he  committed  to  writing,  and  wrote  very  rapidly. 
Hortentius  attended  a  public  sale,  which  occupied  the 
whole  day,  and  gave  a  full  and  particular  account  in  the 
evening,  from  memory,  of  every  article  that  was  sold,  as 
well  as  the  name  of  each  article,  with  the  name  of  the 
purchaser,  and  when  compared  with  the  notes  of  a  clerk, 
it  was  found  perfectly  correct. 

Themistocles  possessed  such  powers  of  retention,  that 
when  one  offered  to  teach  him  the  art  of  memory  he 
rejected  the  proposal,  and  remarked  that  he  had  "  much 
rather  he  would  teach  him  the  art  to  forget."  Justus 
Lipsius  was  able  to  repeat  every  line  of  Tacitus'  Works 
memoriter.  Josephus  Scaliger  committed  Homer's  Iliad 
and  his  Odyssey  entirely  in  twenty-one  days,  each  being 
about  the  same  length,  the  Iliad  containing  31,670 
verses.  Seneca  could  repeat  2,000  names  in  the  order  in 
which  he  heard  them,  and  rehearse  200  verses  on  different 
subjects  after  once  hearing  them  read.  Mithridates,  the 
celebrated  King  of  Pontus,  ruled  twenty-two  countries,  and 
was  enabled  by  his  faithful  memory  to  converse  with  the 
various  ambassadors  in  the  proper  language  of  the  countries 
which  they  respectively  represented.  St.  Austin's  Works 
are  sufficient  to  fill  a  large  library,  and  yet  Dr.  Reynolds 
mastered  them  all,  being  able  to  repeat  any  portion  of 
them  from  memory.  Dr.  Jewel,  Bishop  of  Salisbury,  could 
repeat  anything  he  had  written  by  once  reading  it,  and 
never  forgot  a  line  of  what  he  read ;  but  his  astonishing 
memory  he  attributed  to  '.ndustrious  cultivation  of  that 

Jerome,  of  Prague,  who  was  martyred  for  the  Protestant 


religion  by  a  sentence  of  the  Council  of  Constance,  was 
famous  for  An  excellent  memory,  of  which  Poggius,  in  his 
Epistle  to  Le<jnardus  Aretinus,  gives  the  following  occur- 
rence in  illustration : — "  After  he  had  been  confined  340 
days  in  the  bottom  of  a  loathsome  tower,  where  he  was 
wholly  without  light  either  to  see  or  read;  yet,  when  he 
was  called  to  trial,  he  quoted  so  many  testimonies  of  the 
most  sagacious  and  learned  men  in  favour  of  his  own 
principles,  as  if  all  that  time  he  had  been  immured  in  a 
good  library,  with  all  the  conveniences  of  studying."  This 
is  a  remarkable  example,  especially  if  we  consider  the 
afflictive  circumstances  of  his  case,  and  how  sadly  trouble 
weakens  and  impairs  the  memory.  A  young  Corsican, 
while  in  the  law  school  of  Padua,  in  Italy,  could  repeat 
forwards  or  backwards  36,000  names,  and  a  year  after, 
could  repeat  anything  remembered.  He  instructed  Fran- 
ciscus  Molinus,  a  nobleman  of  Venice,  who  had  a  very 
poor  memory,  in  less  than  eight  days,  to  repeat  500  names 
in  any  order  he  pleased.  Mr.  Thomas  Fuller  possessed  a 
memory  sufficient  to  remember  all  the  signs  on  both  sides 
of  Cheapside  and  several  other  streets  in  London.  Instances 
could  be  related  of  other  memorists,  equally  noted  but 
the  limited  space  of  this  book  will  not  permit  an  extensive 
article  on  this  subject.  Sickness,  fright,  or  slothfulriess 
may  seriously  impair  the  memory,  as  the  following  instances 
may  shew — viz.,  the  orator  Messala  Corvinus  forgot  his 
own  name — caused  by  sickness.  Artemidorous,  the  gram- 
marian, having  been  frightened  by  a  crocodile,  the  fright 
caused  an  entire  loss  of  his  learning  that  he  never  after- 
wards recovered.  Calvisius  Sabinus,  from  the  habit  of 
slothfulness  and  neglect  of  his  memory,  became  so  forgetful 
that  he  could  not  recollect  the  names  of  Ulysses,  Achilles, 
and  Priamus,  yet  he  knew  those  men  as  well  as  one  man 
can  well  know  another.  Germanus,  who  was  a  clerk  under 
the  reign  of  Frederick  II.  having  been  bled,  lost  the  entire 


use  of  his  memory,  yet  one  year  subsequently  having  been 
bled  again,  he  recovered  the  full  use  of  his  former  memory. 
Many  examples  could  be  enumerated,  wherein  forgetfulness 
could  be  attributed  to  the  fact  of  not  cultivating  arid  pro- 
perly employing  the  memory. 

The  mathematician,  Wallis,  while  in  bed,  and  with  his 
eyes  shut,  extracted  the  cube  root  of  a  number  consisting 
of  thirty  figures,  not  making  a  single  mistake.  Dr.  Timothy 
Dwight,  of  Yale  College,  was  in  the  habit  of  taking  seven 
texts,  and  at  the  same  time  dictating  to  seven  amanuenses 
seven  distinct  sermons.  A  celebrated  London  dramatist 
laid  a  wager  that  he  would,  after  once  reading  a  page  of 
advertisements  in  the  Times,  repeat  them  verbatim,  and 
in  order;  and  he  won  the  wager.  He  also  undertook  to 
walk  along  one  of  the  main  business  thoroughfares,  the 
Strand,  in  which  every  house  on  each  side  has  an  elaborate 
signboard  and  number,  and  to  repeat  the  names,  numbers, 
and  businesses  of  each,  taking  in  both  sides,  as  he  walked 
along  only  once.  Mr.  Miller,  a  talented  lawyer  of  Keokuk, 
Iowa,  who  was  formerly  member  of  Congress,  has  a  remark- 
ably retentive  memory.  He  has  been  known  to  write  out 
in  full  an  entire  sermon,  without  taking  notes;  arid  when 
the  bishop  who  preached  it  called  upon  him  and  observed 
that  Mr.  Miller  had  changed  only  one  word,  in  reply, 
he  mentioned  the  very  word,  and  gave  as  his  reason  for 
the  change,  that  the  word  used  by  the  bishop  was  incorrect. 
The  bishop  thanked  him,  and  pocketed  the  paper  in  which 
the  reported  sermon  appeared,  the  morning  after  it  was 
delivered.  Mr.  Miller  remarked  to  me  that  it  was  by  his 
concentrated  and  earnest  attention  at  the  time  of  hearing, 
that  he  was  enabled  so  unfailingly  to  remember.  A  Miss 
Foster,  of  London,  has  also  this  remarkable  retention  of 
memory.  A  clergyman,  of  local  note  for  his  terse,  epigram- 
matic style  ««f  sermonizing,  was  asked  by  his  congregation 
(A)  print  aua  publish  one  of  his  telling,  cogent  discourses; 


but  on  his  assuring  them  that  he  could  not  reproduce 
accurately  what  he  had  preached,  Miss  Foster,  then  about 
sixteen  years  of  age,  proffered  to  write  it  out  verbatim,  and 
did  perfectly  to  the  preacher's  satisfaction.  Dudley  Waller, 
a  boy  in  the  American  States,  when  entering  his  teens, 
learned  long  lectures  by  hearing  them  read  once  or  twice. 
He  has  been  known  to  repeat  accurately  half  a  newspaper 
column,  and  tell  where  the  punctuation  points  appeared, 
as  he  had  been  told  them  when  hearing  it  read.  Writing 
out  one's  thoughts  gives  tenacity  to  the  memory.  Then 
write  out  your  own  thoughts,  as  well  as  what  you  learn 
from  books,  teachers,  and  conversation.  Keep  a  diary  or 
note-book,  and  at  the  end  of  the  day  note  down  in  chrono- 
logical order  every  transaction  that  occurred  within  your 
cognizance  during  the  whole  day. 

Special  care  should  be  taken,  however,  in  the  exercise 
and  cultivation  of  memory,  not  to  overtax  it.  It  is  a  fact, 
well  attested  by  experience,  that  the  memory  may  be 
seriously  injured  by  pressing  upon  it  too  hardly  and  con- 
tinuously in  early  life.  Whatever  theory  we  hold  as  to 
this  great  and  wonderful  function  of  our  nature,  it  is 
certain  that  its  powers  are  only  gradually  developed ;  and 
that,  if  forced  into  premature  exercise,  they  are  impaired 
by  the  effort.  A  regulated  exercise,  short  of  fatigue,  is 
improving  to  it;  but  we  ought  carefully  to  refrain  from 
goading  it  by  constant  and  laborious  efforts  in  early  life, 
and  before  this  wonderful,  godlike  faculty  is  strengthened 
to  its  work,  or  it  decays  in  our  hands. 

The  following  interesting  incident,  related  by  James 
Beaty,  may  serve  as  a  warning  to  those  having  the  care  of 
the  young.  A  boy,  whose  over-zealous  and  indiscreet 
mother  obliged  him  to  commit  sermons  to  memory,  lost 
his  other  faculties  and  became  stupid  and  idiotic.  Jjet 
us  ever  keep  in  mind  what  Coleridge,  in  his  rapturous 
appreciation  of  this  power,  exclaims, — "  Memory,  bosom' 


spring  of  joy."  Then  BasiU, — "  Memory  is  the  cabinet  of 
imagination,  the  treasury  of  reason,  the  registry  of  con- 
science, and  the  council-chamber  of  thought." 



PRUDENTIALITT  partially  closes  the  eyes,  which  are 
usually  also  found  somewhat  settled  in  the  head,  but  it  is 
wanting  in  persons  with  very  short  noses  Hence  children, 
who  almost  invariably  have  short  noses,  are  very  impru- 
dent. Open  mouths  are  also  evidence  of  natural  im- 

Prudentiality  Small — A  restless,  loqua- 
cious, ignorant,  and  saucy  boy  of 
Jacksonville,  Illinois. 

Prudentiality  Large — John  Sher- 
man, U.S.  senator  from  Ohio. 

A  fulness  of  practical  wisdom  or  prudence,  gathered 
during  the  course  of  a  lifetime,  will,  in  old  age,  when 
caution  and  prudence  become  the  first,  if  not  the  only 


consideration,  cause  the  eyes  to  settle  back  in  the  headi 
long  practice  and  experience  having  taught  them  that  in 
this  position  there  is  greater  convenience  for  thinking; 
thinking  cautiously  and  carefully  carried  to  its  ultimate 
results  being  prudence  itself.  The  position  has  been 
adopted  first,  from  an  instinctive  sense  of  fitness  and  con- 
venience, and  it  has  become  permanently  fixed  by  the 
natural  law  of  use  and  wont. 



Tlie  eyebrows,  when  elevated  far  above  the  eyes,  and  pre- 
sent a  large  intercilia'ry  space,  as  in  Harvey,  are  certain 
signs  of  large  faith. 

Credulousness  Small—  Voltaire.  Crc<lulousness  Large—  Wm.  Harvey, 

M.  D.,  who  published  bis  discovery 
of  the  circulation  of  the  blood  in 

Credulous  people  take  for  granted  the  truth  or  accuracy 
of  any  statement  that  may  bo  put  before  them,  being  quite 


incapable,  it  would  appear,  of  separating  the  wheat  from 
the  chaff,  and  the  probable  from  the  improbable.  This 
easiness  of  reception  for  all  and  sundry  must  arise  from  the 
undue  openness  of  the  avenues  which  conduct  the  informa- 
tion to  the  sensorium.  Those  avenues  of  reception  are  the 
eyes,  the  ears,  the  nose,  the  mouth,  and  the  nerves  of  sensa- 
tion. When  the  eyes  are  well  open,  the  brows  will  be 
drawn  well  up  on  to  the  forehead,  there  being  no  other  way 
of  admitting  of  the  open  gaze.  The  ears  are  capacious,  and 
seem  to  turn  their  tips  forwards,  as  if  to  be  prepared  to 
receive  and  adopt  anything,  however  strange,  that  may  be 
addressed  to  them.  The  nose  is  furnished  with  expanding 
nostrils,  and  admits  everything  without  much  scrutiny  as 
to  quantity  or  quality ;  the  mouth  stands  agape  and  mutely 
asks  for  more;  the  head  is  large  in  the  front  part  where 
lie  the  powers  of  the  sensation,  and  the  whole  is  the  well- 
known  picture  of  a  superlatively  credulous  person. 



This  winning  power  of  outward  attractiveness  manifests 
itself  in  fine  features,  high  open  forehead,  graceful  form, 
and  a  large,  animated,  and  prominent  eye. 

It  is  impossible  to  carry  a  courteous  and  conciliatory 
bearing  if  the  individual  has  a  tendency  in  any  direction  to 
extremity  of  form.  He  must  be  capable  of  being  "all 
things  to  all  men,"  and  for  this  purpose  it  is  necessary  that 
he  be  constructed  on  a  medium  plan,  and  with  no  rough 
or  abrupt  corners  in  his  character  which  might  mar  his 
attempts  at  courtesy.  He  must  occupy  this  medium  stand- 


pnint,  and,  at  the  same  time,  be  endowed  with  sufficient 
elasticity  to  admit  of  his  meeting  half-way  the  denizens  of 
either  extreme;  for  if  built  on  an  extreme  himself,  he  could 

CoYirteousness  Small — D.  Fernando  Courfceousness    Large  —  Count    D' 

^71I.,  a  tyrant,   who  started  the  Orsay,  the  most  polite  man  of  the 

Inquisition,   and   was  devoid  of  world, 
fine  feelings. 

not  possibly  deal  with  those  so  far  away  as  the  opposite 
end  of  the  range.  The  signs  given  above  are  those  denoting 
mediocrity  of  character,  and  consequently  the  ability  of 



ATTENTIVENESS  when  large,  carries  the  head  forward  in 
the  same  manner  that  one  bends  forward  when  thoroughly 
interested  in  a  new  book,  held  in  the  hand,  as  shewn  in 
the  engraving  of  Hugh  Miller,  Scotland's  talented  Geologist. 


The  exercise  of  attention  naturally  inclines  us  to  bend 
forward  the  visual  organs  in  the  direction  of  the  object 
we  are  desirous  of  examining.  This  instinctive  act  carries 

Attentiveness  Large — Abbey  Kelley 
Foster,  an  able  advocate  of  the 
abolition  of  American  slavftry. 

Attentiveness  Small — His  Majesty 
Pomare,  King  of  Taheite. 

the  head,  with  its  group  of  sensations,  into  closer  proximity 
to  the  object,  as  if  instinctive  reason  had  concluded  that 
greater  proximity  would  enhance  the  observing  and  noting 
capacity;  and,  therefore,  like  the  sunflower  which  lovingly 
follows  the  sun  for  the  rays  which  keep  it  in  life,  the  head 
is  projected  to  the  object  of  attention  for  greater  inspiration 



A  long  narroiu  face,  with  full  lips,  are  testimonies  of 
true  and  heart-stirring  SYMPATHY.  But  besides  these  there 
are  several  other  signs,  such  as  a  long  head,  from  forehead 
to  crown;  long  and  slim  fingers,  &c. 



To  enter  into  and  make  our  own  the  joys  and  sorrows 
of  others,  requires  subtle  powers  of  sensation  to  enable  us 
tc  analyze  and  understand  the  feelings  'jf  others,  and  the 
presence  of  this  high  power  of  sensation  is  indicated  by 
largeness  in  the  upper  front  of  the  head  After  arriving 

Sympatheticalness Small — Robespieire,  Sympatheticalness  Large— Eustache, 
an  implacable,  sanguinolent,  aiid  who  saved  his  master  and  others 
truculent  tyrant.  from  massacre. 

at  a  correct  estimation  of  the  feelings  of  others,  a  fine- 
grained organization  is  absolutely  necessary  before  we  can 
sympathize  with,  and  appropriate  those  feelings.  All  the 
finer  feelings,  as  pity,  purity,  cleanliness,  love  of  the  beauti- 
ful and  the  sublime,  &c.,  depend  for  their  existence  upon 
the  fineness  of  the  individualized  material. 


.A.  S  S 





The  apparent  structural  form  which  accompanies  graceful 
•movements  and  manners  is  the  slim  and  pliable  structure 
that  bends  with  apparent  ease. 

Gracefulness  Large— A  Swan. 


The  harmonious  combination  of  several  of  the  elements 
entering  into  the  construction  of  the  animal  frame,  has  the 
direct  result  of  producing  an  ease  of  motion,  and  an  absence 
of  constraint  in  the  Muscular  action,  which  comes  under 
the  comprehensive  term  of  Gracefulness.  More  than  the 
proportionate  quantity  of  bone,  results  in  awkwardness  and 
ungainliness ;  while  a  preponderance  of  the  nervous  form 
runs  to  the  opposite  extreme,  and  gives  rise  to  angularity 
of  motion,  fidgetiness,  and  feverish  and  ungraceful  haste 
in  action,  and  so  on  with  disproportion  in  every  other 

Gracefulness  Small— A  male  Hippopotamus,  taken  from  life,  in  the 
Zoological  Gardens  in  London. 

form,  which  in  all  cases  is  fatal  to  that  nameless  beauty  of 
comportment  and  behaviour  which  we  call  grace.  The 
conditions  necessary  for  the  production  of  a  high  degree 
of  grace,  are,  a  fair  share  of  Muscular  force  with  an  equal 
endowment  of  the  Abdominal  powers,  while  the  other  three 
Balient  forms  must  be  balanced,  the  one  with  the  other, 
with  the  utmost  nicety,  without  any  of  them  possessing 
more  than  half  the  degree  of  development  which  has  been 
allotted  to  the  Muscular  and  Abdominal  powers.  Harmony 
of  structure  gives  well-balanced  and  harmonious  curves  of 


motion  displayed  in  every  movement  of  limb  and  muscle, 
and  this  motion  is  the  foundation  of  all  Gracefulness. 



The  curved  line  running  round  the  corners  of  the  mouth, 
while  those  corners  are  depressed  or  indented,  is  natures 
stamp  or  trademark  on  the  visage  of  a  person  who  has 
succeeded,  or  can  do  so  in  some  department  of  life. 

Prosperativeness  Large— Julius  Caesar,         Frosperativeness  Small— AKyast 
the  Dictator,  who,  as  a  Commander,  Banian    man,    of   Surat,    in 

was  eminently  successful.  India. 

To  insure   ultimate  prosperity,  there  must  not  be  any 
very  weak  or  vulnerable  points  in  the  make-up  of  the  bo<Jy, 
such  ill-armed  points  would  certainly  nullify  and  prevent 




the  success  of  any  efforts;  and  expose  the  entire  fortress  to 
betrayal  and  destruction.  For  the  possession  of  the  requi- 
site general  strength,  a  fair  development  is  necessary  of 
thorax,  abdomen,  muscles,  bones,  and  brain,  and  when  this 
proviso  is  granted,  the  signs  above  given  will  be  apparent 




When  one  part  of  the  body  is  equal,  in  due  proportion, 
to  every  other  part  in  strength,  and  no  feature  seems  to 
dominate  the  others  in  size,  and  all  are  rounded,  the  indi- 
vidual who  is  so  happily  framed,  so  essentially  harmonious 
throughout,  should  feel  grateful,  and  endeavour  to  assist 
others  to  like  harmony  in  their  natures. 

Physioharmonitiveness  Small  —Cut 
Rose,  an  Indian,  who,  in  the 
massacre  of  1862,  in  Minnesota, 
murdered  18  women  and  children 
and  5  men. 

Pbysioharmonitiveness  Large  —  O. 
F.  Handel,  a  talented  musician, 
whopf  life  was  occupied  in  pro 
moting  narmony. 


•  By  this  felicitous  condition  of  body  is  implied  the  round- 
ing off  and  dovetailing  of  all  the  different  faculties,  so  as 
to  form  a  mass  whose  principal  distinguishing  feature  is 
that  of  oneness,  or  the  presence  of  a  harmonious  combina- 

Physioliarmonitiveness  Large — Sarah  and  John  Eovin,  aged  respectively 
164  iUid  172  years  of  age. 

tion  of  material,  and  the  absence  of  all  ingredients  not 
having  a  tendency  to  act  in  accord  with  the  others.  The 
harmony  of  music  is  the  result  of  compatibility  and  fitness 
existing  between  the  different  tones,  and  combining  their 
various  powers  of  strength  and  richness,  so  as  to  produce 
an  aggregate  of  delicious  harmony;  and  the  parallel 
between  the  two  is  much  closer  and  more  exact  than  one 
would  at  a  first  glance  be  inclined  to  suspect.  The  above 
signs  will  receive  their  full  signification  when  taken  in 
connection  with  these  remarks. 




The  physiognomical  manifestations  of  Proportionate- 
ness  are  a  due  symmetrical  proportion  of  one  feature  to 


another  joined  in  a  body,  whose  parts  and  features  are  in 
harmonious  accord,  producing  beauty  of  form. 

Proportionativeness    Large  —  Proportionativeness    Small  —  A    Flat- 

Petrarch  Zortan,  185  years  Head  Indian,  of  the  south-east  coast  of 

of  age.  Vancouver  Island,  British  Columbia. 

This  word  is  sufficiently  explicit  and  comprehensive  to 
indicate  the  quality,  or  combination  of  qualities,  of  which 

Proportionativeness  Large — Dr.  John         Proportionativeness      Small  —  A 
Hunter,   one  of  the  most   distin-  Quatsino  Indian,  from  the  north- 

guished  surgeons  of  modern  times.  western    coast    of    Vancouvei 



it  is  the  appellative.  For  the  production  of  a  high  degree 
of  Proportionativeness  there  must  reign  throughout  a  rela- 
tive fitness  of  parts — one  part  having  exactly  that  degree 
of  strength,  and  no  more,  which  puts  it  on  an  equal  footing 
with  the  strength  and  powers  of  the  other  parts.  Where 
these  conditions  are  not  maintained,  the  faculty  cannot 
exist,  except  perhaps  in  a  half-strangled  form,  which  is  not 
entitled  to  be  classed  under  the  name,  Proportionativeness. 



In  the  human  Physiognomy,  the  deductive  faculty  dis- 
covers itself  to  the  observer  by  a  well-dejined  and  prominent 
nose  and  broad  face.  No  person  has  been  ever  known  as 
an  original  and  correct  reasoner  who  had  a  low  flat  nose 
like  that  of  the  Chinamen. 

Deductivenesa  Small— Foolish  Sara.          Seductiveness  Large— John  Locke. 

This    faculty     more    than    any    other    appertaining    to 
humanity,  demands  a  rigidly  even   and   harmonious   dis- 


tribution  of  the  different  elements  in  the  conformation  of 
the  structure,  attended  by  no  ordinary  degree  of  strength 
of  development  in  each.  To  be  able  to  deduce  inferences 
from  premises  with  accuracy  and  correctness  requires  abili- 
ties of  no  ordinary  character,  and  the  deducer  must  be 
thoroughly  well  balanced  and  strengthened  in  his  structure 
throughout,  to  produce  the  soundness  of  judgment  which 
is  required  to  carry  on  mental  analysis.  Strength  is  the 
main  element  here,  and  this  strength  is  evidenced  by  the 
presence  of  the  broad  high  face  which  attends  the  broad, 
high,  and  harmonious  form  generally.  Again,  well  main- 
tained equilibrium  in  the  constituents  of  the  human  frame 
or  organization  is  the  invariable  concomitant  of  a  robust  and 
overflowing  condition  of  health,  and  this  latter  element  is 
one  which  is  almost  indispensable  to  protracted  processes 
of  deduction.  These  are  the  principles  underlying  this 
faculty,  and  the  signs  given  above  must  be  apparent  on 
the  form,  to  the  exact  extent  oi'  tne  development  of  the 
faculty  in  the  structure,  as  vidtus  est  index  animi. 

NATHANIEL  HAWTHORNE,  an  eminent  American  author,  whose  novels 
and  promiscuous  writings  display  unbounded  imagination,  critical  analysis 
couched  in  language  and  style,  clear,  forcible,  graceful,  and  elegant. 


MEN  have  changed  so  much,  and  embodied  so  many  varieties 
of  features,  that  it  would  be  impossible  to  represent  any 
one  individual  that  should  fairly  or  approximately  give 
an  idea  of  the  whole  human  family.  We  will  give,  how- 
ever, a  representative  man  of  the  nation,  tribe,  and  family, 
to  shew  that  it  would  be  neither  truthful  nor  just  to  give 
one  man  as  the  true  type  of  a  race.  The  Europeans,  who 
are  considered  bv  many  writers  to  oe  a  branch  of  the 

King  William  of  Prussia,  a  specimen  of  European. 


Caucasian  race,  and  who  are  supposed  to  have  coine  from 
the  mountains  of  Central  Asia,  may  be  divided  thus:— 

English,  Celtic  and  Saxon. 

Scotch,  Highland  or  Celtic  and  Teutonic. 

Russians,  or  Sclaves. 

Germans,  or  Teutonic. 

Hollanders,  or  Dutch. 

French,  or  Celts. 

Irish,  or    ,, 

Welsh,  or    ,, 

Danes,  or  Scandinavians 

Spaniards,  or  Iberian  and  Celts. 

Now,  let  us  take  those  brothers,  so-called,  and  see  how 
varied  are  the  types  of  men,  and  how  impossible  it  would 
be,  if  we  so  desired,  to  represent  all  of  those  nationalities 
by  one  man.  Of  Jate,  much  discussion  has  arisen  among 
Anthropologists  as  to  whether  mankind  should  be  classified 
in  one,  or  many  races,  hence  there  are  two  schools,  Mono- 
gen  ists  and  Polygenists. 

The  following  i1  lustrations,  from  the  so-called  Indian 
tribes, .  will  fully  satisfy  any  observing  person  that  a  single 
copper-coloured  face  but  ill  represents  the  many  varieties 
to  be  found  in  America  at  the  present  time,  saying  nothing 
about  those  which  are  entirely  extinct 

American  or  Indian  race  represented  by  a  Digger.  (See 
cut  of  a  Digger  Indian  on  page  251.) 

A  Hat  Head  Indian — a  irouc  ana  side  view. 



Among  the  Snakes,  we  have  seen  some  who  resemble 
the  Oneidas,  others  look  like  Pottawottomies,  while  others 
bore  a  favourable  comparison  with  the  Omahas,  and  yet 
many  individuals  of  this  tribe  were  surprisingly  unlike 
any  other. 

Catlin,  in  his  celebrated  work  on  the  Indian  races,  pre- 
sents many  drawings  from  life  of  the  varieties,  in  form, 
shape,  and  feature,  of  the  red  men  of  the  American  con- 
tinent. Some  are  tall,  well-formed,  graceful  as  Apollo,  and 
beautiful  in  feature;  others  are  short,  squat,  crooked- 
limbed,  and  entirely  destitute  of  beauty  or  grace.  Some 
have  been  described  as  generous,  noble-hearted,  and  truth- 
ful; while  others  were  crafty,  c/uel,  and  revengeful.  This 
tribe  delighted  in  manly  sports,  were  abstemious,  mirthful, 
and  enjoyed  purity  of  domestic  lite;  while  that  was  morose, 
gluttonous,  gloomy,  ana  sensual.  Then  how  futile  to 
attempt  the  representation  of  a  race  by  an  individual-^- 
natioris  cannot  be  picturec  bv  isolated  cnaraeters. 

A  Quatsino,  of  the  north-western  coast 
of  Vancouver  Island. 

Cut  Nose,  a  murderous  Indian, 
of  Minnesota. 

The  French  and  Scotch,  said  to  have  sprung  from  the 

A  Digger  Indian,  of  California.     Eating  worms,  grasshoppers,  and  aoorna 
is  a  luxury  often  indulged  in  by  the  Di 


same  bratwh,  are  entirely  dissimilar.  The  Englishman  or 
Russian  would  never  be  suspected  of  being  an  Irishman, 
abroad  or  at  home.  The  flat-bottomed,  broad,  short  Dutch- 
man, who  has  been  first  flattened  by  the  dead  level  of  his 
country,  and  then  has  impressed  his  squat  ideas  in  similar 
shape  on  his  heavy-sterned  sailing  vessels,  his  dumpy 
copper  tea-kettles,  and  even  on  his  short-legged  sheep  and 
cattle,  will  never  be  confounded  with  the  tall,  haughty 
Spaniard,  or  supposed  to  be  descended  from  some  old  Bur- 
gundian  baron,  who  once  held  sway  over  hia  present 
inheritance.  Yet  these  anomalies  among  Europeans  are 
classified  in  a  lump  as  one  race  by  many  authors.  But 
why  call  all  nations  which  may  happen  to  be  white  one 
race?  As  we  find  quite  as  much  variation  among  different 
nations  as  between  so-called  different  races,  why  not  call 
every  nationality  a  distinct  race  ?  This  same  law  of  reason- 
ing will  apply  to  all  races,  nations,  tribes,  or  families  of 
people  who  inhabit  the  earth.  In  our  humble  opinion, 
thousands  of  races  and  tribes  have  peopled  the  earth  which 
are  now  entirely  extinct. 

In  glancing  over  history,  in  various  languages,  we  are 
forced  to  believe  that  the  earlier  races  were  far  larger  than 
those  we  find  now  upon  the  earth.  They  were  undoubtedly 
coarser,  stronger,  and  larger  men,  physically,  than  men  are 
at  present,  but  not  so  highly  organized  mentally.  Cultiva- 
tion and  climatic  influences,  as  well  as  those  resulting  from 
incestuous  marriages,  have  sadly  injured  the  physical 
stature  and  powers  of  man;  while  sensational  excitants 
and  education  have  enlarged  the  brain,  and  given  intellec- 
tual force  and  knowing  power,  which  are  the  great  levers 
of  progress  and  civilization.  These  last  remarks  are 
intended  to  apply  only  to  the  white  races,  as  their  history 
is  the  one  we  have  studied  the  most  fully.  Among  all 
white  races  men  are  growing  smaller  and  weaker  bodily, 
»nd  becoming  more  active  and  useful  mentally.  The 


following  account  of  giants  is  evidence  from  other  authors 
that  in  past  ages  men  were  much  larger  than  those  of  the 
present  day. 

"  In  an  excavation,  made  by  William  Thompson  and 
Robert  Smith,  half  a  mile  north  of  West  Hickory,  they 
exhumed  an  enormous  helmet  of  iron  which  was  corroded 
with  rust.  Further  digging  brought  to  light  a  sword 
which  measured  nine  feet  in  length,  and  after  some  little 
time  they  discovered  the  bones  of  two  very  large  feet. 
Following  up  the  lead,  in  a  few  hours  time  they  unearthed 
a  well-preserved  skeleton  of  an  enormous  giant,  belonging 
to  a  species  of  the  human  family  which  probably  inhabited 
this  part  of  the  world  at  the  time  of  which  the  Bible 
speaks,  when  it  says,  '  and  there  were  giants  in  those  days.' 
The  helmet  is  said  to  be  of  the  shape  of  those  found 
among  the  ruins  of  Nineveh.  The  bones  are  remarkably 
white,  the  teeth  are  all  in  their  places,  and  all  of  them 
are  double,  and  of  extraordinary  size.  These  relics  have 
been  taken  to  Tionesta,  where  they  are  visited  by  large 
numbers  of  persons  daily.  The  giant  must  have  stood 
eighteen  feet  in  his  stockings."  * 

In  one  of  his  recent  lectures,  Professor  Silliman,  the 
younger,  alluded  to  the  discovery  of  an  enormous  lizard 
of  eighty  feet.  From  this  the  Professor  inferred,  as  no 
living  specimen  of  such  magnitude  has  been  found,  that 
the  species  which  it  represents  has  become  degenerated. 
The  verity  of  his  position  he  endeavoured  to  enforce  by 
allusion  to  the  well-known  existence  of  giants  in  olden 
times.  The  following  is  the  list  upon  which  this  singular 
hypothesis  is  based: — 

The  giant  exhibited  at  Rouen  in  1630,  the  Professor 
says,  measured  nearly  eighteen  feet.  Gorapius  saw  a  girl 
that  was  ten  feet  high.  The  giant  Galabra,  brought  from 
Arabia  to  Rome  under  Claudius  Caesar,  was  10  feet  high. 

*  From  the  Oit  City  Times,  Pennsylvania,  December  31,  1SC9. 


The  giant  Ferregus,  slain  by  Orlando,  nephew  of  Charle- 
magne, was  twenty-eight  feet  high.  In  1814,  near  St. 
Germain,  was  found  the  tomb  of  Isorant,  who  was  not 
less  than  thirty  feet  high.  In  1850,  near  Rouen,  was  found 
a  skeleton  whose  skull  held  a  bushel  of  corn,  and  who  was 
nineteen  feet  high.  The  giant  Baeart  was  twenty-two  feet 
high;  his  thigh  bones  were  found  in  1704  near  the  river 
Moderi.  Fannum,  who  lived  in- the  time  of  Eugene  II., 
measured  eleven  and  a-half  feet.  The  chevalier  Scrog,  in 
his  voyage  to  the  Peak  of  Teneriffe,  found  in  one  of  the 
caverns  of  that  mountain  the  head  of  the  Gunich,  who 
had  sixty  teeth,  and  was  not  less  than  fifteen  feet  high. 
In  1623,  near  the  castle  in  Dauphine,  a  tomb  was  found 
which  was  thirty  feet  long,  sixteen  feet  wide,  and  eight 
feet  high,  on  which  was  cut  on  gray  stones  these  words: — 
"Keutolochus  Rex."  The  skeleton  was  found  entire: 
twenty-five  and  a  fourth  feet  long,  ten  feet  across  the 
shoulders,  and  five  feet  from  the  breast-bone  to  the  back. 
Near  Palermo,  in  Sicily,  in  1316,  was  found  the  skeleton 
of  a  giant  thirty  feet  high,  and  in  1559,  another  forty-four 
feet  high.  Near  Mazarino,  in  Sicily,  in  1815,  was  found 
the  skeleton  of  a  giant  thirty  feet  high.  The  head  was 
the  size  of  a  hogshead,  and  each  of  his  teeth  weighed  five 

The  numerous  allusions  which  are  found  in  classical 
authors,  to  the  fact  of  human  beings  of  gigantic  size  having 
ruled  and  fought  for  empire  in  the  ages  past,  are  also  some 
proof  that  the  present  race  has  degenerated  in  size.  It 
seems  to  be  the  natural  tendency  of  all  animal  life  to 
become  smaller,  or  else  its  place  is  filled  by  creations  of 
less  bulky  proportions  possessing  more  intelligence  and 
vsefulness.  The  places  of  the  mighty  saurian,  among 
reptiles,  and  the  mammoth  mastodon,  among  animals,  havo 
long  since  been  supplanted  by  the  crocodile  and  lizard,  tho 
horse,  dog,  ox,  and  sheep,  each  of  which  is  more  useful,  a* 

VAftlOUS   RACES   OF  MEN.  255 

well  a?  more  intelligent,  than  those  mighty  creatures  whose 
past  history  is  written  and  revealed  to  us  in  that  unerring 
book  of  nature — the  solid  rocks. 

As  nature  gave  an  immense  number  of  species  of  animals, 
so  she  produced  an  untold  variety  of  races  of  mankind. 
Some  writers  on  Ethnology  divide  humanity  into  five 
distinct  races,  namely,  the  Caucasian,  Mongolian,  Malay, 
Negro,  and  Indian,  but  a  multitude  of  authorities  disagree 
on  this  point.  Virey  acknowledged  but  two  races.  Jacque- 
not  and  Cuvier  divided  them  into  three.  Kant  gave  his 
opinion  in  favour  of  four.  Blumenbach  divided  them  into 
five — the  common  theory.  Buflfbn  deemed  them  to  be  six. 
Hunter  and  Pritchard  gave  seven.  Agassiz  thinks  there 
are  eight.  Pickering,  eleven.  St.  Vincent  enlarged  to 
fifteen.  Desmoulins  said  there  must  be  sixteen  races.  The 
celebrated  Morton,  twenty-two.  Crawford's  observation 
found  sixty  varieties,  and  Burke  noted  sixty-three.  Very 
much  may  be  written  on  this  subject  of  races,  and  in  a 
subsequent  work  we  propose  to  give  our  views  at  length 
on  this  interesting  department  of  natural  science.  The 
origin  of  the  various  races  is  a  most  interesting  and  puzzling 

Many  a  beautiful,  yet  fabulous,  temple  of  theory  has  been 
set  up  by  philosophers  of  the  past  and  present  regarding 
the  origin  of  man,  and  yet  when  the  winds  of  investigation 
blow  upon  them,  they  vanish  like  the  dew  of  the  early 
morning  before  the  summer's  sun. 

We  have  numerous  evidences  in  history,  as  well 
°.s  the  testimony  of  bone  and  rock,  that  the  men  of 
^revious  ages  were  much  larger  than  at  present,  so  that, 
;aking  these  facts  to  reason  from,  we  can  come  to  no  other 
conclusion  than  that  man  is  physically  degenerating  and 

The  early  history  of  Great  Britain  gives  full  assurance  of 
the  low  mentality  and  barbarism  which  existed  in  that 


country  in  ages  past.  Yet  the  strength  of  those  rude 
warriors  was  amazing.  There  are  spears  and  shields  in 
the  Tower  of  London  which  an  ordinary  man  of  the  present 
day  could  not  handle.  The  suits  of  mailed  armour  are 
enormous  in  weight;  and  the  sword  of  Richard  I.  (Cceur 
de  Lion),  which  that  monarch  wore  in  battle,  is  enough  for 
any  common  soldier  to  carry,  without  using  it  for  warlike 
purposes.  Compare  this  with  the  condition  in  stature, 
intelligence,  and  cultivation  of  the  people  in  England  to-day. 
They  are  shorter,  lighter,  and  weaker,  physically,  but  far 
more  active  mentally ;  and  ten  thousand  times  more  work 
is  accomplished  by  the  machinery  contrived  by  English 
minds  than  was  ever  done  by  the  strong  muscles  of  their 

Our  opinion,  founded  on  these  observations,  is  that 
originally  man  was  a  little  lower,  mentally,  than  the  lowest 
type  of  the  wild  Australian  savage  or  New  Zealander,  and 
the  first  specimen  of  the  genus  homo  was  rather  uncouth 
and  clumsy,  but  strong  enough  to  care  for  and  defend 
himself  against  the  wild  animals  by  which  he  was  sur- 
rounded. We  know  positively  that  man  has  grown  very 
much  in  brain-power,  but  how  low  he  was  in  intellect  at 
the  time,  or  soon  after  his  creation,  remains  an  open 
question.  Yet  we  are  firmly  convinced  f,hat  he  was  always 
a  man  of  some  kind. 

What  are  the  operating  causes  which  go  to  reduce  tho 
physical  size  and  strength  of  mankind?  We  answer,  that 
nothing  wields  a  more  powerful  influence  over  animal  life 
than  climate,  and  its  effect  can  be  more  readily  discerned 
than  all  other  inclining  forces.  In  the  northern  hemisphere 
of  America,  we  find  that  of  late  the  seasons  are  growing 
colder,  the  earth  is  becoming  drier ;  while  in  England  it 
is  the  reverse,  and  this  change  affects  animal  and  vegetable 
life  as  well  as  man.  The  same  specimens  of  trees  grow 
much  larger  in  tropical  and  temperate  regions,  than  in  the 


frigid.  The  pines,  which  grow  upwards  of  a  hundred  feet 
high  in  North  Carolina,  are  small  enough  in  Spitzbergen 
to  be  enclosed  in  a  letter,  without  doubling  the  postage. 
The  oak,  in  the  Arctic  regions,  rarely  reaches  twenty  feet, 
while  in  Alabama  and  Mississippi  it  is  five  times  as  tall. 
Heat  expands  all  substances  in  nature,  and  cold  contracts, 
water  when  converted  into  ice  being  the  only  exception. 
The  Laplanders  and  Esquimaux,  inhabiting  a  cold  region 
in  the  north,  are  about  four  and  a-half  feet  high,  while 
similarly  half  savage  tribes,  living  in  the  warmer  lati- 
tudes of  Africa  and  Asia,  are  as  tall  as  the  best  speci- 
mens of  Europeans.  This  change  in  climate  is  probably 
owing  to  the  Earth  changing  its  poles,  and  tends  constantly 
to  contract  the  bodies  of  men  in  America,  and  expand  those 
of  England,  and  to  dry  up  the  lands  of  America,  while 
England  continues  moist;  and  this  cycle  changes  alter- 
nately in  heat  and  cold  in  each  country  every  few  years. 

Some  attribute  the  lack  of  rain  to  the  clearing  of  our 
American  forest  lands,  while,  in  fact,  it  is  owing  to  the 
increasing  coldness,  which  is  antagonistic  to  moisture.  We 
often  hear  the  well-grounded  assertion,  that  it  is  too  cold 
to  rain.  Those  lands  in  Southern  Illinois,  denominated 
swampy,  and  for  that  reason  given  by  the  United  States 
to  that  State  thirty  years  since,  are  now  all  tillable.  The 
bed  of  the  Mississippi  is  rapidly  filling  up,  and  very  much 
less  water  is  discharged  through  this  mighty  river  than 
even  twenty  years  ago.  Actual  surveys  of  Niagara  Falls 
evince  the  fact  that  less  water,  by  several  inches  in  depth, 
runs  over  the  Falls  to-day  than  did  thirty-five  years  ago, 
or  when  Father  Louis  Hennepin,  during  the  latter  part  of 
the  seventeenth  century,  made  the  first  survey  of  that 
sublime  cataract.  The  oceans  are  receding  from  the  land, 
and  do  not  wash  so  high  upon  their  shores  as  they  did 
two  hundred  years  ago.  Herodotus,  the  great  Greek  his- 
torian, who  wrote  over  four  hundred  years  before  the  birth 


of  Christ,  tells  us,  that  when  Mones,  the  first  sovereign  who 
exercised  dominion  over  the  whole  land  of  Egypt,  ruled, 
his  territories  were  not  very  extensive,  for  all  Lower  Egypt 
was  a  morass.  In  California  are  found  the  fossil  vertebra 
of  whales,  high  up  in  the  gravelly  bank,  which  is  not  now 
reached  by  the  salt  waves  of  the  Pacific.  It  is  true  that 
volcanic  power  could  have  lifted  this  bank,  or  sunk  the  bed 
of  the  ocean,  causing  an  apparent  lessening  of  the  waters; 
but  our  opinion,  formed  from  this  and  other  facts,  leads  us 
to  believe  there  is  less  water  on  the  earth's  surface  than 
there  was  twenty,  fifty,  or  one  hundred  years  since. 

The  water  is  gradually  being  taken  up  in  the  process  of 
building  the  vegetable  world,  and  thus  converted  into  solid 
substances.  Hydrogen,  the  basis  of  vegetable  life,  is  one 
of  the  constituents  forming  water,  by  a  union  with  ox}Tgen, 
and  these  two  elements  largely  abound  in  vegetable  and 
mineral  substances.  Great  changes  are  taking  place  on  the 
surface  of  our  globe  through  the  agency  of  electricity  and 
chemical  action,  and  all  these  changes  tend  to  lessen  the 
general  bulk  of  the  atmosphere  and  the  oceans,  by 
converting  them  into  solids.  Thus,  things  which  are 
seen  are  constantly  coming  from  those  things  which  are 

Electricity  appears  to  have  been  a  primal  agency  in 
moulding  the  visible  universe  into  its  present  rounded  form. 
The  lightning  currents  passing  through  the  coil  of  an  electro- 
magnet, obtains  increased  power  and  intensity  by  taking 
the  round  or  spiral  direction,  and  if  a  sufficiently  strong 
current  can  be  produced,  solid  masses  of  iron  may  be  sup- 
ported within  the  centre  of  the  electric  force,  apparently 
isolated  from  all  surrounding  bodies. 

The  telescope  has  revealed  the  fact  that  many  of  the 
distant  groups  of  nebulas  partake  of  the  same  circular 
or  spiral  form;  and  whether  we  watch  a  tiny  mote  float- 
ing in  the  sunbeam,  or  a  mighty  star  sailing  through 


immensity,  the  same  law  of  circles  seems  to  prevail  and 
govern  both.  To  Electricity,  then,  we  attribute  the  cause, 
in  the  Creator's  hands,  of  all  the  forms  of  matter  which 
surround  us,  and  to  its  continued  action  may  we  assign 
the  changes  which  are  at  present  occurring  on  the  surface 
of  the  earth. 

During  the  revolutionary  war  in  America,  we  are  told 
the  average  weight  of  officers  in  the  army  was  200 
pounds;  and  during  the  late  civil  war,  the  average  amounted 
to  but  149  pounds.  This  is  a  decrease  of  51  pounds  in 
about  eighty  years,  and  if  reliable,  is  certainly  a  striking 
proof  of  the  gradual  decline  in  physical  strength  of  the 
people  of  the  American  continent. 

The  average  height  of  the  corn  stalks  in  Illinois  is 
decreasing,  while  the  size  of.  the  ears  of  corn  diminishes 
in  a  similar  ratio.  The  grasses  are  likewise  much  less  in 
height  than  formerly.  All  this  is  owing  to  a  lessened  mean 
temperature  of  the  atmosphere,  and  a  consequent  lack  of 
humidity,  which  is  the  right  hand  support  of  all  vegetation. 
How  do  we  discover  that  North  America  is  becoming 
colder?  There  are  many  evidences,  a  few  of  which  we 
will  offer: — At  that  geological  period,  known  as  the  Car- 
boniferous era,  when  the  vegetable  matter  which'  forms 
our  vast  beds  of  coal  was  growing  and  being  deposited 
in  successive  layers,  there  were  ferns  and  other  specimens 
of  Cryptogamous  plants  growing  in  the  north  temperate 
zone  more  than  120  feet  in  height:  now,  the  largest  ferns 
in  the  same  region  are  but  samples  of  vegetation.  The 
coal-forming  era  required  much  greater  heat  for  the  main- 
tenance and  rapid  growth  of  those  rank  pulpy  mosses 
which  have  no  existence  at  the  present  time.  The  atmo- 
sphere held  a  larger  amount  of  carbonic  acid  gas,  and  was 
therefore  more  dense,  supplying  the  necessary  food  to 
those  swift-developing  vegetable  forms.  The  rapid  decay 
of  the  falling  vegetation  would  cause  partial  combustion, 


which  in  itself  evolved  a  great  amount  of  heat.  The  fossil 
remains  of  animals  are  found  in  the  rocks  of  temperate 
regions,  which  now  only  inhabit  the  warm  regions  near 
the  equator.  The  habits  of  those  creatures  were  fitted 
for,  and  their  food  could  alone  be  obtained  in  very  warm 
climates,  yet  their  remains  are  found  imbedded  in  the  ice, 
far  to  the  north,  in  the  region  of  perpetual  snow.  It  is 
evident,  when  they  were  alive,  this  cold  climate  was  then 
much  warmer. 

Again,  the  strong  assertions  of  old  men,  who  are  now 
living,  that  the  seasons  are  far  colder  of  late  years  than 
when  they  were  young,  is  another  substantiation  of  this 
fact.  The  cause  of  our  Indian  summer  may  be  partially 
explained  by  the  combustion  of  the  dropping  leaves  in 
the  fall.  This  combustion  warms  the  atmosphere.  As  the  • 
forests  are  removed,  the  amount  of  falling  foliage  is  lessened, 
consequently  our  Indian  summers  are  gradually  vanishing 
or  less  apparent.  The  cause  being  removed,  the  effect 
disappears.  The  application  of  those  facts  to  the  causes 
which  have  operated,  and  are  still  operating,  in  producing 
varieties  of  race  among  men  are  very  clear.  Given,  a 
change  of  climate,  food,  and  surroundings,  and  man  changes. 
The  Duke  of  Sutherland  imported  some  very  fine  specimens 
of  pure  merino  sheep  into  Scotland  some  years  since.  When 
those  animals  reached  their  new  home,  their  wool -was  long 
and  silky.  They  were  carefully  kept  separate  from  Scottish 
sheep,  and  watched  and  fed  by  attentive  shepherds,  yet  in 
three  generations  their  wool  was  as  short  and  curly  as  that 
of  any  Highlander's  flock  in  the  country. 

Another  instance.  Some  fine  thorough-bred  hogs  were 
shipped  to  the  Cape  of  Good  Hope  for  the  purpose  of 
replacing  the  long-nosed,  slender-bodied  chasers,  common 
to  that  part  of  Africa.  Notwithstanding  all  the  care  taken 
to  preserve  the  purity  of  the  breed,  a  very  short  time 
was  sufficient  to  change  all  their  characteristics,  and  their 


descendants  were  more  like  kangaroos  than  decent  hogs. 
Climate  had  done  its  work.  So  with  man,  the  varieties 
or  races  vary  as  he  moves  east  or  west,  north  or  south. 
If  the  temperature  of  the  earth's  surface  changes,  he  must 
conform  to  the  change,  and  obey  nature's  mandates.  The 
laws  of  nature  are  immutable,  but  their  operations  are 
constantly  producing  variations  in  the  form  and  character 
of  every  living  creature  within  her  boundaries. 

"  TRUGANINI,"  native  of  Tasmania,  with  features  representing  igno- 
rance, imprudence,  stupidity,  loquacity,  and  cannibalism.  Her  large, 
prominent  forehead  does  not,  white  her  infantile  face  does,  show  her 
mental  weakness. 


IN  looking  back  over  the  records  of  history  left  by  ancient 
races  in  their  traditions,  monuments,  and  language,  we  see 
indications  of  varying  colour  in  tribes  and  races  of  men. 

Some  of  the  ancient  marbles,  recording  the  triumphs 
of  the  old  Assyrian  kings,  portray  light  and  dark  races 
chained  as  prisoners  of  war  to  their  cars  of  triumph. 

The  Gothic  tribes,  from  which  sprung  many  of  the 
present  European  nations,  were  a  fair-skinned,  light-haired, 
and  blue-eyed  race ;  large  of  lirab  and  tall  of  stature. 

The  Celtic  race  are  said  to  have  been  short,  small,  and 
swarthy  in  complexion.  These  facts  are  enough  to  prove 
that  a  variation  in  colour,  &c.,  existed  many  thousands  of 
years  ago;  the  Assyrian  nv  .bles  being  estimated  to  be 
5,000  years  old. 

The  entire  period  of  human  History  contributes  to  prove 
that  the  light-haired,  blue-eyed  races  are  capable  of  the 
highest  degree  of  civilization,  and  this  race  is  produced 
and  flourishes  only  in  the  temperate  zones.  There  was 
a  period  when  blue-eyed  persons  were  rarely  seen,  and 
to-day,  seven-eighths  of  the  world's  inhabitants  have  dark 
eyes.  Varying  circumstances,  and  the  intermarriage  of 
different  races  in  temperate  climates,  will  in  time  change 
the  colour  of  any  race  and  produce  blue  eyes. 


By  transporting  the  African  to  the  temperate  regions 
of  the  United  States  or  England,  great  changes  may  occur, 
but  1,000  years  would  not  be  capable  of  making  him  into 
an  Anglo-Saxon  or  Celt,  Greek  or  Roman. 

Classical  authors  have  described  some  of  the  barbarous 
Germanic  races  as  having  been  xanthous,  and  others  as 
melanic  in  complexion. 

Tacitus,  for  example,  thus  describes  the  Germans  as  fierce, 
with  blue  eyes  and  red  hair,  having  large  and  powerful 
bodies.  "  Habitus  quoque  corporum,  quanquam,  in  tanto 
hominum,  numero  idem  omnibus  truces  et  cerulei  oculi, 
rutilee  comae  mayna,  corpora,  et  cerulei,  oculi  impetum 

Horace  makes  mention  of  the  fact  that  there  were  many 
blue-eyed  youths  in  Germany — "  Nee  fera  ccei^ulea  domuit 
Germanica  pube." 

Ausonius  and  Lucan  each  called  the  Germans  yellow- 
haired  and  blue-eyed. 

The  ancient  Danes  are  spoken  of  as  light  of  hair  and 

Diodorus,  Silius,  Livy,  and  Strabo,  each  mentions  that 
some  of  the  Celts  and  Gauls  had  red,  yellow,  and  golden 
hair,  or  flavus  and  retilus.  Yet  it  is  generally  acknow- 
ledged that  the  Celtic  race  were  swarthy  and  dark-haired, 
with  very  few  exceptions. 

With  the  above  historical  proofs,  we  will  proceed  to  offer 
a  scientific  basis  for  this  variation  in  colour,  &c.  The  law 
of  progress  develops  itself  only  amongst  the  variegated 
races,  as  those  having  different  colour  of  hair,  eyes,  and 
complexion.  This  law  of  variation  has  its  origin  in  the 
Caucasian  race,  and  the  fact  of  variety  in  one  race  proves 
it  can  be  brought  to  a  great  degree  of  perfection. 

It  is  a  curious  fact,  that  all  the  animals  domesticated 
with  us,  which  are  of  any  benefit  to  mankind,  had  their 
origin  in  the  mountains  of  the  Caucasus,  and  the  same  law 


of  variety  in  colour,  which  proves  man  capable  of  a  high 
order  of  civilization,  also  finds  its  counterpart  among 
animals.  Wherever  we  discover  colour  unchangeable  in 
animals,  from  parent  to  offspring,  there  we  have  inability 
for  domestication,  or  uselessness. 

The  black  bear,  the  zebra,  the  tiger,  are  all  animals 
untamable,  resisting  all  efforts  of  man  to  subdue  them, 
and  their  colours  are  as  fixed  as  their  natures;  they  never 
change  in  stripe  or  spot,  more  or  less. 

On  the  contrary,  the  domestic  animals  are  constantly 
vaiying  in  colour,  and  their  progress  in  usefulness  and 
gentleness  of  character  is  steadily  advancing. 

The  dark  races,  where  the  universality  of  colour  prevails, 
are  as  perfect  as  they  will  ever  be  while  remaining  on  the 
plane  where  the  Creator  has  placed  them. 

Take  the  Indian  as  an  example, — he  is  perfect  in  the 
place  in  which  we  find  him,  and  every  thing  he  has  about 
him  is  just  as  perfect,  as  it  has  more  than  one  entire  office  to 
perform.  Examine,  if  you  please,  the  Indian's  frail  canoe. 
All  the  science  of  naval  architecture  cannot  contrive  a  more 
perfect  thing.  It  is  constructed  of  the  lightest  possible 
material,  carries  the  heaviest  burthen,  draws  the  lightest 
draft,  and  is  propelled  by  less  power  than  any  other  pro- 
portionate vessel.  He  paddles  it  up  the  smallest  streams; 
he  comes  to  falls;  takes  it  out  and  carries  it  round,  and 
sets  it  afloat  once  more  upon  the  stream,  and  it  goes  wher- 
ever his  will  or  discretion  may  chance  optate. 

The  cool  shadows  of  the  night  gather  in  the  valleys, 
and  he  draws  his  canoe  on  shore,  turns  it  over,  and  a  pro- 
tecting roof  is  afforded. 

His  modes  of  warfare  are  adapted  by  nature  to  his  wants 
lie  cuts  his  bow  from  the  first  tree,  while  another  furnishes 
the  arrow;  the  sinews  of  the  deer  supply  the  string,  and, 
thus  equipped  and  armed,  he  is  ready  for  war  or  the  chase. 
It  is  well  known  that  the  bow  and  arrow,  in  the  hands  of 

COLOURS   OF   RACES   AND   WHAT  THE?   INDICATE.          265 

an  Indian  hunter,  is  not  inferior,  as  a  means  of  securing 
the  buffalo  or  bear,  to  any  instrument  used  by  civilized 

The  Indian,  with  his  well-trained  mature  muscle,  will 
draw  a  bow  which  a  white  man  cannot  bend,  and  will 
drive  an  arrow  like  lightning  through  the  tough  hide  of  a 
buffalo  as  large  as  an  ox.  Yet  this  same  powerful  and 
dark-skinned  race  cannot  withstand  the  influences  of 
civilization,  and  ultimately  fades  away  before  them  like 
dew  before  the  morning  sun. 

It  is  only  a  few  years  since  the  North  American  Indians 
inhabited  that  continent  from  ocean  to  ocean.  But  the 
effect  of  civilization,  in  the  short  space  of  two  centuries,  has 
driven  them  to  the  base  of  the  Rocky  Mountains,  and  into 
the  deserts  of  Mexico,  from  the  Atlantic  and  Pacific  coasts. 

The  commercial  enterprises  of  the  fair-skinned  races  have 
well-nigh  obliterated  those  once  powerful  tribes. 

This  Indian  transmits  the  same  colour  of  hair,  skin,  and 
eyes,  to  succeeding  generations  without  a  single  variation, 
and  he  cannot  be  domesticated;  while  the  Caucasian  has 
DO  assurance  that  his  children  will  bear  the  same  com- 
plexion, shade  of  hair,  or  colour  of  eyes  as  himself  or  wife. 
In  his  family,  both  parents  may  be  blue-eyed,  and  half 
the  children  may  have  eyes  that  are  black  or  gray,  yet 
the  whole  family  are  capable  of  the  highest  mental, 
moral,  and  social  culture. 

Reasoning  from  analogy,  the  whiter  anything  is,  the 
more  pure  and  perfect  it  is  likely  to  be  of  that  species. 

The  Guinea  negro  being  the  darkest  of  all  races,  is  the 
most  impure  and  imperfect;  but  the  negroes  in  America 
are  far  removed  from  the  Guinea  type;  while,  in  con- 
trast with  these,  the  white  races  move  in  the  highest 
plane  of  social  life,  and  are  foremost  in  the  march  of 

Look  at  this  from   another   point   of  view.     Take   the 


various  kinds  of  wood,  and  we  shall  find  the  white  the 
most  perfect. 

The  oak,  which  has  proudly  braved  the  storms ;  of  this, 
the  black  is  the  poorest,  then  the  red  is  a  little  better,  the 
yellow  still  superior  to  the  former  two,  but  the  white  oak 
is  the  most  perfect  of  its  species. 

Then,  again,  suppose  you  wish  to  select  a  stone  ;  there 
is  the  dark  blue  slate,  or  a  better  one,  the  gray  granite, 
or  still  better,  the  white  marble;  but  the  most  perfect  and 
durable  is  the  diamond,  which  is  the  whitest  and  most 
valuable,  being  pure  crystallized  carbon,  standing  at  the 
head  of  the  mineral  kingdom. 

Thus,  reasoning  from  all  nature,  darkness  and  barbarism 
are  synonymous  terms.  How  much  purer  is  silver  than 
copper  or  iron;  and  platinum,  which  is  white  as  silver,  is 
the  purest  of  the  gross  metals. 

Sugar,  when  not  refined,  is  dark  brown,  yet  afterwards 
becomes  white. 

Coal  oil,  as  it  comes  from  the  well,  is  black,  but  after 
being  distilled  becomes  red,  then  yellow,  and  finally,  with 
thorough  purification  by  refining,  it  assumes  the  trans- 
parency of  water,  and  is  colourless. 

Many  other  illustrations  of  the  theory  may  be  found  in 
God's  great  laboratory — nature.  Take  a  sheet  of  common 
white  paper,  how  much  more  pure  it  is  than  when  it  was 
rags.  Chloride  of  lime,  pure  water,  and  the  mechanical 
ingenuity  of  the  manufacturer,  unite  to  make  it  white 
and  pure. 

Let  us  once  more  turn  to  the  animal  kingdom.  We 
shall  find  the  offspring  of  all  birds  or  animals  are  untam- 
able which  shew  no  variation  in  colour  of  hair  or  feathers. 
Instances  have  been  known  where  the  bear,  fox,  leopard, 
or  tiger  have  been  supposed  to  be  tamed  or  domesticated, 
having  been  taken  when  young ;  but,  as  their  nature 
matured,  they  have  seized  a  child,  and  tearing  the  help- 


less  creature  in  pieces,  have  then  returned  to  their  savage 
companions  in  the  forest.  Those  animals  never  vary  in 
colour  from  their  parents. 

The  wild  goose  and  turkey,  after  months  of  domestic 
life,  betake  themselves  to  aerial  flights  at  the  first  oppor- 
tunity, preferring  a  free  wild  life  to  a  domestic  one. 

The  horse,  dog,  sheep,  pig,  and  cattle,  are  ever  varying 
in  colour  from  the  original  stock.  The  black  sheep  in  a 
family  is  sometimes  found  in  the  human  one,  as  well  as 
in  the  woolly  flock. 

All  the  fruits  and  vegetables  which  flourish  well  in  a 
state  of  culture,  are  those  which  vary  in  the  seedling,  as 
the  potatoe,  turnip,  apple,  pear,  peach,  plum,  cherry,  &c.,  &c. 
These  all  had  their  origin  where  the  white  race  flourished. 

We  must  conclude,  therefore,  that  colour  is  the  banner 
under  which  nationalities  and  types  are  to  be  classified, 
as  far  as  regards  their  susceptibility  of  improvement. 

The  following  comparison  from  nature  will  shew  how 
she  colours  her  different  departments.  All  things  corres- 
pond ;  nothing  is  out  of  proportion  or  disarranged. 

In  spring  everything  is  green,  the  skies  green  or  blue 
to  correspond. 

In  summer  there  is  some  haze,  and  the  sun  in  rising  and 
setting  gives  off  a  golden  expression,  so  the  fields  reflect  a 
yellow  light. 

The  autumn  presents  a  more  mellow  appearance;  the  air 
is  balmy,  the  fruits  give  forth  their  odours,  the  smoke  and 
haze  of  fall  takes  off  the  sharpness  of  the  keen  sunlight, 
and  softens  the  purple  and  brown  tints  upon  the  hill  sides 
into  glorious  landscapes  of  richest  hues. 

Then  comes  cold,  cheerless,  and  cloudy  winter,  with  his 
snowy  mantle  enveloping  all  nature  in  white  folda  The 
chill  winds  drive  back  life's  scarlet  flow,  until  the  cheeks 
of  human  kind  vie  with  the  colourless  surroundings. 

There    are    hares    (Lepus    timidus)     in    Central    New 


York  that  are  white  in  winter  and  gray  in  summer,  and 
weasels,  or  more  correctly  stoats  (Mammalia  carnivora), 
which  exchange  their  summer  gray  for  winter  white. 

These  facts  only  prove  that  nature  keeps  in  harmony 
with  herself  in  all  her  different  departments. 

Nature  being  our  sole  true  teacher,  we  should  take 
lessons  from  her  in  choosing  the  colours  of  our  garments 
for  different  seasons.  Each  period  should  have  its  dress 
to  correspond,  and  humanity  should  display  as  much 
sense  of  appropriateness  in  apparel,  as  other  portions  of 
animal  life. 

In  winter,  in  snowy  regions,  we  should  wear  white;  or, 
if  heavy  clouds  shade  and  darken  the  land,  we  should  wear 

In  spring,  something  green  would  harmonize  with  nature, 
and  in  summer,  lighter  colours,  such  as  blue  and  buff  would 
accord  well. 

When  the  fall  comes,  browning  the  foliage  and  vegetation, 
the  lesson  taught  is,  to  wear  brown  or  gray,  and  such  flowers 
as  are  of  a  dark  colour. 

In  spring,  the  flowers  worn  should  be  bright,  like  the 
blossoms  of  earth.  As  each  season  has  its  garb  to  be  in 
harmony  with  it,  so  we  should  adapt  our  colours  to  its 
prevailing  tints,  that  we  may  appear  to  belong  to  that 
world  of  which  we  are  all  a  part. 

The  colours  of  races  would  be  adjusted  in   accordance 
1    with  the  same  natural  law.      Cold  white  countries  would 
have   animals   of  the   same   complexion,   and   people   who 
would  correspond  with  their  surroundings. 

But,  we  suppose  that  the  different  periods  of  the  world 
have  produced  varying  colours  of  races;  for  the  Indians, 
whether  found  in  warm  or  cold  climates,  are  dark  and 
coppery.  The  deductions  to  be  made  are  these : — The 
carboniferous  era  produced  dark  animals,  dark  people,  and 
dark  earth  formations,  and  as  the  earth  grew  colder,  the 


people  became  lighter  who  had  their  origin  at  a  later 
period,  and  thus  was  the  earth  peopled. 

We  find  everything  corresponds  with  this  deduction. 
The  oldest  inhabitants  should  be  the  most  degraded,  and 
the  latest  production  the  most  enlightened;  and  such  is 
the  fact.  The  dark  races  are  fading  away.  We  believe 
the  dark  races  inhabited  the  whole  world  at  one  time; 
then  came  the  lighter  or  coppery  race,  who  peopled  the 
earth  and  flourished  for  a  time.  Then,  at  a  later  period, 
the  white  races  made  their  appearance,  and  with  them 
came  great  advances  in  progress,  which  surpassed  all  former 
growth, — each  class  of  the  white  race  being  superior  to 
that  preceding  it. 

We  think  this  will  be  found  to  be  the  true  solution  of 
the  problem, — the  cause  of  the  production  of  lighter  races 
in  succession  being,  because  nature,  with  her  unerring  laws, 
demands  a  correspondence  in  colour,  as  well  as  in  all  other 
characteristics.  The  white  races  are  advancing,  and  indeed 
all  races  move  from  the  coarser  to  the  finer  texture,  from 
the  physical  to  the  spiritual. 

The  Indian  is  a  superior  being  to  the  Negro,  and  the 
white  man  is  superior  to  them  both.  Thus  we  find  that 
in  the  creation,  as  we  rise  in  intellect,  the  animal  tribes 
and  man  are  possessed  of  more  complicated  organs  of 
thought,  and,  as  a  result,  of  more  intelligence. 


"Be  fruitful,  and  multiply,  and  replenish  the  earth."— GEN",  ix.  1. 

NATURE  has  placed  in  all  vegetable  and  animal  life  a 
principle  of  reproduction,  of  which  the  cardinal  character- 
istic is,  that  like  produces  like.  The  theory  of  spontaneous 
generation  denies  this  characteristic,  by  asserting  that, 
under  favourable  conditions,  inert  matter  can  give  rise  to 
what  is  so  essentially  different  from  itself,  as  vitalized  or 
moving  matter.  The  &  priori  argument  is,  however,  so 
strong  against  the  possibility  of  that  which  is  dead  origi- 
nating that  which  is  living,  that  I  consider  it  much  more 
reasonable  to  suppose  that,  under  those  circumstances  which 
are  falsely  conceived  to  favour  spontaneous  generation, 
veritable  living  germs  are  developed  into  a  size  and 
activity  which,  for  the  first  time,  bring  them  within  the 
range  of  human  cognition.  This  theory  of  spontaneous 
generation  has  actually  been  carried  to  the  extreme  hypo- 
thesis, that  the  earth,  of  her  own  inherent  energy,  produced 
the  first  human  beings, — in  other  words,  the  proposition 
has  been  broached,  that  matter  could  give  rise  to  mind. 
Even  the  Greek  mythologists,  in  their  fanciful  account  of 
the  origin  of  man,  escaped  this  materialistic  tendency,  for 
while,  according  to  the  fable,  Prometheus  succeeded  in 
fashioning  clay  into  the  human  form,  he  was  yet  obliged  to 
obtain  from  heaven  the  divine  fire — the  ethereal  flame — by 


which  alone  he  could  inspire  his  creatures  with  life  and 

But  although  the  thing  produced  always  bears  a  clearly 
marked  resemblance  to  the  producing  agent,  it  cannot  be 
an  exact  copy  of  the  parent  stock,  unless  it  is  generated 
under  exactly  the  same  circumstances.  Those  variations  of 
type  which  are  the  result  of  the  varieties  of  circumstance, 
have  been  referred  by  Mr.  Darwin  to  what  he  calls  Natural 
Selection,  and  still  more  lately  described  by  Mr.  Spencer  as 
the  Survival  of  the  Fittest.  The  causes  of  variation  in  the 
structure  and  functions  of  the  successive  generations  of  a 
species  are,  in  some  instances,  clearly  discernible;  but  in  the 
vast  majority  of  cases  they  elude  discovery.  It  sometimes 
happens  that  the  variations  of  structure  fail  to  keep  pace 
with  the  changes  in  circumstance.  For  example,  a  recent 
English  writer  has  pointed  out  a  number  of  organs  in  the 
human  system,  such  as  the  spleen  and  the  pineal  gland, 
which  at  one  time  doubtless  served  some  purpose  in  the 
animal  economy,  but  having  now  survived  their  usefulness, 
continue  to  exist  only  as  the  mysterious  representatives  of 
past  conditions  of  human  life. 

The  generative  propensity  is  the  subtle  source  of  a 
powerful  attraction  to  the  opposite  sex;  but  those  who 
are  deficient  in  this  regard  have  at  least  this  compensation, 
that  they  find  it  comparatively  easy  to  preserve  the  modest 
reserve  of  their  manners  and  the  virtue  of  their  character. 
This  appears,  when  we  consider  that  a  great  capacity  for 
generation  induces  a  strong  inclination  to  sexual  connection, 
for  it  is  a  law  of  nature,  that  those  who  are  liberally 
endowed  with  any  capacity  are  always  prompted  to  its 
liberal  using.  Those  animals  with  large  mouths  are  natur- 
ally large  feeders,  while  those  which  possess  dilated  nostrils 
are  gifted  with  a  keen  scent,  and  a  strong  disposition  to 
use  it.  If  a  man  ia  largely  endowed  with  the  numerical 
faculty,  he  will  so  delight  in  its  use  that  he  will  almost 


involuntarily  count  the  telegraph  poles  on  his  way,  or  the 
planks  in  the  bridge  which  he  crosses.  The  generative 
capacity  is  no  exception  to  this  rule;  hence  it  always 
gtimulates  desire,  and  renders  self-restraint  difficult. 

Human  beings  differ  greatly  in  their  productive  capacity ; 
some  persons  being  blessed  with  very  large  families,  while 
others  appear  incapable  of  generation.  The  desire  of  off- 
spring— the  wish  to  stamp  one's  nature,  as  well  as  to 
transmit  one's  name  and  fortune — is  one  of  the  most  natural, 
general,  and  useful  of  human  passions.  The  Jews,  in 
common  with  most  ancient  nations,  considered  a  large 
family  a  great  social  distinction;  and  the  Romans  rewarded 
the  parents  of  many  children  with  civic  honours.  But  in 
these  days  of  luxury  and  selfishness,  children  are  too  often 
considered  a  nuisance,  whose  birth  is  to  be  prevented,  if 
possible,  and  whose  rearing  is  to  be  transferred  to  ignorant 
and  irresponsible  servants. 

Girls  are  usually  trained  to  believe  that  animal  passion 
is;  among  women  at  least,  a  sign  of  coarseness,  whereas,  in 
either  sex,  it  is  the  invariable  accompaniment  of  a  perfect 
physical  organization.  Generation  transmits  the  essence 
of  life,  and  the  generative  impulse  shews,  therefore,  an 
abundance  of  the  life  force.  Washington  and  Jackson  were 
childless,  but  the  life-element  of  these  great  men  was 
employed  in  loftier  and  more  useful  exercises  than  the 
mere  multiplication  of  the  species.  The  inferiority  of  the 
children  of  great  men  has  been  often  and  justly  remarked, 
yet  the  rule  is  not  without  exceptions,  as  we  see  in  the 
case  of  the  Adams  family  in  America,  and  in  the  Pitts 
and  Foxes  of  England.  In  the  latter  country,  the  sons  of 
Mrs.  Trollope,  Disraeli,  and  Bulwer,  and  the  daughters 
of  Thackeray  have  all  achieved  literary  distinction;  and 
in  France,  the  sons  of  Paul  de  Kock,  Alexander  Duinasi 
George  Sand,  and  Victor  Hugo  have  been  equally  cele- 


The  importance  of  generation  in  the  economy  of  nature 
is  plainly  manifested  by  the  assiduous  care  with  which  it 
is  guarded.  In  the  vegetable  kingdom,  the  seeds  are 
wrapped  until  fully  ripe,  and  often  long  after  ripening,  in 
a  protecting  envelope.  They  are,  moreover,  placed  in  that 
part  of  the  flower  or  fruit  where  they  are  least  likely  to 
be  broken  or  prematurely  dispersed,  as  in  the  apple,  peach, 
&c.  In  like  manner,  in  all  animal  life,  including  the  human 
species,  the  organs  of  generation  are  so  located  as  to  be 
most  effectually  protected  from  external  injury.  Here,  as 
everywhere,  we  have  occasion  to  trace  the  wisdom  and 
goodness  of  the  Creator,  and  to  acknowledge,  in  silent 
adoration,  the  perfection  of  His  orderings. 

"  Even  if  I  would,  I  could  not ; 
Even  if  I  could,  I  would  not 
Turn  the  course  of  Time's  great  river, 
In  its  grand  majestic  flow; 
Grapple  with  those  mighty  causes, 
Whose  results  I  may  not  know. 
All  life's  sorrows  end  in  blessing*, 
As  the  future  yet  shall  show." 

We  find  by  observation,  that  the  most  prolific  animals 
are  of  a  round  form.  The  turtle,  which  lays  from  sixty  to 
one  hundred  eggs  per  season,  is  nearly  as  round  as  a  ball, 
and  the  domestic  hen  is  of  a  similar  figure.  Those  human 
beings  who  are  remarkable  for  their  generative  capacity 
have  this  same  round  build.  They  are  also  distinguished  by 
the  prominence  and  width  of  the  face  in  the  region  of  the 
eyes.  The  desire  of  coition,  which  is  an  attempt  at  pro- 
duction, is  the  invariable  result  of  all  ardent  love  for  the 
opposite  sex.  Hence  the  eyes,  which  are  one  of  the  signs 
of  love,  are  placed  in  juxtaposition  with  the  sign  of  the 
generative  propensity;  for  whenever  nature  assigns  a  similar 
function  to  any  two  parts  of  the  body,  she  always  places 
them  in  close  local  connection.  The  face  of  the  rabbit 
which  bears  more  young  at  a  single  birth  than  most 



animals,  is  widest  at  the  eyes,  from  which  point  it  rapidly 
narrows  above  and  below.  Hogs  are  rather  wide  and 
full  at  the  eyes;  and  they  bear  several  at  a  birth,  and 
sometimes  bring  forth  two,  and  even  three  litters  in  a 

The  multiparous  animals,  such  as  the  cat  (Felis  domes- 
tica),  and  the  rabbit  (Lepus  cuniculus),  all  measure  wide 
across  the  head  at  the  eyes.  Those  which  are  biparous  are 
narrower  in  this  region,  while  the  uniparous  species  are  the 
narrowest  of  all.  The  cow,  which  usually  brings  forth  but 
one  calf  at  a  birth,  and  never  produces  but  once  in  a  year, 
is  as  large  or  larger  at  her  horns  than  across  her  eyes. 
Among  human  beings,  hollow  temples  and  sunken  eyes 
are  the  invariable  signs  of  unfruitfuluess.  Jackson's  face 
is  remarkable  for  its  narrowness  in  the  region  of  the  eyes. 

I  append  a  brief  and  incomplete  list  of  those  animals  which 
may  be  considered  peculiarly  typical  of  the  uniparous, 
biparous,  and  multiparous  zoological  groups: — • 


African  Elephant,          .         .        .  Loxodonta  Africana. 

Indian  Elephant,  ....  Elephas  Indicus. 

Indian  Rhinoceros,        .        .         .  Rhinoceros  unicornis. 

Rhinaster,  or  Borele,     .        .        .  Rhinoceros  bicornis. 

Keitloa,         .....  Rhinoceros  Keitloa. 

Kobaoba, Rhinoceros  Oswellii. 

White  Rhinoceros,         .        .        .  Rhinoceros  Simus. 

Hippopotamus,  or  Zeekoe,    .         .  Hippopotamus  amphibiut, 

Tapir,    ......  Tapirus  terrestris. 

Kuda — Ayer  or  Malayan  Tapir,     .  Tapirus  Malayoniu. 

Zebra, Asinua  Zebra. 

Quagga, AiditUis  Quagga. 

Dziggetai  or  Koulan,     .        .        .  Acinus  Onager. 

Ass, Asinus  Bulgaria 

Buffalo,          .....  Bubalus  bujfrlus. 

Cape  Buffalo,          ....  Bubalus  Caffer. 

Banteng,  or  Javan  Ox,  .         .         .  Bibos  Banteng. 

Bison,   ......  Bison  America nua, 

Aurochs, Bison  Bonaxsus. 

Camel,  .  •         .         .  Camelus  A  rabicus, 

Bac  Irian  Camel,    .        •        •        .  Camelua  Bactrianut. 


Alpaca  Llama,       ....  Llama  Pacoi. 

Ox, Domestic. 

Zebu Bos  Indicus. 

Horse Wild  and  domestic. 

Roebuck,      .....  Capreolus  Caproea. 

Reindeer,      .....  Tarandus  Rangifer. 

Stag  or  Red  Deer,         .        .        .  Cervus  Elaphus. 

Fallow  Deer,         ....  Dama  Vulyaris. 

Sheep,  ......  Oris  Aries. 

Goat, Hircus  Aegagrus. 

Giraffe, Girajfe  Camelopardalit. 

Eland,  ......  Orcas  Canna. 

Ibex,     ......  Capra  Ibex. 

Koodoo,         .....  Strepsiceros  Kudu. 

Hartbeest, Alcephalus  Caama. 

Brindled  Gnoo Connochetes  Gorgon. 

Rock  Kangaroo,    ....  Petrogale  pencillata. 

Woolly  Kaiigaroo,          ...  Macropus  Laniger. 


Brown  Bear,         ....  Ursus  Arctos. 

Syrian  Bear,          ....  Ursus  Isabellinus. 

American  Black  Bear,  .         .         .  Ursus  Americanua. 

Grizzly  Bear,         ....  Ursus  Horribilis. 

Seal, Phoca  Vitulina. 


Lion Leo  Barbara*. 

Tiger, Tigris  Begalis. 

Newfoundland  Dog,      .         .         .  Canis  familiaris. 

There  are  over  forty  varieties  of  dogs  all  belonging  to  this  C'last. 

Wolf,    ......  Canis  Lupus. 

Hog, Su#  scrofa. 

American  Fox,      ....  Vulpes  fulvus. 

Opossum Didelphys  Virginiana. 

Hedgehog,    .        .        .        .        .  Erinaceus  Europoeus. 

Racoon, Procyon  lotor. 

Rabbit, Lepus  cuniculus. 

Hare,    ......  Lepus  timidus. 

Pole  Cat,      .....  Putorius  foetidus. 

Skunk, Mephitis  varians. 

Cat, Felis  domestica. 

Marmot, Arctomys  Marmotta. 

Mink, Vison  Lutreola. 

Musk  Rat,  or  Ondatra,          .        .  Fiber  Zibethicus. 

Squirrel 8.  Vulgaris,  and  8.  CaroUmnix* 

Rat,      ......  Mus  decumanus. 

Mouse, Mu«  musculua. 


AN  acquaintance  with  Physiognomy  enables  us  to  surround 
the  young  with  such  attractive  influences,  in  the  shape 
of  education,  that  their  future  paths  of  life  lead  onward 
to  virtue,  wealth,  and  honour.  "  Train  up  a  child  in  the 
way  he  should  go,"  while  it  is  a  profound  axiom  in  morals, 
has  also  an  obverse  side;  for  the  child  is  frequently  trained 
in  the  way  he  should  not  go — so  that  in  age  a  departure 
from  the  wrong  becomes  as  impossible  as  from  the  right. 

We   can    never   over-estimate   the   importance    of   right 
training  in  childhood. 

The  highest  aim  of  the  best  civilization  is  to  produce  good 
and  useful  men  and  women ;  and  as  goodness  and  usefulness 
are  increased  or  diminished  by  health  or  disease,  it  follows 
that  the  preliminary  to  all  true  moral  growth  is  a  body 
physically  sound.  As  the  end  of  life  is  to  be  good  and  true, 
the  beginning  of  life  must  be  a  preparation  for  it.  "  Take 
no  heed  what  ye  shall  eat  or  drink,  or  wherewithal  ye 
shall  be  clothed!"  may  have  been  an  excellent  motto  for 
the  early  teachers  of  Christianity  in  a  world  then,  as  now, 
devoted  to  shows  and  shams,  but  it  is  not  applicable  to  the 
rearing  of  children.  Indeed,  the  first  question  to  be  asked 
should  be,  "  How  shall  we  clothe  the  new  born  infant?  ' 
Thousands  of  helpless  little  creatures  are  annually  slaugh- 
tered through  ignorance  of  parents  on  this  all-import')*! I 
subject.  We  frequently  find  newly  born  children  with 


their  tiny  arms  and  chests  exposed  to  the  cold  air,  or 
covered  with  a  flimsy  piece  of  cotton,  as  an  apology  for 
protection  to  the  delicate  and  sensitive  network  of  blood- 
vessels just  commencing  to  carry  their  minute  streams  of 
heat  and  life  from  the  heart  to  other  parts  of  the  body. 
Instead  of  thin  cotton,  they  should  have  soft  wool  or 
canton  flannel  on  the  legs,  arms,  and  chest,  and  should 
always  be  thoroughly  covered,  as  warmth  is  of  equal 
importance  with  food  in  this  early  stage  of  life.  Some 
parents,  with  the  best  motives,  wash  very  young  children 
in  cold  water  at  least  once  a  day,  while  they  would  shiver 
at  the  thought  of  being  forced  themselves  to  the  same 
ablutions.  Infants  require  warmth  under  all  circumstances, 
for  at  least  some  months  after  birth;  and  the  mournful 
wailing  too  frequently  heard  from  their  throats,  which 
should  early  learn  to  sing,  is  caused  by  chilliness,  inducing 
indigestion  and  difficulty  in  breathing.  As  cold  is  unfa- 
vourable to  the  circulation  of  the  blood,  so  absence  of 
growth  follows  in  its  train.  The  puny  arms  of  children 
are  so  many  mute  appeals  against  this  pernicious  custom 
of  covering  them  with  thin  clothing.  When  the  body  is 
comfortable,  the  nervous  action  is  harmonious,  and  instead 
of  irritation  and  crying,  the  child  manifests  pleasure 
by  infantile  smiles  and  peaceful  sleep.  Wool  and  silk  are 
better  non-conductors  of  heat  than  cotton,  and  for  this 
reason  more  suitable  for  children's  clothing  ;  in  fact,  a  proper 
amount  of  clothing  in  a  variable  climate  is  a  great  preserver 
of  health  for  persons  of  all  ages.  We  have  no  right  to 
introduce  children  into  the  world  without  making  proper 
provision  for  their  food,  clothing,  and  education;  and  the 
time  may  come  when  society  will  pass  a  law  fur  the  pro- 
tection of  children  in  these  respects.  Statistics  prove  the 
unfortunate  fact  that  the  poorest  districts  in  large  centres 
of  population  sheW  the  largest  number  of  children ;  but  the 
same  tables  also  shew  that  some  prolific  families  have  a 


much  greater  number  of  deaths,  clearly  proving  that  the 
ignorance  and  other  ills  incident  to  poverty  are  disastrous 
to  the  lives  of  the  young.  Next  in  "importance  to  cloth- 
ing comes  the  question  of  food.  Nature  has  wisely  pro- 
vided against  mistakes  and  ignorance  in  this  matter,  by 
causing  the  mother  to  become  the  source  of  the  child's 
nourishment.  Too  frequently,  however,  through  previous 
unfortunate  training,  or  ill  health,  the  mother  is  unable  to 
supply  proper  food  to  her  child.  When  this  source  fails, 
the  next  best  resource  is  milk  direct  from  the  breast  of 
another  woman,  who  is  in  good  health,  and  of  an  amiabla 
disposition.  The  moment  we  step  outside  natural  con- 
ditions, responsibilities  begin  to  increase ;  thus,  the  selection 
of  a  good  nurse  is  of  the  highest  importance.  The  blood 
of  a  virago  imparts  ire  to  her  milk  and  acrimony  to  her 
suckling.  The  milk  of  sin  cannot  nourish  righteousness. 
A  child  put  out  to  nurse  with  a  woman  of  ugly  disposition 
became  wholly  unmanagable  at  four  years  of  age,  and  was 
sent  to  a  house  of  correction  at  the  age  of  five,  while  the 
remaining  children  (three  in  number),  who  were  nursed  by 
their  own  mother,  possessed  mild  and  amiable  tempers. 
No  other  cause  could  be  assigned  for  the  difference  between 
this  child  and  the  others,  but  that  of  the  vicious  food  which 
it  drew  from  its  improper  nurse.  Next  to  human  milk, 
that  of  the  cow  comes  first  in  order,  and  if  the  animal 
be  not  sprightly  and  good  tempered,  her  milk  is  not  fit  for 
the  child's  food.  After  a  certain  period  of  growth,  the 
teeth  begin  to  make  their  appearance,  which  is  an  indica- 
tion that  other  descriptions  of  food  .are  then  required.  What 
shall  it  be?  If  we  enter  any  of  the  tens  of  thousands  of 
country  dwellings  scattered  over  the  west,  in  nearly  all  of 
them  maybe  found  young  children;  and  if  we  chance  to 
sit  down  at  meal  time  with  the  family,  we  shall  observe 
the  baby  of  one  year  old  seated  in  its  Mgh  chair  at  the 
table,  where  smoked  bacon,  rank  coffee,  sour  bread 


vegetables  cooked  in  fat,  are  the  sole  dishes  for  use,  unless 
a  tough-crusted,  dried  apple-pie  happens  to  be  added  by 
way  of  extras,  and  yet  not  one  of  those  articles  named 
is  fit  for  that  child's  stomach,  and,  we  might  almost  add, 
fit  for  those  of  mature  years.  But  so  it  is,  day  after  day, 
and  year  after  year,  if  its  constitution  can  bear  it,  such 
food  is  forced  into  the  stomach;  and  the  result  is,  a  young 
heir  of  immortal  strength  and  beauty,  a  little  lower  than 
the  angels,  becomes  transformed  into  a  being  of  coarse 
features,  still  coarser  passions,  and  the  world  sits  down 
to  count  her  loss.  Those  articles  of  food  which  retain  the 
vital  principle,  such  as  wheat,  corn,  and  vegetables,  are 
the  best  suited  to  build  up  a  healthy  organism.  We  think 
what  we  eat.  The  tiger  and  lion,  which  destroy  and 
ravenously  eat  their  red-blooded  feast,  respond  to  its 
nature  in  cruelty  and  savageness,  while  the  domestic  cattle, 
like  the  sheep  and  cow,  shew  the  results  of  a  diet  of  grain 
and  grass  in  lives  peaceful  and  contented.  Wheat  contains 
especially  the  two  ingredients  necessary  to  build  up  bone 
and  muscle  in  the  human  frame.  Meat  is  like  chaff,  or 
the  fibrous  straw,  not  the  soul  or  essence  that  lives. 
"The  life  of  the  flesh  is  in  the  blood"  so  say  the  Scrip- 
tures. When  the  blood  is  drawn  out  in  slaughtering  the 
animal,  the  meat  that  is  left  contains  only  a  small  amount 
of  nutriment,  and  it  takes  large  quantities  to  b°  sufficient 
to  nourish  the  human  system.  The  wisdom  of  using 
Graham  or  unbolted  flour  for  bread  consists  in  the  fact 
that  the  outside  of  the  grain  holds  the  lime  or  calcareous 
matter,  while  the  interior  furnishes  the  starchy  substance; 
those  two  build  up  the  muscles  and  bones,  and  are  found 
in  wheat  in  better  proportion  than  in  any  other  cereal. 
To  make  the  genuine  Graham  bread  from  this  flour, 
follow  the  directions  given  below.  Take  of  unbolted  flour 
sufficient  to  make  the  desired  quantity,  and  mix  with  cold 
water  to  the  consistence  of  pancake  batter,  add  a  little 


salt.  Then  have  a  griddle  with  sufficient  scallops  to  hold 
ten  or  twelve,  or  more  of  the  size  of  a  biscuit  each;  grease 
the  griddle  that  the  biscuit  may  not  stick.  Heat  the  oven 
and  griddle  as  hot  as  possible  below  red  heat,  then  ladla 
the  batter  into  the  griddle,  place  it  quickly  into  the  oven, 
and  when  well  baked,  it  can  conscientiously  be  placed 
upon  the  table  as  the  most  healthy,  nourishing,  and  the 
sweetest  of  all  kinds  of  bread ;  having  never  been  soured  to 
raise,  yet  it  is  very  light.  Large  loaves  may  be  made  of 
Graham  flour,  with  hop  yeast,  as  white  bread  is  made,  by 
adding  a  tea-cup  of  molasses  to  a  good-sized  batch  of  dough. 
Careful  housekeepers  will  remember  the  secret  of  success 
lies  in  following  closely  the  directions  given.  Ripe  fruit,  as 
an  article  of  daily  food,  is  one  of  the  best  that  can  be  given 
to  children;  its  effect  is  to  keep  the  liver  in  an  active 
healthy  condition,  by  which  means  digestion  is  thorough 
and  perfect.  Pork  should  never  be  placed  on  the  table 
before  the  young,  as  it  tends  to  feed  their  animal  nature 
too  much,  rendering  the  blood  sluggish,  and  destroying  that 
delicacy  of  taste  which  is  the  especial  privilege  of  youth. 
Tea,  like  pepper,  spices,  and  vinegar,  is  wholly  unfit 
for  children,  creating  in  them  an  appetite  for  stimulus, 
and  this  grows  with  more  mature  years,  demanding  more 
and  more  excitants,  until  the  desire  has  become  so  strong 
that  the  answer  is  only  found  in  rum,  brandy,  and  whisky. 
By  this  means  parents  throw  around  their  boys  the  influ- 
ence of  the  grog-shop  and  gambling  house,  and  the  mother 
wakes  up  too  late  to  find  her  son  surely  on  the  road  to  ruin. 
His  downfall  was  commenced  in  his  father's  house  by 
setting  daily  an  intemperate  table.  Place  before  your 
children  plain  diet,  throw  out  of  the  door  or  window  your 
spices,  pepper,  and  teapot,  and  then  your  child  may  grow 
up  a  temperate  and  honourable  man.  Tea  contains  Theine, 
which  is  a  poison,  and  coffee,  caffeine,  also  a  poison;  both  of 
these  are  extracted  or  drawn  out  in  the  process  of  making 


(•pa  and  coffee,  and  ignorant  people  drink  it,  believing 
it  does  them  good.  The  effect  of  coffee  is  also  to  thicken 
the  blood,  inducing  torpidity  of  the  liver;  consequently  we 
invariably  find  that  regular  coffee  drinkers  are  liable  to 
"bilious  attacks,"  frequently  resulting  in  bilious  fever, 
ending  in  death.  Inactivity  of  the  liver  induces  fever 
ague,  dumb  ague,  jaundice,  and  its  effect  on  the  brain  is 
to  produce  mental  obtuseness  or  stupidity.  Tea,  by  stimu- 
lating the  nervous  system,  often  produces  mental  imbecility 
and  nervous  derangement  of  a  serious  character. 

After  food  and  clothing,  the  next  important  step  with 
regard  to  the  young  is  education.  The  effect  of  proper  mental 
training  is  so  great,  not  only  upon  the  physiognomy  of  the 
growing  child,  but  on  the  future  conduct  of  manhood,  that 
too  great  stress  cannot  be  laid  upon  its  vast  importance. 
The  world  is  to  be  regenerated  alone  by  the  advances  and 
improvements  made  in  the  education  of  the  rising  "genera- 
tion. Every  day  a  certain  number  of  worn-out  bodies 
die,  while  an  equal  number  of  young  men  step  into  their 
places.  If  they  are  wiser  and  better  than  those  whose 
positions  they  fill,  the  world  is  just  so  much  the  better,  and 
vice  versa.  An  extended  summary  of  the  method  and 
results  of  education  will  therefore  be  tolerated  by  every 
thoughtful  reader.  The  capacity  for  civilization,  or  educa- 
tional influences  upon  a  race  will  vary  with  the  time  their 
ancestors  have  been  subject  to  them.  Those  who  have 
been  in  the  path  of  progress  only  a  fe\v  years,  are  not 
susceptible  of  more  than  small  attainments.  This  prin- 
ciple is  demonstrated  in  the  schools  of  the  south  in  the 
American  States  to-day,  in  the  islands  of  the  Pacific, 
and  indeed  among  all  uncivilized  tribes,  where  missionaries 
have  been.  This  theory  may  appear  novel  to  the  general 
reader,  but  not  to  those  who  have,  through  years  of  urn-e- 
mitted observation,  paid  attention  to  the  subject. 

When  I  gave  my  first  course  of  lectures  in  Boston,  this 



white  boy  was  brought  to  me  for  an  examination,  and  in 
no  instance  have  I  seen  a  better  example  of  a  high  sensa- 
tional nature,  intensity  of  organization,  and  a  true  type  of 
"  Young  America."  Such  children  need  rural  life,  plain 
food,  and  complete  abstrusion  from  books  and  school.  This 

White  Boy.  Orison  J.  Stone,  of  Boston,  who 
learned  his  letters  at  three  years  of  age, 
and  could  repeat  a  large  book  from  memory 
when  three  years  and  six  months  old. 

Negro  Boy. 

negro  boy,  with  his  feeble  intellect,  which  meagreness  he 
inherited  from  his  forefathers,  who  cultivated  only  their 
animal  passions  and  motary  powers,  can  accomplish  very 
little;  while  the  white  boy's  ancestors  were  among  the  best 
educated  families  in  the  world,  and  he  inherited  a  large 
brain  and  intense  sensations  from  those  who  had  used  and 
enlarged  their  powers  of  sensation  before  him.  He  is 
cognoscitive,  and  known  to  be  capable  of  much  mental 
labour.  The  negro  boy,  after  many  years'  schooling,  can 
hardly  write  his  own  name,  or  solve  the  plainest  problem 
in  arithmetic.  The  white  boy  is  an  adept  in  memorizing 
and  retention. 


The  first  lessons,  and  the  most  important  ones  in  the 
education  of  the  child,  must  come  from  the  mother;  there 
are  no  others  so  valuable  and  lasting  as  her  influence,  and 
that  of  home.  Fanny  Fern  once  said, — "  A  mother's  time 
can  in  no  way  be  better  expended  than  in  talking  to  her 
boy."  I  deem  this  the  greatest  truth  ever  told  by  any 
person  in  modern  times.  Those  early  impressions  stamp 
the  coming  man  or  woman  for  intellectual  eminence  and 
honourable  fame,  or  for  disgrace  and  infamy.  Short  moral 
lessons,  which  any  good  mother  can  give,  are  the  moulds 
into  which  the  rectitude  of  her  child  is  run.  How  vividly 
come  back  in  late  years  the  impressions  made  upon  the 
mind  while  in  childhood  we  lingered  around  the  loved 
mother's  footsteps — 

"  I  love  to  wander  back  at  times, 

Through  memory's  faded  halls 
And  gaze  upon  the  cherish'd  scene* 
That  hang  upon  its  walls. 

•'  Friends,  playmates— those  of  days  gone  by- 
Come  thronging  into  view; 
The  good,  the  loved,  the  beautiful — 
Fair  forms  that  round  me  grew. 

"  Upon  the  hill  the  schoolhouse  stands 

Embowered  'neath  the  trees, 
Where,  every  morn  the  bell's  sweet  tones 
Ring  out  upon  the  breeze. 

"  Beyond,  the  peaceful  crystal  stream 

Flows  languidly  away, 
While  on  its  banks  a  happy  group 
Of  merry  children  play. 

"  Thus,  scenes,  bright  scenes  to  memory  dear, 

Come  crowding  o'er  each  other ; 
But  the  dearest  one  of  all  to  me 
Is  the  fond  face  of  my  mother." 

As  those  impressions  are  ever  fresh,  how  wonderful  is 
their  value  to   us.     Hence  the   transcendent  importance, 


that  the  mother's  teachings  should  be  faithful  and  true 
to  her  highest  convictions  of  right  and  duty.  The  delicate 
impressible  mind  of  the  child  can  go  no  further  back  than 
those  first  of  home  persuasion  and  discipline. 

TO  A  CHILD,  because,  when  old  enough  to  do  wrong,  it  is 
sufficiently  old  to  correct.  Were  all  children  taught  to 
obey  and  respect  their  parents,  much  sorrow  would  be 
saved  to  age  and  silvery  locks.  How  true  are  the  words 
of  that  "  sweet  singer  of  Israel,"  who  said,  "  The  fear  of 
the  Lord  is  the  beginning  of  wisdom."  Observe,  not  the 
middle  or  end,  but  the  beginning,  thus  obedience  is  the 
first  prime  lesson  inculcated. 

LOVE  FOLLOWS  OBEDIENCE,  and  here  again  we  may  be 
permitted  to  quote  that  old  book  where  it  says,  "  Perfect 
love  casteth  out  fear,"  and  when  love  is  established  between 
parent  and  child,  obedience  grows  therefrom,  and  the  future 
steps  forward  become  surer  and  easier.  Love  is  the  centre 
around  which  revolves  the  whole  affectional  nature  of  man. 
It  is  the  lever  which  moves  the  social  circle,  and  it  becomes 
the  mother's  duty  to  lead  aright  and  preserve  in  purity 
the  affections  of  herself 

"  Keep  thon  love's  purity, 
To  God  leave  the  rest, 
Know  then  in  surety, 
Thy  care  will  be  blest" 

The  love  of  a  tranquil  home  enters  into  a  child's  soul 
like  sunshine  into  the  rosebud,  slowly  but  surely  expand- 
ing it  into  beauty  and  loveliness.  The  cultivation  of  the 
affections  and  the  development  of  the  bodily  senses  begin 
together.  The  first  effort  of  the  intellect  is  that  of  indivi- 
dualization,  and  next,  is  to  associate  in  the  mind  the  names 
of  objects  with  the  sight  of  them. 


GREAT  VALUE,  and   the  method   of    object  teaching  is  the 

THE    REARING    OF    YOUTH.  2 S3 

most  effectual  plan,  because  the  eye  and  the  ear  correct 
and  criticise  each  other's  impressions,  leading  to  an  accurate 
appreciation  of  the  various  objects  with  which  the  child 
comes  in  contact.  As  the  mind  becomes  more  capable  of 
judgment  we  may  commence  to  teach  principles,  but  it 
is  necessary  to  explain  the  reasons  clearly  and  definitely, 
or  the  cbild  will  begin  to  resign  itself  to  authority,  and 
time  in  this  way  is  worse  than  wasted  or  thrown  away. 
The  memory  may  be  improved  by  increasing  credulity, 
without  adding  an  iota  to  the  stock  of  real  knowledge, 
and  this  prepares  the  mind  for  any  kind  of  slavery  which 
knaves  or  superstitious  people  may  choose  to  impose  upon 
them.  If  we  assist  the  young  to  attend  to  the  result  of 
every  action,  to  adjust  their  little  deviations  while  giving 
free  exercise  to  their  observation  and  reason,  they  will 
gain  facts,  and  educe  principles,  which  no  later  influences 
could  controvert.  Those  evidences  of  truth  would  be  food 
for  reflection  which  temptation  would  fail  to  remove.  By 
such  a  system  of  training,  the  young  mind  would  ultimate 
in  the  forming  of  a  person  who  would  fulfil  the  high  destiny 
for  which  he  was  created,  making  himself  and  others 
around  him  happy.  There  are  plenty  of  schools  in  our 
country  to  give  the  proper  training  to  youth  in  mental 
studies,  but  none  to  teach  him  how  to  conduct  himself 
after  he  leaves  that  school.  This  is  the  real  and  important 
work  of  home,  but  unfortunately  it  is  left  very  frequently 
to  circumstances  good  or  bad  around  in  the  community 
where  his  lot?  is  cast. 

element  by  which  success  and  honour  are  obtained.  It 
should  be  an  object  with  all  parents  to  teach  their  children 
true  politeness.  This  lies  not  in  a  bow  or  simple  "Thank 
you,"  but  in  a  feeling  of  unselfish  desire  to  make  others 
happy.  The  Golden  Rule  which  Thales,  the  Greek  Philo- 
sopher, Confucius,  the  Chinese  Lawgiver,  and  still  later, 


Jesus,  the  Galilean,  taught,  of  "  And  as  ye  would  that  men 
should  do  to  you,  do  ye  also  to  them  likewise,"  the  founda- 
tion of  all  true  politeness,  and  when  put  in  practice  will  lead 
us  on  the  road  of  philanthropic  good  manners  to  all  mankind. 
Children  should  be  taught  to  give  a  pleasant  bow  and 
smile  to  those  they  meet,  and  especially  to  acquaintances. 
How  winning  is  a  smile,  how  little  it  costs,  and  yet  how 
readily  and  largely  it  sells.  One  simple  heartfelt  smile, 
with  courteous  manners,  may  make  your  fortune.  Those 
whose  politeness  has  its  basis  in  selfishness,  will  appear 
polite  only  when  it  appears  to  their  interest  to  be  so, 
but  when  that  is  not  at  stake,  their  manners  are  boorish 
and  repulsive. 

BOYS;  their  boisterous  sports  may  conduce  to  make  them 
wild,  but  it  is  a  sure  sign  of  a  superior  mind  to  see  a 
youth  of  twelve  or  fourteen  give  evidence  of  the  influence 
of  a  kind  and  tender  mother.  There  can  be  no  possible 
objection  to  a  boy  being  playful,  but  roughness  of  manners 
is  twin  to  ugliness  of  person,  and  either  are  great  defects 
in  the  young,  but  readily  subdued  by  good  sense  and  kind 
wishes  for  others. 

PATIENCE  is  A  RARE  VIRTUE,  so  rare,  that  patient  men 
are  like  showers  upon  the  desert,  rarely  seen,  but  always 
gladly  received.  A  patient  boy  is  a  "  rara  avis."  If  any 
of  my  young  readers  will  consider  a  moment  that  the  letters 
that  go  to  make  us  those  words  were  each  set  up  separately, 
and  that  many  men  worked  days  and  even  years  in  con- 
triving and  perfecting  those  wonderful  steam  printing 
presses,  which  readily  throw  off  20,000  newspaper  impres- 
sions every  hour,  they  will  comprehend  something  that 
can  be  accomplished  by  patience  and  perseverence.  The 
constant  action  of  the  rain  and  frost  crumbles  away  the 
mighty  mountain,  so  will  your  patient  efforts  in  time 
remove  mountains  of  difficulty  from  the  journey  of  life. 


Cultivate  patisnce,  then,  to  promote  your  own  happiness 
as  well  as  that  of  others.  When  we  give  way  to  flights 
of  bad  temper,  it  becomes  at  last  our.  master,  and  we  are 
held  in  ignoble  slavery.  Every  time  we  lose  self-control 
the  harmony  of  our  lives  departs,  happiness  flies  away,  and 
the  pleasant  face  of  the  world,  reflecting  our  own  image, 
wears  a  frown,  which  is  destructive  of  peace  and  content- 

COMMINGLING  OF  THE  SEXES.  —  The  advantages  of  an 
education  where  boys  and  girls  occupy  the  same  room, 
and  where  the  lessons  are  pursued  together,  are  very  great. 
Socially,  intellectually,  and  morally,  those  children  are 
better  than  if  educated  separately.  Do  we  not  see  how 
polite  and  careful,  as  well  as  gallant  the  boy  of  sixteen 
becomes  when  in  the  presence  of  his  young  lady  friends. 
When  a  troop  of  boys  go  nutting  in  the  woods,  how  rough 
and  savage  they  often  are ;  but  how  subdued  in  demeanour, 
how  gentlemanly  they  become  when  their  female  compan- 
ions appear.  This  purifying  influence  of  the  sexes  upon 
each  other,  it  is  impossible  to  over-estimate.  It  restrains 
solitary  vice,  cultivates  self-respect,  induces  a  generous 
rivalry  in  noble  paths,  and  builds  up  true  men  and  women 
calculated  to  benefit  themselves  and  those  around  them. 
Like  the  sun  in  spring-time,  it  produces  a  rapid  growth 
of  the  moral  nature. 

honourable  means  of  support.  Franklin  said, — "  He  who 
has  a  trade  has  an  estate."  Every  young  person,  male  or 
female,  should  learn  a  trade,  or  have  some  specific  occupa- 
tion. You  may  be  the  son  or  daughter  of  a  rich  man 
to-day,  but  to-morrow  you  may  be  homeless  and  dependent 
upon  your  own  exertions.  The  fluctuating  and  evanescent 
condition  of  wealth  is  such,  that  its  permanence  cannot  be 
relied  on  except  in  very  few  cases.  There  are  thousand* 
of  families  in  this  country,  now  poor  and  needy,  who  once 


possessed  wealth  sufficient  to  gratify  every  whim  and 
caprice.  In  the  midst  of  their  prosperity  the  storm  or 
fire  came  and  swept  off  all,  leaving  them  to  the  cold  uncer- 
tain charity  of  the  busy  world.  When  the  reverse,  or 
poverty  comes,  the  first  question  that  arises,  is,  "  What  shall 
I  do  for  a  living?"  You  ask  your  feet,  and  they  say,  I  do 
not  know."  You  question  your  hands,  and  the  answer  is, 
"  I  have  never  learned  to  do  anything."  The  head  is  then 
interrogated,  and  a  mournful  voice  responds,  "  I  was  brought 
up  to  be  supported,  and  consequently  know  nothing  of 
getting  a  living."  There  is  but  one  man  who  can  befriend 
you  under  such  circumstances,  and  that  is  the  sexton.  To 
avoid  such  a  miserable  fate,  let  every  one  fit  himself  for  a 
vocation  in  life.  Read  for  the  sake  of  learning  something. 
Study  with  an  aim  to  be  self-reliant  and  self-sustaining. 
If  you  cannot  be  a  lawyer,  be  a  carpenter,  a  shoemaker,  or 
a  blacksmith ;  the  latter  will  likely  bring  you  independence, 
and  preserve  personal  honesty.  If  you  are  adapted  to  a 
farmer's  occupation,  do  not  try  to  practice  medicine.  Many 
men  run  their  heads  against  the  gospel  desk,  who  would 
have  been  of  more  benefit  to  the  world  had  the}7  learned 
to  pound  the  anvil  instead  of  the  pulpit.  Others  try  to 
plead  law,  who  are  better  adapted  to  mining  in  quartz 
rock  than  in  Blackstone;  and  numbers  of  merchants  are 
more  qualified  by  mechanical  gifts  to  make  cloth  than  to 
sell  it.  Every  individual  should  be  examined  by  a  prac- 
tical and  competent  reader  of  human  character,  in  order 
to  learn  to  what  calling,  trade,  or  profession  he  is  most 
naturally  fitted.  The  motto  placed  over  the  grottc  of  the 
celebrated  Oracle  of  Delphos,  was,  "  Man,  know  thyself." 
Its  importance  to-day  is  as  great  as  it  was  three  thousand 
years  ago.  To  acquire  that  knowledge  is  worth  mor,e  than 
any  other,  as  it  is  the  key-note  to  all  true  growth.  By 
learning  something  of  our  original  constitution,  our  excel- 
lencies and  defects,  our  capacity  of  reasoning  and  persuading. 


and  by  studying  the  methods  of  self-government,  we  may 
in  the  end  unite  our  own  good  with  that  of  others,  and  thus 
benefit  the  world  in  the  right  way. 

PERSEVERE  IN  ONE  THING.  —  There  are  many  young 
persons  who,  after  choosing  aright  their  trade,  relinquish 
it  because  they  meet  some  unpleasant  things  connected 
with  their  labours,  vainly  hoping  to  find  some  occupation 
where  all  is  easy  and  all  delightful ;  such  will  learn  they 
can  never  rise  to  excellence  or  become  prominent  in  the 
world.  The  pre-eminent  great  men  of  all  ages  are  those 
who  have  toiled,  hour  after  hour,  day  by  day  for  successive 
years,  with  unswerving  perseverance.  Murillo,  the  great 
Spanish  painter,  spent  three  weeks  in  painting  the  handle 
of  a  broom.  George  L.  Brown,  artist,  served  an  apprentice- 
ship of  twenty  years  in  Rome.  Bierstadt  was  similarly 
industrious.  Michael  Angelo,  the  great  Italian  painter, 
sculptor,  and  architect,  gave  twelve  years  to  the  study  of 
anatomy ;  and  when  he  was  seventy,  he  said  he  had  much 
yet  to  learn. 

In  every  trade  and  avocation  in  life,  there  are  unpleasant 
duties  to  be  performed,  and  obstacles  to  be  overcome  in  all 
callings.  The  successful  ones  "  take  off  their  coats  and  roll 


up  their  sleeves,"  conquer  their  prejudices  against  labour, 
and  manfully,  as  our  forefathers  did,  strive  to  bring  back 
the  soil  to  productiveness  and  fertility.  Whether  you  are 
in  the  shop,  the  factory,  or  the  forum,  let  your  motto  be 
perseverance  and  industry,  for  these  alone  can  conquer  the 
world.  In  summing  up  the  foregoing  remarks,  we  may 
say  that  the  character  of  clothing  affects  the  features. 
Climate  makes  smooth,  or  shrivels  and  dries  the  skin. 
Varieties  of  food  feed  various  features;  for  instance,  pork 
nourishes  the  sides  of  the  lower  part  of  the  face ;  beef 
puffs  out  the  cheeks  and  rounds  the  nose ;  vegetables 
feed  the  eyes  and  their  surroundings,  while  the  grain 
cereals  nourish  the  forehead  and  brain.  The  effects  of 


education  are,  to  give  sparkle  to  the  eyes  and  definitenesa 
to  the  nose ;  to  light  up  the  whole  countenance,  and  chase 
away  its  gross  character ;  it  lines  out  the  forehead,  eyelids, 
and  lips,  sweeps  off  the  cobwebs  of  passion,  and  intro- 
duces symmetry  and  harmony.  Note  well  the  difference 
between  these  two  physiognomies;  the  one  a  m?u  of  intelli-- 
gence  and  education — the  other  without  tie  fastening 
influence  of  culture. 

Educational  Type.     John  Wyckliffe,  "  the  Morning  Star  of  the 
i  te  formation. " 

The  lessons  of  obedience  learned  in  childhood  have  thei' 
due  weight  in  marking  character  on  the  countenance,  01 
"  Phiz."  Let  us  pen  picture  two  boys.  The  one  has 
practiced  obedience  to  his  parents,  and  is  respected  and 
loved  by  all  who  know  him.  The  other,  through  neglect 
or  natural  ugliness,  is  the  mosc  wilful,  disobedient  little 
rascal  one  can  imagine.  When  tu!J  to  go  to  school,  he 



went  in  the  opposite  direction,  either  fishing,  loafing,  or 
doing  mischief;    would   steal,  and   lie,  with  no  apparent 
remorse  of  conscience.    For 
examples  of  a  representa- 
tive   boy   of   each   of  the 
above    characters    see   the 
Cuts  on  page  292. 

Love,  whose  influence 
has  been  chanted  and  sung 
by  poets  of  all  ages,  has 
the  power  to  change  a 
demon  into  a  saint,  and 
its  effect  upon  the  physi- 
ognomy is  to  make  it 
bloom  like  spring  flowers; 
to  refine  the  skin,  to  fill 
out  the  chin,  and  to  give 

warmth    and    joy     to    the   Ignorance.     John  Broughton,  a  blood- 
thirsty pugilist. 

whole  expression. 

Politeness  and  good  manners  ever  win  their  way  in  this 
world  of  appearances.  If  coming  from  good  feeling  in  the 
mind,  as  all  true  politeness  most  assuredly  does,  then  it 
will  ennoble  every  feature,  give  tone  to  facial  curves,  and 
touch  with  sublimity  each  lineament.  Gentleness  carries 
an  attraction  which  lends  gracefulness  to  thought  every- 
where; it  retains  the  balance  of  relative  proportions  in 
outline,  and  its  effects  rest  upon  the  countenance  like  the 
mellow  light  of  the  setting  sun.  Patience  is  the  root  of 
all  civilization.  It  supports  the  spirit  of  industry ;  chastens 
every  virtue;  and  enfolds,  like  a  mother,  every  child  of 
reform.  By  patience  man  has  contrived  to  spread  the 
sails  of  commerce  on  every  sea.  It  furnishes  mechanical 
horses  and  carriages  for  the  travellers  of  all  lands;  it 
rolls  the  produce  of  the  mighty  West  to  millions  of  con- 
sumers in  the  East;  despatches  messages  of  business  or 



afiection  on  the  wings  of  the  lightning;  and  spreads  the 
news  of  Europe  in  a  few  minutes  to  every  city  and  hamlet 
in  America,  while  we  return  to  them  the  tidings  of  our 
western  hemisphere.  Patience  is,  indeed,  the  helm  of  every 
enterprise.  To  have  a  simple  aim  in  life  is  tantamount 
to  the  possession  of  a  sane  mind.  The  Bible  says,  "A 

Love  and  Obedience. 

Hate  and  Disobedience. 

double  minded  man  is  unstable  in  all  his  ways,"  and  when 
we  have  two  or  more  occupations,  they  so  distract  and 
divide  the  attention  that  we  become  vacillating  and  almost 
untrustworthy.  Unwearied  patience  and  persistence  will 
accomplish  what  talent  will  grow  faint  with  the  considera- 
tion of;  the  look  of  a  man  who  has  perseverance  will  be 
more  intense  and  solid  than  those  who  are  wavering  and 
unsteady.  Systematic  exercise  has  an  all-powerful  influence 
in  causing  the  youthful  countenance  to  tell  truths  of  char- 
acter. We  often  meet  faces  which  ten  years  since  were 
beautiful  and  full  of  generous  aspirations,  but  a  life  of 
idleness  for  ten,  or  even  five  years,  has  changed  the  happy 
light  of  youth  into  the  cloudy  gloom  of  insipidity  and 


coarseness.  Young  children  should  early  learn  to  do 
"chores,"  to  induce  habits  of  industry.  At  ten  or  twelve 
years  they  should  have  their  allotted  hours  of  labour,  this 
will  develop  not  only  their  bodies,  but  will  also  make  them 
practical  and  sound  in  mind.  About  the  age  of  puberty 
active  labour  will  prove  very  beneficial,  by  leading  the 
rapidly  expanding  energies  of  body  in  the  road  of  useful 
occupation.  In  later  years  to  be  constantly  employed  will 
be  a  safe-guard  against  the  vices  of  fashionable  life.  Well 
directed  earnest  labour  is  tfte  only  honest  path  to  happiness. 
Whisky  drinking,  with  its  attendant  vices  of  tobacco  using, 
gambling,  slang,  and  idleness,  have  filled  our  jails,  insane 
asylums,  poorhouses,  and  tens  of  thousands  of  suicidal 
graves.  There  is  one  other  thing  which  sadly  mars  the 
life  of  young  people  in  the  present  age.  I  refer  to  the 
sinful  practice  of  self  abuse.  Many  begin  it  before  they 
become  aware  of  its  terrible  injury  to  the  body  and  mind, 
and  when  self-control  is  lost,  they  grow  weak  physically 
and  mentally  through  a  continuance  of  the  habit.  This 
vice  paints  its  deformity  on  the  countenance  of  its  victims, 
but  for  the  sake  of  their  feelings  we  refrain  from  giving 
the  signs  which  are  indicative  of  this  soul  and  body  destroy- 
ing evil.  If  any  of  my  readers  have  thus  fallen,  let  me 
entreat  them  to  make  an  effort  to  release  themselves  from 
its  degrading  influence,  and  they  may  eventually  rise  once 
more  into  the  sphere  of  a  better  life.  Children  are  the 
flowers  of  virtue,  scattered  by  the  wayside  of  life.  Alas! 
how  many  of  them,  like  the  seed  of  the  sower,  fall  into 
poor  or  thorny  ground,  where  they  either  perish  from  lack 
of  healthy  surroundings,  or  the  thorns  of  vice  spring  up 
and  choke  them.  It  is  a  disgrace  to  modern  civilization 
that  more  than  one  half  of  the  children  born,  die  before 
thuy  are  seven  years  old;  it  is  a  still  greater  disgrace  to 
know  that  a  healthy,  well-fed,  well-educated  child  is  the 
exception,  and  that  unhealthy,  ill-mannered,  vicious  chll- 


dren  are  the  rule  in  many  communities.  The  students, 
scholars,  teachers,  and  scientific  young  men  are  few;  the 
drunkards,  gamblers,  idlers,  and  useless  ones  are  many. 
Tliis  ought  not  to  be  so  in  the  United  States,  the  country 
that  boasts  of  free  schools,  free  government  and  free  land ; 
or  in  Britain,  which  is  the  centre  of  commerce  and  civili- 
zation. May  we  hope  that  what  we  have  written  will 
tend  to  develop  a  better  and  happier  condition,  by  leading 
parents  to  consider  deeply  the  importance  of  a  wise  and 
proper  training  for  youth. 

THOMAS  A.  EDISON,  a  famous  American  inventor  and  electrician, 
whose  miraculous  originality  and  rare  fertility  of  constructive  power  is 
worthy  of  historical  commemoration. 


To  those  who  desire  to  understand  human  character,  the 
connection  between  its  various  parts  is  of  vast  importance, 
and  to  master  the  subject,  considerable  research  will  be 

The  following  plan  may  be  pursued  in  investigating  this 
department  of  Physiognomy.  Examine  the  lower  animals 
in  order  to  discover  their  peculiar  developments.  The  lion 
has  much  magnanimity  in  his  disposition,  and  fears  no 
other  animal;  he  is  king  of  the  forest  and  jungle.  He 
would  disdain  to  injure  a  mouse  or  small  animal,  unless 
in  extreme  hunger.  Look  at  his  face,  and  observe  what 
confidence,  dignity,  and  self-reliance  he  manifests,  as  much 
as  to  say,  I  would  not  stoop  to  a  mean  act.  It  is  a  fact 
that  such  traits  of  character  are  possessed  by  this  particular 
species  of  animal. 

Next,  observe  his  anatomical  peculiarities.  We  find 
that  he  possesses  large  lung  power,  and  that  its  attendant 
avenues  of  breathing  are  both  .large  and  wide.  The  cheek 
bones  stand  out  prominent,  the  hips  are  small,  but  the 
shoulders  are  broad,  with  heavy  mane.  Wherever  we  find 
this  connection,  of  breadth  of  shoulder  and  breadth  of 
cheek  or  malar  bones,  we  shall  discover  great  capacity 
of  lung  power,  and  the  attendant  character  or  disposition 



is  the  same  in  both  men  and  animals.  The  lion  gets  in 
a  rage  in  a  moment,  and  regains  his  tranquillity  the  next; 
so  it  is  with  men  who  are  of  similar  form. 

The  elephant  is  as  wide  at  the  hips  as  at  the  shoulders, 
and  experience  has  shewn  that  this  animal  never  forgets 
or  forgives  an  injury.  He  has  been  known  to  remember 
an  insult  for  twenty  years.  His  anger  is  less  evanescent 
than  the  lion's  rage. 

The  elephant  has  a  large  stomach,  with  a  wide  mouth, 
and  either  indicates  retaliation,  that  is,  where  the  mouth 
is  wide  from  side  to  side  of  the  face,  or  from  one  corner 
to  the  opposite  extreme  of  the  mouth.  The  abdominal 
viscera  are  connected  with  that  department  which  supplies 
it  with  work,  and  the  mouth  is  the  place  where  food  first 
begins  the  process  of  digestion.  Large  width  in  this  region 
indicates  strong  digestive  apparatus. 

The  hog  has  a  large  mouth.  The  turkey  also,  that  is, 
by  measure  round  from  one  corner,  outside,  to  the  other, 

Excellent  powers  of  Digestion.  David 
Hume,  who  could  partake  of  a 
hearty  meal  and  apply  himself  to 
study  immediately  after,  without 
the  least  inconvenience. 

Feeble  of  Digestion.  Gnstavus 
III.,  whose  happiness  wat 
poisoned  by  dyspepsia 


taking  the  longest  circumference  of  its  opening.  The 
turkey  and  hog  have  remarkable  digestive  power. 

Chickens  grind  up  pieces  of  bone,  lime,  glass,  &c.,  with- 
out inconvenience. 

The  whale  is  another  animal  of  wonderful  digestive 
power,  and  we  shall  find  wherever  this  width  and  depth 
of  mouth  exists,  in  animals  or  men,  that  strength  of 
digestive  apparatus  invariably  follows. 

Observe  a  man  with  large  mouth,  full  cheeks  opposite 
the  mouth,  long  deep  heavy  chin,  and  wide  from  the  chin 
to  the  mouth,  and  we  readily  discover  evidences  of  superior 
digestion,  and  a  strong  or  good  stomach. 

A  good  Digestion.     Viteilius,  A  sensuous  gourmand  Emperor  of  Rom* 

All  men  who  shew  these  peculiarities  of  build,  possess 
the  disposition  of  the  animal  that  has  the  same  condition 
of  body.  The  low  monads  or  polypi  have  each  large 
mouths,  with  full  surroundings  to  the  mouth,  and  they 


possess  the  most  powerful  digestive  tract  of  anything 
known.  These  illustrations  might  be  extended  indefinitely, 
but,  to  use  a  homely  proverb,  "  Enough  is  as  good  as  a  feast." 
A  few  good  illustrations,  well  drawn,  will  convince  the 
candid  mind,  while  men,  who  are  sceptical  about  every- 
thing, are  so  thick-headed  that  a  tenpenny  nail  would 

A  poor  Digestion.     Charles  VI.,  Emperor  of  West  Austria, 
who  died  of  dyspepsia. 

find  hard  work  to  penetrate  their  brains  with  a  force  of 
fifty  pounds  to  drive  it. 

Wherever  we  see  men  with  a  hollow  or  narrow  portion 
of  the  face  on  the  inferior  maxillary,  under  the  third 
molar  tooth,  there  is  no  surer  indication  of  weakness  of 
the  kidneys.  The  face  being  wide  on  the  jaws  at  the 
point  indicated  in  the  annexed  cut,  of  Vitellius,  manifests 
excellent  power  to  throw  off  the  urea  of  the  system,  and 
a  narrowness  in  this  part  of  the  face  will  be  found  in 
unison  with  weakness  in  the  small  of  the  back.  Hencei 
we  reason  that  a  connection  or  intimate  relation  exists 
between  those  two  parts  of  the  body. 


There  is  a  close  connection  between  the  eyes  and  the 
sexual  organs;  this  is  illustrated  more  in  women  than  in 
men,  and  in  the  female,  among  animals,  more  than  among 
the  males.  The  reason  is,  they  have  more  activity  or 
work  in  that  department  than  the  male. 

The  eyes  are  watery  in  certain  periods,  as  seen  in  the 
cow  and  mare  during  heat.  The  eyes  are  glassy  during 
pregnancy,  and  this  fact  is  conclusive  proof  that  cannot, 
and  will  not,  be  contradicted  by  any  careful  observer. 

Those  animals  that  possess  the  strongest  sexual  instincts, 
like  the  boar,  have  a  peculiar  eye,  that  gives  a  sensual 
expression  to  the  face.  It  is  long,  from  side  to  side,  and 
narrow  from  the  upper  to  the  lower  part;  and  such  eyes, 
whether  they  are  found  in  man  or  animals,  are  evidence  of 
a  sensual  character. 

Eyes  that  are  round,  as  in  doves,  evince  a  love  of  hug- 
ging, kissing,  or  fondling. 

Horses  enjoy  each  other's  company;  dogs  the  same,  and 
play  with  each  other  for  hours  together;  but  hogs  are 
gruff,  thejr  fight  and  grunt  while  doves  are  billing  and 
cooing,  and  kittens  are  fondling,  and  playing,  and  licking 
each  other,  very  often. 

All  animals  with  round  and  well-arched  upper  eyelids, 
are  affectionate  in  their  disposition,  and  their  love  is  more 
platonic  than  animal.  Old  Erasmus  had  the  pig-like  eye, 
and  despite  all  his  learning,  he  was  one  of  the  most  piggish 
of  men. 

He  possessed  very  low  and  ardent  love,  and  he  loved  and 
cherished  only  base  passion.  While  another  man  is  nearly 
always  kissing  the  girls,  and  yet  they  all  place  implicit 
confidence  in  him;  and  such  men  are  worthy  of  entire 
trust,  and  bear  it  honourably,  as  their  natures  are  loving, 
but  not  brutish,  or  hog-like. 

The  love-birds  of  Australia  have  eyes  as  round  as  bullets, 
and  those  we  have  seen  in  California  were  always  together, 
and  appeared  very  fond  of  each  other. 



"  Talk  not  to  me  of  the  eyes  of  blue, 
That  never  change  with  a  smile  or  a  frown: 
You  may  call  them  bonny,  and  tender  and  true. 
But  give  to  me  the  eyes  of  brown. 

0  soft  sad  eyes!  'iieath  your  melting  mood 
My  heart-throbs  thrill  with  a  glad  surprise  : 

1  yield  my  power,  as  a  woman  should, 

To  the  mystic  charm  of  those  soft  brown  eyes. 

"  I  seek  the  gaze  of  the  tender  blue, 
Till  my  thoughts  are  rife  with  the  worlds  afar; 
I  view,  in  the  flash  of  the  sparkling  black, 
The  meteor-light  of  the  wandering  star : 
But  a  want  scarce  told,  and  a  pleasure  pain 
Sweeps  o'er  my  soul  like  a  saddened  strain ; 
And  all  my  hopes  are  lost  in  sighs, 
As  I  mourn  for  the  love  of  those  dark  brown  eyes.** 


"  Black  eyes  most  dazzle  in  a  hall ; 
Blue  eyes  most  please  at  even  fall ; 
The  black  a  conquest  soonest  gain; 
The  blue  a  conquest  most  retain. 
•  The  black  bespeaks  a  lively  heart, 

Whose  soft  emotions  soon  depart; 
The  blue  a  steadier  flarae  betray, 
That  burns  and  lives  beyond  a  day. 
The  black  may  features  best  disclose; 
The  blue  may  feelings  all  repose. 
Then  let  each  reign  without  control — 
The  black  all  mind — the  blue  all  soul." 

The  authors  of  the  above  lines  we  do  not  know;  but  the 
verses  serve  to  shew  that  they  consider  the  eyes  love's 
medium.  O.  W.  Holmes  says — 

"  The  bright  black  eye,  the  melting  blue, 
I  cannot  choose  between  the  two; 
But  that  is  dearest  all  the  while, 
That  wears  for  me  the  sweetest  smile." 

And  Charles  F.  Hoffman — 

"  Yet  with  that  eye  could  flash  resentment's  rays, 
Or  proudly  scornful  check  the  boldest  gaze, 
Chill  burning  passion,  with  a  calm  disdain, 
And  with  one  glance  rekindle  it  agaiu." 


Or  Byron — 

' '  Soft  eyes  looked  love  to  eyes  that  spoke  again.* 

"  Give  me  the  eyes  of  black  or  blue, 
Ever  round,  loving,  faithful  and  true; 
Heaven's  round  orbs,  love  vigils  keep, 
Half-open  cptics  reveal  the  brute  asleep." 

All  eyes  possess  love,  but  in  a  different  manner ;  one  has 
strong  animal  passions,  that  give  a  piggish  look,  while  the 
pure  filial  love  sparkles  with  all  the  tender  emotions  of  a 
mother  or  wife. 

Much  can  be  said  about  the  eye  and  its  colour,  as  that 
has  great  significance;  but  the  colour  does  not  destroy  the 
principle  of  the  shape  of  the  organ,  as  we  shall  find  the 
same  rulo  to  hold  good  through  all  variations  of  colour  in 
the  eyes,  as  in  the  colour  of  the  skin.  Nations,  whose  colour 
remains  unchanged,  have  the  eyes  alike  in  colour,  and  they 
are  non-progressive. 

Dark  races,  like  the  Indian  and  Negro,  are  naturally 
revengeful,  like  the  elephant;  and  black  eyes  evince  more 
or  less  a  revengeful  disposition.  This  law  of  nature  carries 
itself  through  the  various  shades  of  the  black  races,  and  we 
shall  find  that  they  are  everywhere  more  revengeful  than 
the  light  race  or  races. 


FOOD  is  that  which,  when  taken  into  any  living  animal 
organism,  makes  blood,  bone,  muscle,  integument,  hair, 
brain,  life,  &c.  On  food  all  animals  are  dependent  for  living 
existence ;  without  it  there  would  soon  be  universal  death. 
But  that  is  not  all:  not  only  are  animals  dependent  on 
food  for  life,  but  the  character  of  that  life  is  dependent  upon 
the  kind  of  food  on  which  they  feed.  According  to  the 
nature  of  the  food  eaten,  will  be  the  idiosyncrasies  of  the 
eater.  The  turtle  dove,  for  example,  feeds  on  seeds,  and 
seeds  being  the  highest  and  most  essential  part  of  plant 
Jife,  produce  in  the  dove  the  highest  type  of  animal  life, 
viz.,  love-mating.  Indeed,  so  prominent  is  this  kind  of 
life  in  the  dove,  that  the  expression,  "gentle  and  loving  as 
the  dove"  has  become  proverbial  among  men;  although  it 
is  only  here  and  there  that  you  will  find  a  man  who  has 
taken  pains  to  find  out  the  reason  or  ground  of  the  dove's 
disposition  and  character.  Only  life  can  produce  life;  and 
as  all  seeds  and  grains  contain  within  themselves  the  germs, 
not  only  of  bare  life,  but  life  of  the  very  highest  kind 
possible  to  plants,  that  the  dove,  which  feeds  on  seeds  and 
grains,  should  possess  correspondingly  the  highest  kind  of 
animal  life,  ought  not  to  be  considered  an  arbitrary  arrange- 
ment, but  in  beautiful  harmony  with  reason.  An  effect, 


philosophy  tells  us,  must  partake  of  the  nature  of  its  cause; 
and  food  being  at  least  the  occasioning  cause  or  support  of 
all  animal  life,  whatever  kind  of  life  the  food  indicates 
primarily,  will  be  imparted  to,  and  engendered  in  the 
animal  into  whose  organism  it  is  taken.  The  hog  eats 
animal  food  of  all  kinds,  clean  and  unclean,  snakes,  offal; 
indeed,  nothing  is  too  filthy  for  its  stomach,  and  everybody 
knows  that  it  possesses  only  the  lowest  form  of  animal  life, 
and  has  become  the  most  gruff  and  unlovely  of  quadrupeds. 
The  same  thing  is  apparent  also  in  children.  The  trans- 
mission of  hereditary  influences  has  much  to  do  in  the 
formation  of  character;  but  it  is  impossible  for  an  observant 
mind  to  be  in  sensible  to  the  fact,  that  many  of  the  charac- 
teristics of  the  young  are  traceable  to  diet.  Body  affects 
mind, — that  cannot  be  denied ;  and  in  early  years,  when 
growth  is  rapid,  and  food  is  taken  into  the  system  and 
retained  in  large  quantities,  and  more  frequently  than  in  after 
life,  the  truth  of  what  we  asserfc  is  most  apparent.  The 
child  that  sucks  the  milk  of  the  mother  who  bore  it  will 
nfnturally  take  on  that  mother's  moral  characteristics;  while 
the  orphan,  compelled  to  take  in  the  milk  of  an  animal,  will 
reveal  in  its  character  some  of  those  idiosyncracies  peculiar 
to  that  animal.  This  is  not  a  visionary  statement;  it  is 
founded  on  fact,  and  can  be  testified  to  by  those  who  have 
paid  any  attention  to  the  subject.  An  illustration  of  what 
we  mean  was  found  in  1870  in  the  family  of  Captain  P.  M. 
Choutea,  of  Kansas  City,  Mo.  In  the  captain's  family  there 
was  a  little  girl,  five  years  of  age,  who  had  been  deprived 
of  a  mother's  milk  and  nursed  on  the  milk  of  a  goat,  and 
when  she  grew  up  and  was  able  to  run  about,  she  gave 
unmistakable  evidence  of  the  truth  of  that  law  for  which 
we  contend.  She  had  a  strong  and  very  unusual  desire 
for  climbing.  She  would  mount  rocks,  fences,  and  go  to 
the  tops  of  houses,  and,  in  fact,  jump  about  in  every 
respect  like  the  animal  whose  milk  she  had  sucked.  Nor 


when  in  her  climbing  moods  did  she  manifest  any  tokens 
of  fear;  and  these  peculiarities  became  apparent  in  hei 
as  soon  as  she  was  able  to  move  about.  Having  had 
occasion  to  converse  at  one  time  with  the  captain  on  the 
tendencies  and  disposition  of  the  girl,  he  very  readily 
admitted  the  powerful  influence  of  the  goat's  milk  on  her 
character,  and  told  us  that  she  was  the  most  remarkable 
girl  in  the  respect  just  noticed  that  he  had  ever  seen.  He 
said,  moreover,  that  the  go'at  became  so  much  attached  to 
the  girl,  that  she  never  cried  but  it  ran  to  her.  and  if 
windows  were  in  the  way,  it  would  jump  through  them 
as  if  they  formed  no  obstruction,  and  on  reaching  the  child 
would  bend  over  her,  and  in  its  own  way  would  endeavour 
to  induce  her  to  draw  its  milk.  Similar  to  this  is  an 
instance  mentioned  by  Evelyn,  on  the  authority  of  Seotus 
(See  Numismata,  p.  312),  of  a  boy  who,  having  been 
nursed  on  the  milk  of  a  goat,  manifested,  as  he  grew  up, 
the  leaping  and  climbing  propensities  of  that  animal.  And 
the  same  author  mentions  the  case  of  a  boy  who,  after  being 
fed  on  the  milk  of  a  sow,  could  never  be  reclaimed  from 
running  into  ditches,  wallowing  in  puddles,  &c.,  all  of  which 
traits  of  character  are  peculiar  to  the  unclean  animal  from 
•which  he  had  drawn  his  sustenance.  Again  we  say,  there 
is  nothing  arbitrary  in  this.  You  cannot  bring  that  which 
is  clean  out  of  that  which  is  unclean,  nor,  conversely,  can 
you  bring  that  which  is  unclean  out  of  that  which  is  clean. 
As  the  fountain  is,  so  is  the  stream.  If  the  one  be  pure, 
the  other  will  be  pure,  except,  of  course,  in  the  case  of  those 
streams  which,  having  left  the  fountain,  are  fed  by  impure 
tributaries.  The  child  who  is  nursed  with  the  milk 
of  a  wicked,  immoral  mother,  will  at  a  very  early  age 
manifest  immoral  and  wicked  characteristics.  No  man  can 
study  character,  as  revealed  in  our  large  cities,  in  low  streets 
and  alleys,  where  drunkenness  and  debauchery  prevail, 
without  noticing  this.  "  He  is  a  chip  of  the  old  block," — a 


saying  common  among  us,  is  just  an  illustration  of  the  law 
we  are  seeking  to  enforce,  although  in  many  cases  the  words 
are  uttered  heedlessly,  in  ignorance  of  those  principles  on 
which  the  proverb  rests.  If  you  place  a  kid  under  the 
nursing  of  a  sheep,  you  will  find  that  when  the  kid  becomes 
a  full  grown  goat,  it  will  have  lost  much  of  the  goat's 
natural  propensities  for  climbing, — will  be  more  gentle  and 
quiet  than  other  goats,  and  its  hair  will  be  of  a  finer  tissue. 
And  so,  again,  if  a  lamb  be  nursed  by  a  goat,  it  will  be 
found,  when  it  becomes  a  matured  sheep,  that  it  will  mani- 
fest less  of  the  quiet  gentleness  of  other  sheep,  and  its  hair 
will  be  of  a  more  wiry  nature  than  it  would  have  been  had 
it  been  nursed  by  a  mother  ewe.  Giraldus  Cambrensis 
speaks  of  a  sow  fed  on  the  milk  of  a  hound,  which,  when  it 
grew  to  maturity,  hunted  deer  equally  well  with  an  ordi- 
nary hound.  And  what  is  true  of  the  lower  animals  is 
equally  true  of  man.  Like  creates  like.  Dion  tells  us  that, 
when  Caligula  was  a  babe,  his  nurse  put  blood  on  her 
breasts  that  he  might  suck  it,  which  accounts  for  the  blood- 
thirsty, inhuman  nature  of  the  man  when  he  held  the 
destinies  of  Rome  in  his  hand.  His  parents,  it  is  said,  were 
well-disposed  and  loving,  but  that  blood  which  he  sucked 
in  his  childhood  counteracted  the  antenatal  influences, 
robbed  him  of  true  human  feeling,  and  converted  him  into 
one  of  the  greatest  and  most  detested  tyrants  the  world 
ever  produced. 

It  must  be  added  that  he  was  sensual  and  gluttonous  in 
his  mature  years ;  and  the  immense  income  he  derived 
from  the  Roman  Provinces  was  largely  expended  on  the 
pleasures  of  the  table.  "We  are  told  that  he  dissolved 
in  vinegar  some  of  the  largest  and  most  costly  pearls  he 
could  procure,  and  that  he  drank  the  solution  with  apparent 
relish.  Pliny,  to  whose  work  on  "Natural  History"  (1.  9, 
p.  257)  we  are  indebted  for  this  fact,  records  a  similar  one 
concerning  the  famous  Cleopatra,  who,  after  a  sumptuous 


repast,  drank  a  solution  in  vinegar  of  two  of  the  most  valu 
able  pearls  then  known,  valued  at  100,000  sesterces,  equal 
to  £800  or  $4,000.  "We  mean  not  to  say  that  these  draughts 
had  any  moral  influence  on  the  constitution,  or  that  they 
were  anything  else  but  wanton  displays  of  wealth  in  persons 
abandoned  to  sensuality. 

Napoleon  I.  was  extremely  fond  of  roast  pig ;  and  per- 
haps his  preference  for  the  most  selfish  and  quarrelsome 
of  all  our  food -animals  may  have  nurtured  the  pugnacious 
disposition  of  the  unprincipled  Corsican. 

Animal  food  doubtless  supplies  more  physical  force  than 
a  purely  vegetable  diet ;  and  men  who  work  hard  as  labor- 
ers in  the  open  air  may  thrive  well  on  plentiful  supplies  of 
animal  as  well  as  vegetable  food,  especially  in  cold  climates. 
But  flesh  meat  stimulates  the  passions ;  and  all  persons  of 
in-door  employment,  especially  those  engaged  in  mental 
labor,  will  find  a  purely  vegetable  diet  more  conducive 
both  to  bodily  health  and  intellectual  vigor.  Undoubtedly 
the  most  valuable  thoughts,  those  most  truthful  and  scien- 
tific, those  which  are  most  nearly  allied  to  purity  of  heart, 
and  valuable  for  aiding  the  souls  of  men  to  rise  above  all 
that  is  low  and  base,  are  the  thoughts  generated  in  a  frame 
nourished  by  vegetable  productions,  as  cereals,  fruits,  and 
nuts,  which  seem  to  be  the  very  highest  type  of  soul  food. 

Accordingly,  some  of  the  most  distinguished  men  have 
been  vegetarians  during  the  most  active  years  of  their  intel- 
lectual labors. 

Benjamin  Franklin  was  for  many  years  strictly  a  vege- 
tarian ;  yet  he  possessed  uncommon  physical  strength  as 
well  as  philosophic  and  inventive  genius. 

Crates,  an  eminent  cynic  philosopher  of  Thebes,  and  a 
disciple  of  Diogenes,  was  asked  what  use  philosophy  was  to 
him.  lie  replied,  "To  teach  me  to  be  contented  with  a 
vegetable  diet,  and  to  live  exempt  from  care  and  trouble." 

Swedenborg  lived  on  bread,  milk,  and  vegetables. 


cartes,  the  celebrated  French  philosopher ;  Shelley,  the  Eng- 
lish poet,  and  Junius  Brutus  Booth,  actor,  were  all  vege- 
tarians. We  have  read  somewhere  a  similar  account  of  Sir 
Isaac  Newton,  that  during  most  of  the  years  of  his  intel- 
lectual labors  he  lived  principally  on  fruit  and  vegetables. 

G.  Rondelet,  a  talented  French  naturalist  and  also  a 
learned  physician,  the  author  of  several  medical  works, 
abandoned  the  use  of  wine  and  flesh  at  twenty-five  years  of 
age,  and  took  to  fruit  and  pastry. 

In  Thomas  Crowell's  edition  of  Lord  Byron's  "Works 
(New  York,  p.  14)  there  is  a  description  of  the  poet's  meals, 
and  we  find  it  includes  no  kind  of  butcher's  meat ;  he  ap- 
pears to  have  used  only  vegetable  products,  even  to  tea  and 

Anthony  Benezet,  a  philanthropic  Quaker,  born  in  France, 
was  distinguished  for  his  beneficence  to  the  needy  and  suf- 
fering, wherever  he  found  them.  lie  relinquished  the  use 
of  animal  food,  prompted  by  the  motive  of  abhorrence  to 
the  pain  inflicted  by  the  butcher  on  the  innocent  victims  of 
his  craft.  (See  Appleton's  "  Cyclopaedia  of  Biography.") 

Henry  David  Thoreau,  an  American  naturalist  and  an 
oriental  scholar  and  author,  ate  no  flesh,  drank  no  wine, 
used  no  tobacco.  (See  Atlantic  Monthly,  vol.  ii.,  p.  81.) 

William  C.  Bryant,  an  American  poet,  ate  sparingly  of 
flesh  and  fish,  partaking  generally  of  cereals,  oatmeal  por- 
ridge or  hominy,  milk,  and  fruit,  but  using  neither  tea,  coffee, 
tobacco,  nor  wine.  (Scribner's  Magazine,  vol.  xvi.,  p.  495.) 

The  Duke  of  Wellington  used  rusks  and  bread  with  his 
tea,  but  never  meat  or  eggs.  ("  Bric-a-brac,"  C.  Knight,  p. 

Francis  Newman,  an  eminent  Latin  scholar  and  teacher 
in  London,  is  a  vegetarian ;  and  Isaac  Pitman,  with  whom 
the  writer  is  personally  acquainted,  has  not  touched  fish, 
flesh,  or  fowl  for  upward  of  fifty  years.  He  was  born  in 
1813,  and  when  the  writer  last  saw  him  (1889),  in  his  pub- 


lishing  office  at  Bath,  England,  he  was  as  active  as  a  boy. 
He  is  one  of  the  most  constant  workers  of  his  years,  and  is 
well  known  in  England  as  the  inventor  of  the  best  system 
of  short-hand  writing,  as  well  as  a  less  used  system  of 

Joseph  Ritson,  an  English  antiquary  and  extensive  au- 
thor, had  a  horror  of  animal  food.  ("  Bric-a-brac,"  Constable, 
p.  141.) 

Hundreds  of  other  lesser  lights  could  be  referred  to  in 
order  to  prove  that  the  highest  type  of  intellect  can  be  sus- 
tained  on  vegetable  food ;  and  we  are  of  opinion  that  a 
variety  of  fruits,  nuts,  cereals,  and  other  vegetable  sub- 
stances are  more  favorable  to  original  and  inventive 
thought  than  carnivorous  diet ;  while  no  one  that  has 
studied  the  subject  will  attempt  to  gainsay  that  animal 
food  feeds  and  inflames  the  lower  passions  of  human  nature. 

We  have  never  heard  of  a  strict  vegetarian  committing 
murder,  theft,  or  other  crimes  requiring  violence.  So,  like- 
wise, the  lower  animals  that  subsist  on  the  flesh  of  other 
animals  are  far  more  liable  to  kill  than  vegetable-eating 
creatures.  Dr.  Veitch,  on  this  point,  says :  "  I  am  per- 
suaded that  it  will  invariably  be  found  true  that  those  who 
are  living  on  animal  food  are  more  impetuous  in  temper 
than  those  who  live  on  vegetable  aliment;"  and  Phillips 
adopts  the  satne  opinion.  (See  "  History  of  Cultivated  Vege- 
tables," 1822,  vol.  i.,  p.  5.) 

A  certain  quantity  of  half-cooked  beef  is  used  by  pugilists 
when  training  to  batter  each  other  into  insensibility,  this 
diet,  no  doubt,  tending  to  nourish  the  bull-dog  disposition 
needed  for  the  encounter,  just  as  swine's  flesh  will  give  the 
soldier  better  courage  for  the  battle-field  than  plum-pud- 
ding, rice,  or  apple-dumplings.  Those  savages  who  subsist 
chiefly  on  animal  flesh,  and  occasionally  take  a  meal  from 
the  remains  of  a  human  being,  are  certainly  more  blood- 
thirsty than  those  who  consume  only  vegetable  matter.  Mr. 


Lawrence  holds,  and  on  tenable  grounds,  that  as  men  rise 
in  the  scale  of  civilization  they  consume  more  vegetable 
and  less  animal  substance.  He  also  denies  that  the  bodily 
strength  is  deteriorated  by  this  upward  progress.  (See  "  Lect- 
ures on  Man,"  1844,  pp.  144-147.)  It  may  here  be  re- 
marked that  the  animals  most  useful  to  man,  and  those  of 
the  greatest  endurance  in  bearing  or  drawing  heavy  loads, 
are  vegetarian,  as  the  reindeer,  the  camel,  llama,  horse, 
mule,  ox,  elephant,  etc. ;  whereas  the  useless  quadrupeds, 
as  the  lion,  tiger,  lynx,  hyena,  and  all  that  ilk,  are  wholly 
carnivorous,  and  they  are  not  only  unserviceable  to  man  but 
are  vicious  and  treacherous.  Then  as  to  bodily  strength. 
Is  not  the  horse  or  the  ox  strong  enough  for  any  eight  or 
ten  men?  And  as  for  the  elephant,  which  never  takes  a 
mouthful  of  aught  but  vegetable  food  and  water,  does  he 
not  keep  strength  enough  for  half  a  regiment  ? 

Charles  Darwin  says  that  in  Central  Chili  he  saw  men 
working  in  a  mine  four  hundred  and  fifty  feet  deep,  and 
carrying  two  hundred  pounds  of  ore  by  rough  ladders  to 
the  surface.  They  lived  entirely  on  boiled  beans  and  bread. 
(See  "  Naturalist's  Voyage  Eound  the  World,"  New  Ed.,  New 
York,  1871,  p.  266.)  He  also  states  that  these  men  worked 
from  break  of  day  till  dark,  with  only  a  few  minutes  for  a 
mid-day  meal.  Could  meat  eaters  do  more  at  any  labor  re- 
quiring physical  strength  ?  On  page  60  of  the  same  book  we 
find  Darwin  thus  speaking  of  the  general  working  popula- 
tion of  Central  Chili :  "  The  laboring  men  work  very  hard. 
They  have  little  time  allowed  for  their  meals,  and  during 
summer  as  well  as  winter  they  begin  when  it  is  light,  and 
leave  off  at  dark.  They  are  paid  one  pound  sterling  ($5)  a 
month,  and  their  food  given  them.  This,  for  breakfast,  con- 
sists of  sixteen  figs  and  two  small  loaves  of  bread;  for  din- 
ner, boiled  beans ;  for  supper,  broken  roasted  wheat  grain. 
They  scarcely  ever  taste  meat,  as  with  the  £12  per  annum 
they  have  to  clothe  themselves  and  support  their  families." 


As  the  letters  of  the  alphabet  are  the  elements  of  written 
language,  and  when  we  understand  their  combinations,  we 
have  a  key  to  unlock  the  treasures  of  knowledge  contained 
in  books,  so  the  various  lines,  the  convexities,  the  con- 
cavities of  the  human  face  are  as  so  many  letters  by  which 
those  who  understand  them  can  read  at  a  glance  the  intel- 
lectual and  moral  character  of  those  in  whom  they  appear. 
But  this  facial  expression  is  a  language  not  quickly  mastered ; 
it  is  a  study  to  last  a  life-time;  for  ever  and  anon  there 
are,  and  will  be  new  marks  to  discover  and  interpret. 

There  are,  however,  several  distinct  varieties  of  general 
structure,  which  produce  corresponding  characteristics  and 
facial  expressions  in  all.  For  instance,  the  bony  structure 
produces  the  rough  and  homely,  not  to  say  ugly  face. 
But  to  me  these  plain  countenances  appear  like  countries 
whose  mountains  and  ravines  reveal  nature  in  features  of 
sublimity  and  grandeur.  Level  or  slightly  undulating 
landscapes  are  called  pretty,  so  are  smooth  faces.  But 
the  mountainous  country  is  that  which  conceals  treasures 
of  gold,  silver,  precious  stones,  and  useful  metals;  so  the 
rough  faces  indicate  solid  character  and  sterling  worth — 
powers  which,  like  the  mines  and  quarries  of  mountain 
ranges,  are  worth  woi  king,  and  will  yield  a  rich  return. 
Witness  Michael  Angelo,  Galileo,  Julius  Caesar,  Christopher 


Columbus,  Andrew  Jackson,  Sir  Robert  Peel,  and  Abiaham 
Lincoln,  all  specimens  of  the  bony  type. 

The  rounder  lines  of  the  muscular  structure  are  the 
result  of  physical  exercise,  and  stand  as  a  register  in 
nature's  account  book  to  the  credit  of  the  individual  or 
race  whose  industry  traced  them  there. 

I  shall  now  describe  particularly  the  lines  that  belong 
to  each  of  the  five  kinds  of  structure. 

1.  The  Abdominal.  This  make  appears  conspicuously 
in  aquatic  animals.  In  the  human  subject,  it  gives  short 
horizontal  lines  on  the  forehead,  as  here  indicated.  These 

Aulus  Vitellius,  a  licentious  and  cruel  Roman  Emperor. 

lines  or  wrinkles  are  straight  in  some  persons,  while  in 
others  they  _are  irregular  and  broken,  in  mature  years, 
however,  they  are  always  short.  This  structure  also  pro- 
duces wrinkles  running  round  the  neck  and  ears.  It  gives 


a  certain  roundness  and  smoothness  to  the  whole  body, 
with  a  few  well-rounded  lines,  usually  including  a  curved 
one  about  the  mouth.  It  gives,  especially  in  childhood, 
circular  creases  more  or  less  deep  about  the  wrists,  elbows, 
knees,  knuckle-joints,  and  across  the  chest.  The  lines  of 
the  face  are  less  marked,  owing  to  the  adipose  tissue  which 
fills  it  up,  and  produces  dimples  rather  than  wrinkles. 
What  lines  you  discover  are  not  sharp  at  their  inward 
or  bone  direction,  but  are  round  in  their  deepest  part. 
These  are  pretty  sure  signs  of  eating,  sleeping,  and  enjoy- 
ing animal  life.  Those  who  exhibit  them  usually  possess 
excellent  organs  of  assimilation,  and  their  secretions  are 
carried  on  quite  freely.  When  the  abdominal  structure 
is  greatly  predominant,  we  have  an  individual  more  animal 
than  intellectual;  fond  of  the  pleasures  of  the  table,  and  a 
trifle  selfish. 

2.  The   Thoracic   structure — evinced   by  a   broad   chest, 
large  nostrils,  wide  cheek-bones,  full  and  capacious  throat. 
It  abounds  in  electricity,  and  produces  fewer  lines  than 
any  other;    for  it  is  the  fresh,  youthful  make  of  active, 
impulsive  natures,  not  steady  enough  at  any  one  pursuit 
to  acquire   the  wrinkles  which,  as  we  shall  see,  are  the 
product  of  continued  application. 

3.  The  Muscular  and  Fibrous  structure — abounding,  as 
its  name  imports  in  muscle,  and  evincing  itself  by  physical 
force.     Here  will  be  found   perpendicular  wrinkles  in  the 
lower  forehead  just   over   the   nose,   and   running   nearly 
parallel   with   the   facial   muscles.      (See  cut  of  S.   Judas 
Thadeus  on  page  61.)     In  that  cut,  observe  a  well-marked 
example  of  muscular  wrinkles  on  the  face.     They  run  up 
and  down  the  cheeks,  neck  and  arms,  in  correspondence 
with  the  facial  muscles;    but  it  is  to  be  noted  that  the 
orbicular   muscles   are  not   thus  marked,  being  light  and 
thin  they  are  not  apt  to  form  wrinkles  unless  they  are 
formed  transversely  to  the  direction  of  the  muscles.     These 


muscular  lines  are  deeper  than  any  other,  and  are  con- 
spicuous when  the  individual  is  strongly  under  the  influence 
of  grief  or  joy.  They  generally  indicate  pacific  and  good- 
natured  people;  for  a  man  who  is  unusually  strong  is 
generally  peaceably  disposed.  Such  are  likewise  labour- 
loving  people;  for  whenever  any  natural  form  or  make  is 
strongly  predominant,  there  is  aji  instinctive  desire  to 
exercise  and  increase  it. 

4.  The  Osseous  or  Bony  structure — remarkable  for  forma- 
tive power.     It  has  curved  lines,  but  not  so  deep  as  those 
of  the  muscular,  and  their  general  tendency  is  to  be  longer 
and  more  angular.     People  having  this  class  of  wrinkles 
will  love  to  ride  better  than  walk,  as  they  thus  exercise 
the  bones  rather  than  the  muscles. 

5.  The  Brain  and  Nerve  structure  is  indicated  by  long 
lines  about  the  forehead,  long  also  from  the  eyes  down- 
wards.     People  of  this   make   are  not  generally  desirous 
of  money,  or  anxious   to   accumulate  property,  but   they 
intensely  love  study;  they  want  to  read  and  think.     Nor 
only   so  —  they   have  thought   closely   and   deeply   before 
those  long   lines  could  be  fully  developed.      You   cannot 
find  them  in  the  youthful  face;   they  are  the  tokens  of 
long  application,  close  study,  and  great  mental  power. 

No  disposition  or  exercise,  whether  of  body  or  mind, 
produces  such  long  wrinkles  as  this  thoughtfuluess.  You 
cannot  find  a  man  who  has  for  years  been  a  deep  and  close 
thinker,  but  he  shews  long  and  continuous  wrinkles  across 
the  forehead;  also  lengthened  and  well-marked  lines  pro- 
ceeding outwards  from  the  eyes.  There  will  usually  be 
well-marked  eye-lids,  and  a  tendency  to  form  wrinkles 
parallel  with  the  attachment  of  the  lower  eye-lid  to  the 
face.  So,  whenever  you  see  a  man  with  a  great  head, 
large  eye,  long  nose,  and  shrivelled  appearance  of  the  skin 
about  the  upper  part  of  the  face,  be  assured  that  his  has 
not  been  a  life  of  ease  or  sloth;  for  these  tokens  bespeak 


intense,  consecutive  thought  and  mature  understanding. 
Long  wrinkles  indicate  what  is  meant  by  a  "  long  head" — 
a  far-seeing  mind,  made  so  by  nature  at  first,  but  developed 
and  matured  by  years  of  thoughtfulness. 

It  is  important  distinctly  to  understand  the  wrinkles 
peculiar  to  each  form  or  structure ;  but  sometimes  you  find 
several  of  these  blende^  or  mixed  in  one  individual;  and 
the  study  thus  becomes  more  difficult.  When  the  Brain 
and  Nerve  form  is  combined  with  the  bony,  it  will  produce 
more  wrinkles  than  any  other  structure,  or  combination  of 
structures;  but  the  wrinkles  will  be  less  perfect,  and  there- 
fore less  easily  recognizable  than  in  the  pure  Brain  and 
Nerve  type. 

If  we  find  the  whole  five  types  pretty  evenly  balanced 
in  one  person,  the  lines  can  scarcely  be  found  unless  the 
constitution  has  been  abused.  This  harmony,  this  equi- 
poise seems  to  efface  the  lines  belonging  to  each  peculiar 

An  observation  or  two  on  the  general  lines  of  the  face 
may  suffice  in  conclusion. 

Facial  lines  or  wrinkles  are  the  roads  over  which  time 
has  wrought  his  experiences,  and  those  who  possess  them 
have  always  been  hard  workers,  either  for  good  or  evil. 

The  smooth  face  denotes  ease,  indolence,  and  pleasure. 
The  possessors  of  such  are  seldom  thoroughly  honest,  and 
are  not  often  found  arriving  at  eminence.  The  men  and 
women  who  have  made  their  mark  on  other  minds,  wher- 
ever they  have  been,  have  been  ploughing  their  own  faces 
with  lines  never  to  be  erased;  but  such  lines  are  not  found 
in  the  children  of  ease  and  idleness. 

The  lines  produced  by  the  workings  of  scorn,  grief,  joy, 
mirth,  happiness,  pain,  disappointment,  mark  the  counten- 
ance only  for  a  time,  except  where  the  condition  is  long- 
continued.  If  a  person  has  been  in  bad  health  for  years, 
the  entire  face  will  display  wrinkles,  but  not  of  the  regular 
characters  we  have  described  above. 


If  a  person  is  of  gloomy  disposition,  the  lines  will  run 
downwards  like  the  feelings  within;  while  the  opposite 
will  be  the  case  with  an  individual  full  of  hope  and  healthy 
life.  In  joyous  subjects  the  lines  run  upward ;  but  if  out- 
ward and  downward,  there  has  been  much  sorrow.  The 
downward  curves  of  a  gloomy  countenance  are  seen  in  the 
imprisoned  convict;  the  upward  ones  in  the  blooming, 
thoughtless  youth,  with  whom  life  is  in  its  freshest  con- 

The  lines  which  run  straight  across  the  forehead  are 
indifferent  evidences  of  moral  worth ;  while  those  that  dip 
in  the  middle  are  good  signs,  found  only  on  persons  of 
estimable  character. 

The  lines,  the  curves,  the  angles,  are  so  many  marks  in 
nature's  record  of  our  conduct.  The  lines  produced  by 
crime  are  downward;  those  traced  by  good  actions  run 
upwards;  like  the  soul  within,  looking  up  for  help  and 
support,  our  good  actions  make  their  marks  to  indicate  the 
upward  tendency  of  our  lives. 

Now,  the  reader  may  think  these  matters  very  difficult — 
all  but  impossible  to  master.  What  if  you  should  live  to 
see  the  day  when  a  school  for  teaching  them  should  be 
successfully  conducted  and  gladly  supported? 


THIS  is  a  subject  of  such  vital  and  paramount  importance, 
that  we  intend  to  enter  into  it  so  fully,  that  every  one  of 
ordinary  intelligence  may  be  able  to  appreciate  the  facts 
and  reasons,  so  as  personally  to  apply  them,  and  become 
the  intelligent  instructors  and  guides  of  all  who  come 
within  the  sphere  of  their  influence. 

Let  us  then  first  consider  the  qualities  and  influence  of 
the  atmosphere.  All  the  continental  waters  come  to  us 
from  the  ocean.  If  they  are  fresh  and  sweet,  it  is  because 
they  have  passed  through  the  great  laboratory  of  nature, 
by  the  simple  process  of  distillation,  which  is  the  first  fact 
to  be  specially  pointed  out. 

The  Sun,  the  great  awakener  of  life,  shoots  his  burning 
rays  every  day  athwart  the  face  of  the  waters;  he  causes 
the  invisible  vapours  to  rise,  which,  lighter  than  the  air 
itself,  unceasingly  tend  to  soar  into  the  atmosphere.  In 
their  ascending  movement,  they  encounter  the  colder  layers 
of  the  higher  regions,  which  have  a  cooling  influence.  They 
are  condensed  in  vesicles,  which  become  visible  under  the 
form  of  clouds  and  fogs.  Then  borne  along  by  the  winds, 
whether  invisible  still,  or  in  the  state  of  clouds,  they  spread 
themselves  over  the  continents,  and  fall  in  abundant  rains 
upon  the  grounds  which  they  fertilize.  All  the  portion  of 
the  atmospheric  waters  not  expended  for  the  benefit  of  the 
plants  and  the  animals,  or  carried  off  anew  into  the  atrno* 


sphere  by  evaporation,  returns  by  the  springs  and  rivers  to 
the  ocean  whence  it  came. 

Thus  the  waters  of  the  ocean,  by  this  ever- renewed 
rotation,  spread  themselves  over  the  lands;  the  two  ele- 
ments combine  and  become  a  source  of  life,  far  richer  and 
much  superior  to  what  either  could  have  produced  by  its 
own  forces  alone.  But  we  see  the  earth  and  the  water, 
tne  continents  and  the  oceans,  touch  each  other  only  at 
their  margins.  A  more  intimate  action  upon  each  other  is 
only  possible  by  means  of  the  most  mobile  of  the  elements, 
the  atmosphere,  which  performs  in  nature  the  part  of  a 
mediator.  The  winds  are  the  agents  in  this  important 
work, — the  carriers  of  the  water  which  unceasingly  reno- 
vates the  face  of  the  lands,  and  sustains  its  beauty.  The 
inhabitants  of  the  arid  desert  can  alone  tell  us  how  to  value 
this  treasure  of  revivifying  moisture.  Still  let  it  be  care- 
fully remembered,  that  the  more  elevated  regions  receive 
the  more  purified  air,  with  its  burden  of  more  purified 
vapour.  Hence  the  mental  and  bodily  vigour  attained  in 
elevated  regions,  within  certain  limits,  is  proportionally  of 
a  more  elevated  order  than  can  be  attained  in  a  more  impure 
and  heavier  region  in  depressed  situations. 

Now,  let  us  look  at  the  terrestrial  distribution  of  our  race, 
with  special  reference  to  the  elevation  and  climatic  condi- 
tions of  its  habitat. 

Man,  among  the  inhabitants  of  the  earth,  forms  a  striking 
exception  to  the  general  law  of  distribution  and  develop- 
ment. He  is  not  found  in  his  most  perfect  type  in  the 
tropical  regions.  The  tropical  man,  far  from  exhibiting 
that  harmonious  outline,  that  noble  and  elevated  form,  and 
all  those  perfections  which  the  chisel  of  a  Phidias  or  of  a 
Praxiteles  has  combined  in  a  single  individual,  displays  that 
figure  which  approaches  near  to  the  lower  animal,  and 
betrays  the  instinct  of  the  brute.  If,  then,  the  distribution 
of  the  human  races  on  the  surface  of  the  globe  does  not 


follow  the  law  of  the  rest  of  nature,  what  is  the  law,  let  us 
try  to  point  out,  which  regulates  it?  This  is  one  of  the 
most  important  problems  in  nature.  I  do  not  intend  to 
enter  into  the  discussion  of  this  question  here,  but  merely 
to  state  and  verify  the  fact  that,  while  all  the  types  of 
plants  and  of  animals  gradually  decrease  in  perfection  from 
the  equatorial  to  the  polar  regions,  in  proportion  to  the 
temperature,  man  presents  to  us  his  purest  and  most  per- 
fect type  at  the  very  centre  of  the  temperate  regions  of  the 
great  land-hemisphere,  almost  in  the  middle  of  the  great 
north-eastern  continent,  in  the  regions  of  Iran,  of  Armenia, 
and  of  the  Caucasus;  and  departing  from  this  geographical 
centre  in  the  three  grand  directions  of  the  lands,  the  types 
gradually  lose  the  beauty  of  their  forms  in  proportion  to 
their  distance.  At  the  extreme  points  of  the  southern 
continents  we  find  the  most  deformed  and  degenerate  races, 
the  lowest  in  the  scale  of  humanity. 

Now,  let  us  take  a  type  from  the  central  region  of 
Western  Asia — the  Caucasian.  In  this  we  are  at  once  struck 
with  the  regularity  of  the  features,  the  flowing,  easy  grace 
of  the  lines,  and  the  perfect  harmony  of  the  whole  figure. 
The  head  is  oval;  no  part  is  obtrusively  prominent;  nothing 
salient  or  angular  disturbs  the  softness  of  the  lines  which 
surround  it.  The  face  is  divided  into  three  equal  parts  by 
the  line  of  the  eyes  and  that  of  the  mouth.  The  eyes  are 
large,  well  cut,  neither  too  near  nor  too  far  from  the  nose; 
their  axis  is  placed  on  a  single  straight  line  at  right  angles 
with  the  line  of  the  nose.  The  stature  is  tall,  lithe,  and 
well-proportioned.  The  length  of  the  extended  arms  is 
equal  to  the  whole  height  of  the  body;  in  a  word,  the  pro- 
portions reveal  that  perfect  harmony  which  is  the  essence 
of  beauty.  Such  is  the  type  of  the  white  race — the  Cau- 
casian, as  it  has  been  called — the  most  pure  and  perfect 
type  of  humanity.  Their  average  elevation  above  sea  level 
is  2,000  feet,  hence  pure  and  invigorating,  but  not  too  rare, 
is  their  lung-food. 


In  proportion  as  we  depart  and  descend  from  this  geogra- 
phical centre  of  the  races  of  man,  the  regularity  diminishes, 
and  the  harmony  of  the  proportions  disappears.  Follow  the 
dispersing  races,  first,  in  the  direction  of  Europe  and  Africa. 

Although  the  European  may  be  considered  as  belonging 
to  the  central  race,  his  features  have  less  symmetry,  but 
more  animation,  more  mobility  and  expression.  In  him 
beauty  is  less  physical,  but  more  moral  and  intellectual, 
which  may  be  accounted  for  by  the  superior  freedom  with 
intellectual  and  spiritual  culture. 

Passing  into  Africa,  we  find  the  Arab,  who,  whether  in 
his  own  country  or  in  Algeria,  shews  degeneracy  in  both 
his  cranial  and  facial  features.  The  degeneracy  gradually 
increases  as  we  proceed  southward,  and  may  be  traced 
through  the  Qalla  of  Abyssinia,  whose  hair  begins  to  crisp; 
the  Kaffir,  with  woolly  hair,  and  lips  like  the  negro;  and 
the  Hottentot,  who  long  was  considered  the  most  degraded 
specimen  of  humanity.  Then  look  to  the  other  coast  of 
Africa,  still  farther  from  Asia,  and  you  find  the  degeneracy 
of  form  still  more  rapid.  The  Berbers  of  the  Atlas  evi- 
dently belong  to  the  Caucasian  race;  but,  nevertheless,  in 
the  prolongation  of  the  head,  the  pouting  of  the  mouth, 
their  spare  meagre  forms,  and  their  deeper  colour,  they 
indicate  a  marked  degeneration.  The  Fellatahs  of  Soudan, 
and  still  more  the  inhabitants  of  Senegal,  bring  us  to  the 
type  of  the  Congo  Negro.  In  him  the  retreating  forehead, 
the  prominent  mouth,  thick  lips,  flat  nose,  woolly  head, 
strongly-developed  occiput,  announce  the  overwhelming 
preponderance  of  the  sensual  and  physical  appetites  and 
propensities  over  the  nobler  faculties.  And  then,  at  the 
extremity  of  Africa,  the  miserable  Bushman  is  still  lower 
than  the  Hottentot. 

Now  we  turn  to  Eastern  Asia  to  point  out  the  marked 

decadence  of  the  human  species  in  their  descent  from  the 

*  pure  and  elevated  cradle  of  the  race.     Towards  the  level 



of  the  sea,  the  great  receptacle  of  terrestrial  impurities,  as 
the  race  descends,  the  more  debased  has  it  ever  become. 
But  more  on  this  point  when  we  come  to  enumerate  some 
of  the  centres  of  immorality  and  decay  that  may  be  visited 
on  our  great  rivers  by  the  sea. 

From  the  Caucasian  region,  as  far  as  the  extremity  of 
Australia,  the  decreasing  beauty  of  the  human  form  is  not 
less  perceptible  or  less  gradual  than  towards  the  extremity 
of  Africa.  Here  we  see  the  Mongolian  with  his  prominent 
cheek-bones,  eyes  compressed  and  wide  apart  and  elevated 
at  the  outer  corners,  and  the  whole  figure  wanting  in 
harmony  throughout.  Then  the  Malays,  who  seem  to 
have  sprung  from  a  mixture  of  the  Mongolian  and  white 
race.  The  Papuan  of  New  Guinea,  with  still  some  lingering 
advantages  of  form.  But  the  South  Australian  with  his 
gaunt  body,  his  lean  members,  bending  knees,  hump  back, 
projecting  jaws,  presents  the  most  melancholy  aspect  that 
is  found  in  human  form. 

In  our  rapid  suggestive  general  survey,  we  now  come 
to  America.  Here  the  same  law  shews  itself.  The  face 
of  an  Indian  chief  has  some  advantages,  but  the  prominence 
of  the  cheek-bones,  a  slight  elevation  of  the  outer  angle  of 
the  eyes,  and  the  size  of  the  jaw,  clearly  betray  a  degener- 
ate nature.  In  the  South  American  Indian  all  these  defects 
are  still  more  exaggerated,  and  give  to  the  races  of  the 
south,  compared  with  those  of  the  north,  a  very  marked 
character  of  inferiority.  Finally,  at  the  extreme  point  of 
the  continent,  and  in  the  wretched  Island  of  Tierra  del 
Fuego  live  the  Pesherais,  the  most  misshapen,  the  most 
mentally  degraded,  and  the  most  wretched  of  all  the  inha- 
bitants of  the  New  World. 

The  same  law  holds  good  in  advancing  towards  the 
poles.  Passing  the  Finns,  we  arrive  among  the  Laplanders; 
through  the  Mongolians  we  reach  the  Tungusians,  the 
Samoiedes  of  Siberia,  and  the  Esquimaux  of  North  America 


Thus,  in  all  directions  as  we  remove  from  the  pure 
elevated  seat  of  the  most  perfect  and  beautiful  human 
type,  the  degeneracy  becomes  more  strongly  marked. 
Let  us  now  draw  a  few  deductions  from  these  re- 
markable facts  observable  in  the  distribution  of  the 
human  race. 

1.  The   continents   of  the   north,   which   constitute   the 
central  mass  of  the  lands,  are  inhabited  by  the  finest  races 
and  present  the  most  perfect  types;  while  the  continents 
of  the  south,  forming  the  extreme  and  far  sundered  points 
of  the  lands, — as  it   were   long   wedges   driven   into   the 
ocean — are  occupied  exclusively  by  the  inferior  races  and 
most  imperfect   representatives   of   human   nature.      This 
contrast  is  more  decided  in  the  Old  World   than  in  the 
New;  nevertheless,  in  the  latter,  notwithstanding  the  general 
inferiority  of  the  copper-coloured  race,  we  have  seen  that 
the  man  of  the  north — the  Missouri  Indian — has  a  marked 
superiority  over  the  Indian  of  the  south,  over  the  Botocudos, 
the  Guaranis,  and  the  Pesherais  of  South  America. 

2.  The  degree  of  culture  of  nations  bears  a  proportion  to 
the  nobleness  of  their  race.     The  races  of  the  northern  con- 
tinents of  the  Old  World  are  alone  civilized,  while  those  of 
the  southern  continents  have  remained  savage.     In  America 
the  civilized  Aztecs  of  Mexico  came  thither  from  the  north. 
The  ancient  civilization  of  the  Incas  (or  Quichuas)  on  the 
table-lands   of   Peru  scarcely  seems    indigenous    to    South 
America.     But,  it  must  not  be  forgotten  that  the  land  itself, 
by  its  elevation,  belongs  to  the  temperate  zone,  averaging 
more  than  4,000  feet  above  sea  level. 

Now,  these  differences  between  the  north  and  the  south 
are  not  of  to-day  nor  yesterday.  If  we  glance  at  the 
memorials  of  these  tribes,  without  written  history,  meagre 
as  they  are,  it  might  seem  that  it  has  been  the  same  from 
a  time  before  all  our  traditions  or  histories  if  the  Bible 
is  excepted.  No  indication  brings  to  light  in  these  tropical 



continents  the  existence,  at  another  epoch,  of  a  purer  type, 
of  a  more  perfect  race  of  men,  than  the  degenerate  and 
inferior  form  we  there  meet  with  at  the  present  day. 
The  annals  or  traditions  of  the  tribes,  in  no  part  of  these 
continents,  record  either  the  birth  or  the  progress  of  a 
civilization  which  has  contributed  to  the  development  and 
progress  of  our  race.  Man  has  there  remained  always  at 
the  bottom  of  the  scale  of  civilization;  while,  from  the 
earliest  days  of  the  world,  history  marks  out  the  temperate 
and  more  elevated  continents  as  the  seats  of  the  cultivated 
communities.  As  there  is  a  temperate  hemisphere  and  a 
tropical  hemisphere,  so  is  there  a  corresponding  civilized 
hemisphere  and  a  savage  hemisphere. 

Without  pursuing  the  subject,  I  may  just  hint  here  that 
the  distribution  of  man  on  the  globe,  and  that  of  the  other 
organized  beings,  are  not  founded  on  the  same  principle. 
In  all  organized  beings,  except  the  human,  the  approach 
to  perfection  of  the  types  is  proportional  to  the  intensity 
of  heat  and  of  the  other  agents  which  stimulate  the  display 
of  physical  life.  But  in  man  the  approach  to  perfection 
of  the  types  is  in  proportion  to  the  degree  of  intellectual 
and  moral  improvement.  This  is  a  law  of  moral  order, 
just  as  the  former  is  a  law  of  physical  order. 

Now,  since  this  subject  is  not  only  absorbing  but  intensely 
interesting,  let  me  direct  your  attention,  as  briefly  as 
possible,  to. the  fact  that  the  continents  of  the  north  are 
the  theatres  of  history  and  every  kind  of  development. 
They  are  Asia,  Europe,  and  North  America. 

The  result  of  the  comparison  which  we  have  made 
between  the  northern  and  southern  continents,  in  their 
most  general  characteristics,  seems  to  be  that,  what  dis- 
tinguishes the  former  is,  not  the  wealth  of  nature  and 
the  abundance  of  physical  life,  but  the  aptitude  which 
their  structure,  their  situation,  and  their  climate  give  them 
to  minister  to  the  development  of  man,  and  to  become 


thus  the  seat  of  a  life  much  superior  to  that  of  nature. 
The  three  continents  of  the  north,  with  their  civilized 
peoples,  have  appeared  as  the  historical  continents,  which 
form  a  marked  contrast  to  those  of  the  south,  with  their 
savage  tribes. 

We  know  that  the  condition  of  an  active,  complete 
development,  is  the  multiplicity  of  the  contrasts,  the  dif- 
ferences, the  springs  of  action  and  reaction,  of  mutual 
exchanges  which  excite  and  manifest  life  under  a  thousand 
diverse  forms.  To  this  principle  corresponds,  in  the  organi- 
zation of  the  animal,  the  greater  number  of  its  special 
organs;  in  .the  organization  of  the  continents,  the  variety 
of  the  forms  of  the  land,  the  strongly  characterized  districts, 
the  nature  of  which  stamps  upon  the  people  inhabiting 
them  a  special  seal,  and  makes  them  so  many  distinct 
individual  bodies. 

Hence  we  expect  to  find  the  great  fact  of  the  life  of 
the  nations  connected  essentially  with  those  differences 
of  soil  and  climate,  and  with  the  contrasts  which  nature 
herself  presents  in  the  interior  of  the  continents;  and  that 
the  influence  of  these  differences  on  the  social  developments 
of  man,  although  variable  according  to  the  times,  is  evident 
in  the  periods  of  his  history. 

The  true  theatre  of  history  is  the  great  north-eastern 
continent,  comprising  Asia  and  Europe.  We  direct  atten- 
tion to  the  unity  and  physical  plan  exhibited  in  this  grand 
triangular  mass,  which,  in  a  natural  point  of  view,  forms  a 
single  continent.  The  subdivisions  bear  the  imprint  of 
mere  secondary  differences.  The  most  remarkable  trait 
of  its  structure  is  the  great  dorsal  ridge,  composed  of 
systems  of  lofty  mountains  traversing  it  from  one  end  to 
the  other,  lengthwise,  which  may  be  regarded  as  the  axis 
of  the  continent.  It  is  in  fact  that  on  the  two  sides  of 
the  long  chain  of  more  than  5,000  miles  on  the  north  and 
south  of  the  Himalaya,  of  the  Caucasus,  of  the  Balkan,  the 


Alps,  and  the  Pyrenees,  the  high  lands  of  the  interior  of 
the  continent  extend.  It  splits  the  continent  into  two 
portions,  unequal  in  size,  and  differing  from  each  other 
in  their  configuration  and  climate.  On  the  south  the 
areas  are  less  vast,  the  lands  are  more  indented,  more 
detached,  and,  on  the  whole,  perhaps  more  elevated;  it  is 
the  maritime  zone  of  the  peninsulas.  On  the  nor*,h,  the 
great  plains  prevail;  the  peninsulas  are  rare  or  of  slight 
importance,  and  the  ground  less  varied. 

But  that  which  chiefly  distinguishes  one  of  the  two 
parts  from  the  other,  and  imparts  to  each  a  peculiar  nature, 
is  the  climate.  Those  lofty  barriers  which  have  been  just 
named,  almost  everywhere  separate  the  climates  as  well 
as  the  areas.  The  gradual  elevation  of  the  terraces,  from 
the  north  towards  the  south,  up  to  the  ridge  of  the  con- 
tinent, by  prolonging  in  the  southern  direction  the  frosts 
of  the  north,  augments  still  further  in  Eastern  Asia  and 
in  Europe  the  difference  of  temperature  between  their  sides, 
and  renders  it  more  sensible. 

Thus  two  opposite  regions  are  confronted,  one  on  the 
north,  in  the  cool  temperate  zone,  with  its  vast  steppes 
and  desert  table-lands,  its  rigorous  and  generally  dry  climate ; 
the  other  on  the  south,  in  the  warm  temperate  zone,  with 
its  beautiful  peninsulas,  fertile  plains,  blue  heavens,  soft 
climate,  delicate  fruits,  trees  evergreen,  and  lovely  smiling 
nature  everywhere. 

The  contrast  of  these  two  natures  must  have  a  great 
influence  on  the  people  of  the  two  regions.  It  is  repeated 
from  the  history  of  the  very  earliest  ages  in  the  most 
remarkable  manner.  In  the  north,  the  arid  table-lands, 
the  steppes  and  the  forests,  lead  men  to  the  life  of  shepherds 
and  hunters;  the  people  are  nomadic  and  imperfectly  culti- 
vated. In  the  south,  the  fruitful  plains  and  a  more  facile 
nature  invite  the  people  to  agriculture;  they  form  fixed 
establishments  and  become  civilized.  Thus,  in  the  very 


interior  of  the  historical  continent,  we  find,  placed  side  by 
side,  a  civilized  and  a  barbarous  world. 

4s  far  as  the  memorials  of  history  ascend,  they  shew  us, 
on  the  table-land  of  Iran,  one  of  the  earliest  civilized  nations, 
the  ancient  people  of  Zend.  The  Zendavesta,  the  sacred 
book  of  their  legislator,  displays  everywhere  deep  traces  of 
the  conflict  of  Iran — the  good  and  civilized — with  Turan — 
the  evil,  dark,  and  barbarous  inhabitants  of  the  low  regions 
around.  Thus,  clearly  shewing  that  the  purer  elements  of 
nature  contributed  in  remotest  antiquity  to  develop  and 
elevate  the  human  being  enjoying  their  advantages.  In 
China  and  India  we  have  parallel  examples  of  the  effects 
of  elevation  on  the  lofty  table-lands  of  these  vast  countries. 
There  were  developed  the  two  great  cultivated  nations  of 
Eastern  Asia,  whose  perfected  languages,  rich  literature, 
and  wonderful  skill  in  art  and  science  remain  as  amazing 
monuments  of  their  intellectual  and  physical  development. 

Let  us  observe,  in  passing,  that  Eastern  Asia  is  pre- 
eminently a  country  of  contrasts,  of  isolated  and  strongly 
characterized  regions.  In  perfect  responsive  accordance 
with  these  natural  features  of  the  earth,  we  find  the  char- 
acteristics of  the  man  who  occupies  the  soil — the  Mongolian 
race.  In  this  people  the  melancholic  disposition  seerns  to 
prevail;  the  intellect,  moderate  in  range,  exercises  itself 
upon  details,  but  never  rises  to  the  general  views  or  the 
high  speculations  in  science  and  philosophy.  His  ideas  are 
wholly  turned  to  things  of  earth,  but  the  world  of  ideas, 
the  spiritual  world,  seems  closed  against  him.  His  whole 
philosophy  arid  religion  are  reduced  to  a  code  of  social 
morals  for  the  regulation  of  human  conduct,  such  only  as 
merely  renders  society  possible.  The  Chinese  again,  being 
by  nature  closed  in,  have  carefully  adhered  to  the  patri- 
archal form  of  society,  but  the  white  race  of  India,  sprung 
from  the  west,  have  developed  a  civilization  wholly  different, 
the  qualities  of  which  are  explained  at  once  by  the  influences 


of  the  soil  and  the  climate.  The  Hindoo  is  endowed  with 
higher  intelligence,  with  a  power  of  generalization,  with 
deep  spiritual  feeling,  whereas  the  Chinese  neither  knows 
nor  cares  for  a  spiritual  life.  The  pure  air,  the  vast  mountains 
and  rivers  of  Upper  India  have  so  operated  on  the  race, 
that  it  would  seem  that  the  material  world  disappears 
from  their  eyes.  In  their  literature,  so  rich  in  works  of 
high  philosophy,  of  poetry,  and  religion,  we  seek  in  vain 
for  the  annals  of  their  history,  or  any  treatise  on  science,  or 
any  collection  of  practical  observations,  so  numerous  among 
the  Chinese.  One  thing  ought  not  to  be  forgotten  in  con- 
sidering these  eastern  civilizations.  At  a  very  remote  era 
they  had  attained  to  their  utmost  in  their  several  civiliza- 
tions, but  then  they  progressed  no  further.  The  great  ob- 
struction seems  to  be  the  isolation  of  each  great  community, 
arising  from  the  impassable  barriers  that  the  land  forms 
have  placed  between  them.  The  wonderful  contrast  to  this 
natural  conformation  will  be  very  striking  when  we  notice 
the  amazing  facilities  afforded  by  the  New  World. 

Now,  glance  for  a  moment  at  the  conformation  of  true 
Western  Asia — the  Asia  of  history.  It  consists  of  a  plateau, 
on  the  south  of  the  great  central  ridge,  and  enjoys  a  fine 
climate,  while  it  is  flanked  by  two  plains.  If  Egypt  be 
added  to  it,  this  region  will  comprise  all  the  great  coun- 
tries of  ancient  civilization  of  the  centre  of  this  continent. 
Here  is  the  original  country  of  the  white  race,  the  most 
perfect  in  body  and  mind.  Their  original  habitat  was  in 
the  very  centre  of  this  vast  salubrious  plateau,  around  the 
pellucid  head  streams  of  the  great  rivers,  along  whose 
banks  descended  the  ancient  Assyrians  and  Babylonians, 
keeping  respectively  along  the  Euphrates  and  Tigris,  on 
which  they  built  Nineveh  and  Babylon,  whose  history  is 
too  well-known  to  be  more  than  simply  mentioned  here, 
for  the  sake  of  observing  that  their  fate,  in  becoming  great 
sinks  and  centres  of  moral  pollution  and  degradation,  has 


been  ever  since  the  history  of  cities  founded  on  large 
streams  in  low  situations  where  natural  impurities  accum- 
ulate, and  so  affect  body  and  mind,  to  sap  the  pure  and 
healthy  action  of  each.  National  decadence  is  first  seen  in 
city  luxury  and  sensuality. 

Let  us  now  glance  at  Europe,  which  has  a  character  quite 
special.  The  giant  impassable  natural  barriers  to  inter- 
course which  abound  in  Eastern  Asia  are  almost  wanting 
here.  The  whole  continent  is  accessible,  and  better  formed 
and  fashioned  for  the  development  of  the  human  being. 
This  has  been  the  continent  most  favoured,  considered  in 
respect  to  the  education  of  man.  More  than  any  other 
in  the  old  world,  it  calls  into  play  his  latent  forces.  No 
other  continent  is  more  fitted,  by  the  numerous  physical 
regions  it  presents,  to  bring  into  being  so  many  distinct 
and  different  nations  and  peoples,  as  well  as  to  increase 
their  reciprocal  influence  and  stimulate  them  to  mutual 

Now,  we  glance  at  North  America,  the  third  continent  of 
the  north.  Its  aspect  differs  entirely  from  the  other  two. 
The  New  World's  two  continents  are  not  grouped  in  one 
mass,  or  placed  side  by  side,  but  touch  only  at  their 
exterior  angles,  standing  in  line  rather  than  grouped.  Be- 
sides, they  are  rendered  still  more  distinct  from  each  other 
by  being  situated  in  two  opposite  hemispheres.  North 
America's  characteristic  is  that  of  great  simplicity  of  struc- 
ture. Add  to  this  its  vast  areas,  fruitful  plains,  numberless 
rivers,  prodigious  facility  of  communication,  nowhere  im- 
peded by  serious  obstacles,  with  its  oceanic  position,  and 
we  can  perceive  that  it  is  made,  not  so  much  to  give  birth 
and  growth  to  a  new  civilization,  as  to  receive  one  already 
formed,  and  to  furnish  for  man,  whose  education  the  Old 
World  has  well  begun,  the  most  magnificent  theatre,  the 
scene  most  worthy  of  his  activity.  It  is  here  that  all  the 
peoples  of  Europe  may  meet  together,  with  room  enough 


to  move  in,  may  commingle  their  efforts  and  their  gifts,  and 
carry  out  upon  a  scale  of  grandeur  hitherto  unknown,  the 
life-giving  principle  of  modern  times — the  principle  of  free 

Now,  having  rapidly  pointed  out  the  great  leading 
physical  causes  that  contribute  to  the  formation  and  devel- 
opment of  the  human  body  and  mind,  as  it  regards  nations 
and  communities,  let  us  look  at  a  few  of  the  more  local 
and  minute  causes  affecting  the  mind  and  its  wonderful 
index,  the  face  and  form. 

In  all  attempts  to  cultivate  body  and  mind,  we  should 
never  lose  sight  of  the  indispensable  and  absolutely  neces- 
sary elementary  sustainers  of  healthy  action  in  both.  First, 
then,  we  mention  pure  air  as  the  element  of  primary 
importance,  as  not  a  moment  can  pass  in  life  in  which  we 
can  dispense  with  this  sustaining  fluid.  As  the  atmosphere 
is  a  fluid  of  great  compressibility  and  expansibility,  and 
readily  combines  with  other  gases,  holding  them  in  solu- 
tion, it  is  most  important  that  we  should  inhale  the  air 
that  may  be  as  free  from  deleterious  matter  as  possible.  In 
all  liquids  holding  in  solution  impurities,  those  heavier 
than  the  liquid  will  be  precipitated,  while  those  that  are 
lighter  will  either  escape  at  the  surface,  or  become  apparent 
as  floating  impurities.  As  a  general  rule,  the  atmosphere 
becomes  purer  the  higher  we  rise  in  it,  when  it  is  uncon- 
fined.  Poisonous  gases  and  effluvia  that  are  deleterious 
to  human  life  have  such  specific  gravity,  that  they  descend 
and  become  the  breath  or  food  of  plants.  Those  of  large 
lung-power  in  health  can  breathe  comfortably  at  a  mean 
elevation  of  6,000  feet  above  sea-level ;  but  the  best  average 
height  for  vigorous  respiration  is  considered  to  be  between 
3,000  and  4,000  feet. 

The  next  great  essential  of  life  is  pure  water.  It  is  ol 
immense  importance  that  this  element  should  be  pure;  and 
much  care  is  necessary  in  selecting  and  analyzing  water; 


for  it  holds  in  solution  many  most  dangerous  ingredients 
both  organic  and  inorganic.  Before  using  water  from  either 
a  well,  or  spring,  or  stream,  we  should  carefully  ascertain 
its  purity  by  carefully  testing  it.  As  a  general  rule,  the 
further  from  and  above  the  sea  we  find  a  spring,  ifc  is  the 
purer,  especially  when  it  wells  from  the  limestone  or  iron- 
stone rock.  But  care  in  the  selection  of  pure  water,  as  well 
as  pure  air  is  much  enhanced  when  it  is  considered  that 
purity  of  mind  as  well  as  body  depends  essentially  upon 
due  use  of  these  great  sustainers  of  life. 

People  living  on  low,  flat,  or  depressed  lands  are  well- 
known  to  be  subject  to  fevers,  jaundice,  derangement  of 
the  portal  system,  Asiatic  cholera,  &c.,  while  those  who 
dwell  among  the  mountains  scarcely  ever  are  assailed  by 
these  deadly  enemies  of  human  life.  Cholera  almost  always 
originates  at  the  mouth  of  the  Ganges,  where  this  immense 
river  pours  its  waters  into  the  sea,  and  deposits  over  its 
extensive  delta  the  fearful  amount  of  rotting  vegetable 
debris  and  putrifying  human  remains  which  the  supersti- 
tious dwellers  along  its  4,000  miles  of  banks  are  ever  and 
anon  committing  to  its  impetuous  torrent.  Look  now  to 
New  Orleans  and  the  country  forming  the  long  line  of  flats 
between  that  pestilential  city  and  the  Gulf  of  Mexico. 
This  is  a  hot-bed  of  yellow  fever.  The  reason  of  the  deadly 
nature  of  this  district  is  not  far  to  seek.  All  the  central 
part  of  the  North  American  continent  is  drained  of  its 
impurities  by  the  Ohio,  Missouri,  and  Mississippi  rivers, 
with  their  tributaries,  and  carried  down  into  the  hot  and 
impure  air  of  these  vast  swamps,  where  it  soon  breeds  that 
terrible  scourge.  Carbonic  acid  gas,  when  cool,  always 
subsides  and  seeks  depressed  or  neap  ground  as  a  resting- 
place,  where  it  contaminates  the  vitals  of  those  who  are 
sufficiently  unfortunate  to  inhale  this  deadly  poison.  Fresh 
water  will  receive  its  own  weight  of  carbonic  acid  gas, 
which  it  carries  by  river  to  the  salt  water,  only  to  be  thrown 


out  upon  the  air,  to  vitiate  and  debase  it,  and  empoison  the 
blood  of  those  who  inhale  it.  Thus  we  perceive  how  it 
aiises  that  all  the  dwellers  upon  low  lands  are  more  sub- 
ject to  fevers  (especially  fever-ague)  than  the  inhabitants 
of  elevated  lands.  The  people  who  live  in  low  countries 
are  more  or  less  depressed  in  their  higher  natures  by  the 
impurities  which  they  breathe,  as  well  as  by  the  depressing 
monotony  of  the  scenery.  It  is  a  law,  that  whatever  affects 
the  body  affects  also  the  mind.  The  debilitating  effect  of 
impure  air  and  water  conduce  to  stimulate  the  animal  and 
depress  the  moral  nature  of  man.  This  same  law  operates 
in  causing  the  inhabitants  of  uplands  to  be  more  thoughtful 
and  less  animal  than  those  who  dwell  on  the  marshy  and 
paludal  soil.  This  same  thought-principle  would  raise  and 
define  the  nose,  chasten  the  lips,  and  mark  clearly  the  eyes' 
form,  as  well  as  its  expression.  A  striking  example  of  this 
may  be  seen  in  the  African  face,  which,  in  its  flatness, 
reflects  the  character  of  the  country  whence  he  sprang. 
The  people  dwelling  along  the  Amazon  of  South  America  are 
warm  in  their  animal  natures,  but  crude  in  their  mentality. 
The  degenerate  Spaniard  of  Mexico  is  vigorous  of  body, 
ardent  in  love,  stolid  in  intellectual  improvements,  while 
he  is  debased,  and,  as  a  rule,  animal. 

The  physiognomy  of  the  deer,  elk,  and  antelope,  are  well- 
defined  and  expressive,  when  contrasted  with  that  of  the 
crocodile,  rhinoceros,  and  hippopotamus,  as  well  as  other 
animals  of  low  river-countries,  in  which  feculent  air 

This  same  principle  would  prove  that  the  people  who 
live  in  hilly,  temperate  climates  are  further  advanced  in 
social  arts  and  accomplishments  than  those  whose  abodes 
are  in  level  and  depressed  countries.  The  classic  hills, 
groves,  and  elevated  picturesque  cities  of  Italy  are  the 
localities  whence  the  instructors  of  the  fine  arts  press  their 
claims  for  deserving  merit  England,  with  her  level  fields 


of  grain,  pasture,  and  woodland  scenery,  is  queen  of  the 
seas,  and  possesses  a  physical  power  which  the  nations  of 
the  world  care  not  to  dispute.  Scotland,  with  her  rugged 
mountains,  deep  ravines,  and  bounding  rills,  is  the  birth- 
place of  industry,  and  sterling  peaceful  worth.  These  attri- 
butes also  depend  largely  upon  the  granite  in  her  soil,  and 
the  early  oatmeal  brain-nourishing  fare  of  her  sturdy  sons, 
who  labour  in  their  youth  in  the  open  air,  and  study  as  a 
pastime  until  they  enter  college.  Let  it  be  observed  also, 
that  all  their  universities  are  by  the  sea,  or  on  elevated 
situations.  More  eminent  men  have  come  from  the  granite 
shire  of  Aberdeen,  in  proportion  to  its  population,  than 
from  any  other  county  in  Scotland.  The  granite  character 
is  in  their  very  nature.  Ireland,  with  shamrock  ever  green, 
inspires  her  people  with  a  love  of  song  and  liberty.  Her 
natives  strongly  bear  out  the  observations  we  have  made 
on  the  influence  of  the  physical  surroundings.  The  hilly 
counties  and  highlands  of  Connemara  produce  tall,  hand- 
some, keen,  active,  persevering,  intelligent  men  and  beauti- 
ful women ;  while  the  ungainly  baboon-faced,  pot-bellied 
rapparees  are  the  natural  offspring  of  the  great  central  plain 
and  interminable  bog-land  that  occupies  such  a  vast  pro- 
portion of  the  country.  North  America,  with  her  snow-clad 
peaks  and  thundering  cataracts,  in  her  grand  simplicity  of 
natural  construction  for  facilitating  every  species  of  mental 
and  material  progress,  bids  away  the  traveller's  monotony, 
and  beckons  his  thoughts  transcendently  above  the  inglo- 
rious herd  to  the  mazes  and  labyrinths  of  worlds  whose 
splendour  and  stupendous  grandeur  fill  the  sky. 

Nearly  all  great  reforms  of  a  moral  nature  were  first 
started  on  some  mountain  or  in  a  mountainous  country. 
The  Decalogue  was  given  to  Moses  on  the  grand,  rugged 
mountain  of  Horeb.  The  Messiah,  whose  teaching  rolled 
on  the  chariot  wheels  of  civilization,  had  His  birth  in  the 
hilly  district  near  Jerusalem,  and  most  )f  His  teachings  were 


on  the  top  or  declivity  of  a  mountain.  In  'ancient  times, 
when  a  people  desired  some  great  good,  they  were  com- 
manded to  go  up  to  the  mountain  tops  and  pray.  They, 
too,  knew  the  ennobling  effect  of  elevation  and  pure  air  of 
mountain  freshness  upon  the  mind  and  morals  of  men. 
There  are  more  Thoracic  forms  among  the  inhabitants  of 
mountainous  regions  than  in  lowland  countries,  because  the 
purity  of  high  air  necessitates  greater  respiration  in  volume, 
which  enlarges  the  organs  of  respiration,  and  the  thorax 
which  contains  them. 

In  flat  sections,  the  air  seems  to  encourage  the  nutritive 
power,  and  the  people  become  full  of  adipose  material,  and 
are  round,  plump,  and  somewhat  inactive.  This  is  the  case 
pre-eminently  in  Holland,  where  the  inhabitants  are  often 
on  a  lower  level  than  the  sea,  which  is  kept  from  inundating 
their  towns  by  their  famous  dykes.  On  the  other  hand, 
mountain-air  thickens  and  cools  the  blood,  arches  the  upper 
eyelid,  expands  the  forehead  and  chest,  sharpens  every 
feature,  and  gives  vivacity  and  action  to  both  body  and 

In  Alaska  the  Indians  are  fairer,  more  thin-lipped,  and 
have  higher  and  narrower  noses  than  the  Indians  of  Cali- 
fornia, Nevada,  Utah,  or  Colorado.  The  Stichians  and  Sticks 
who  inhabit  Alaska  are  quite  intelligent,  and  never  use 
salt.  Nor  do  any  of  the  Alaskians  use  salt — shewing  that 
salt  is  an  article  not  positively  necessary  to  the  sustenance 
of  man. 

The  reasoning  powers  of  those  who  live  in  pure  air  are 
more  clear  and  accurate  than  of  those  who  dwell  in  low 
malarious  districts.  The  atmosphere  of  low  realms  excites 
the  animal  nature  in  men,  and  causes  them  to  talk  and 
think  more  of  the  voluptuous  and  amorous  pleasures  than 
those  who  live  in  high  altitudes  with  pure  air.  Where 
countries  are  undulating  and  the  waters  clear,  and  brisk 
breezes  fan  away  incentives  to  vice,  there  the  soul  towers 


away  in  the  majesty  and  gloriousness  of  the  noblest  nature; 
whereas  the  marshes  and  frog-ponds  of  mortiferous  regions 
make  full  cheeks,  large  necks,  dull  dark  eyes  and  skin, 
flat  noses,  hollowing  and  narrow  foreheads,  all  of  which 
evince  want  of  intellect,  and  that  the  individual  is  doltish 
and  asinine. 

Upon  the  mountain  tops  of  moderate  elevation,  the  air 
being  fine  and  subtle,  one  respires  with  pleasurable  freedom ; 
the  body  is  more  elastic,  the  mind  more  serene;  pleasures 
become  less  ardent  and  the  passions  more  controllable.  The 
grandeur  of  the  scenery  inspires  sublimity  in  the  mind's 
meditations.  Thus  elevated  above  all  animal  life,  it  seems 
as  if  one  had  left  every  low  terrestrial  sentiment  and  had 
approached  the  celestial  realms  of  light.  The  soul  feels 
drinking  in  full  draughts  of  eternal  purity,  and  one  be- 
comes thoughtful  without  being  melancholy,  peaceful  but 
not  indolent,  inspired  yet  resigned;  the  passions  are  more 
readily  subdued,  while  gentle  emotions  fill  the  mind.  Hence 
the  passions,  which  in  the  lower  world  are  man's  most 
powerful  enemy,  in  a  higher  sphere  contribute  to  his 
advancement  and  happiness. 

"  Above  me  are  the  Alps. 
The  palaces  of  Nature,  whose  vast  walls 
Have  pinnacled  in  clouds  their  snowy  scalps, 
And  throned  eternity  in  icy  halls 
Of  cold  sublimity,  where  forms  and  falls 
The  avalanche — the  thunderbolt  of  snow  I 
All  that  expands  the  spirit,  yet  appals, 
Gather  around  these  summits,  as  to  show 
How  earth  may  pierce  to  heaven,  yet  leave  vain  man  below. " — BYRON. 


WHY  were  none  of  us  born  among  savage  tribes  in  Africa? 
Why  was  not  our  lot  the  dingy  complexion  and  oblique 
eyes  of  the  Chinese,  or  the  copper  hue  of  the  former  inha- 
bitants of  America?  God  only  knows.  We  readily  admit 
that  there  are  some  conditions  of  our  existence  over  which 
we  have  no  control,  and  for  which,  therefore,  we  have  no 
accountability.  If  a  man  was  born  blind,  no  one  blames 
him  for  not  seeing;  if  deaf,  no  one  expects  him  to  hear;  if 
idiotic,  his  want  of  reason  renders  him  the  object  of  our 
pity,  not  of  our  condemnation.  But  in  a  modified  degree 
some  are  born  with  interior  intellectual  powers,  some  with 
perverted  moral  tendencies,  and  there  is  seldom  any  allow- 
ance made  for  them;  while  others  inherit  superior  talents 
or  a  high  moral  character,  and  though  they  may  have 
bestowed  little  culture  on  either,  they  are  praised  by  others, 
and  valued  by  themselves.  We  cannot  always  account 
either  for  the  gifts  of  nature  or  its  obliquities  and  defi- 
ciences.  One  boy  is  born  with  a  natural  genius  for 
music,  another  has  a  passion  for  poetry,  a  third  delights 
in  mechanics.  It  may  be  assumed,  as  a  general  rule,  that 
those  faculties  which  the  parents  cultivate,  rather  than 
those  which  they  idly  possess,  are  those  most  likely  to  be 
transmitted  to  their  children.  While,  therefore,  no  one  is 
accountable  for  what  he  has  not  received,  every  one  is 
responsible,  not  only  on  his  own  account,  but  on  that  ol 


his  offspring,  for  what  cultivation  he  bestows  on  his  natural 
endowments,  and  what  check  he  places  on  his   inherited 
vices.     There  is.  no  doubt  that  if  a  child  is  led  to  follow 
the  bent  of  his  natural  abilities,  whether  these  are  intel- 
lectual or  physical,  if  they  are  moral  and  good,  he  will 
succeed  better  and  rise  higher  than  he  could  by  labouring 
in  an  avocation  for  which  he  has  no  natural  fitness.     It 
often  happens  that  certain  expressions  of  countenance  in 
the  child  bear  a  striking  resemblance  to  those  of  the  father 
or  mother.     This  is  a  sure  indication  that  the  child  is  much 
like  the  parent  in  those  traits  of  character  that  are  mani- 
fested  in    those   features;    and  for  this   characteristic  the 
parent,  perhaps  the  progenitors  for  several  generations  past, 
have  inevitably  set  the  die  which  has  moulded  that  child. 
How  much  education  and  careful  training  may  do  to  eradi- 
cate hereditary  evils,  no  man  can  tell  with  certainty,  nor 
how  much  may  be   done   by  a   man's   pains-taking  with 
himself  when   he   comes   to  years   of  discretion;    but   all 
concur  in   the   opinion   that   though   education   in   youth 
and  self-discipline  in  manhood,  may  mould  and  influence, 
yet  it  will  never  wholly  eradicate  the  evil  arising  from 
pre-natal  causes,  so  that  it  shall  not  be  ever  ready  as  a 
root  of  bitterness  to  spring  up  and  give  trouble.     Dr.  A 
was  understood  to  be  an  illegitimate  son  of  George   IV 
He  was  taught  the  business  of  a  printer,  but  coming  under 
church    influences   in   his  early  manhood,   and   exhibiting 
considerable  gifts  of  speech,  as  well  as  knowledge,  he  wa,<? 
induced   to   become    a    preacher.      How   long    his    bettei 
principles   prevailed   over   inherited    tendencies   we   kno\v 
not ;    but  some  time  after  he  had  passed  the  meridian  ol 
life,  his  personal  resemblance  to  his  father  became  striking 
and   unmistakable.      Unhappily  'the    disposition  to  sexual 
gratification  likewise  developed,  until  all  bounds  of  decorum 
were  overstepped,  and  he  resigned  the  position  he  had  so 
disgraced.     Carrying,  however,  like  thousands  of  others,  his 


sanctimonious  and  hypocritical  face,  he  obtained  employ- 
ment through  the  patronage  of  a  more  fortunate  scion  of 
the  royal  bouse,  who  was  not  a  Physiognomist. 

It  is  far  more  easy  to  cultivate  a  child  that  closely 
resembles  both  parents,  than  one  in  whom  little  or  no 
likeness  can  be  traced.  And  as  those  characteristics  which 
the  parents  have  most  cultivated  in  themselves,  are  those 
which  they  are  most  likely  to  transmit,  so  are  they  the 
tendencies  most  easily  susceptible  of  culture  in  the  offspring. 
On  the  other  hand,  a  child  who  is  personally  unlike  both 
parents,  will  not  be  so  accessible  to  educational  appliances; 
because  he  does  not  remarkably  inherit  the  cultivated 
qualities  of  either  father  or  mother.  If  the  father  has 
excelled  in  any  laudable  avocation,  and  his  son  is  found 
personally  to  perfectly  resemble  him,  it  is  sure  to  be  right 
to  bring  the  child  up  to  follow  his  father's  calling.  The 
same  rule  is  applicable  in  cases  of  resemblance  to  the 
mother.  And  here  comes  in  the  importance  of  a  thorough 
knowledge  of  the  facial  signs  and  evidences  of  character. 
By  the  tokens  they  give,  statesmen  may  be  developed  and 
embryo  poets  brought  into  life.  With  this  unerring  aid, 
one  child  will  be  made  a  mechanic  and  another  a  lawyer 
with  the  happiest  results  to  themselves,  and  honour  to  the 

'In  some  countries,  all  trades  and  professions  are  hereditary 
by  law;  it  being  taken  for  granted  that  inherited  talent 
and  the  opportunity  of  early  culture  ought  to  result  in 
.superior  proficiency.  This  is  true,  but  with  some  limita- 
tion. We  often  see  a  particular  talent  appear  to  die  out  in 
the  third  or  fourth  generation ;  sooner  if  the  mothers  are 
destitute  of  it.  We  have  heard  of  great  generals  whose 
sons  proved  still  greater,  as  Philip  of  Macedon,  the  father 
of  Alexander,  but  the  line  went  no  further.  So  of  some 
eminent  authors  and  musicians.  S.  W.  was  the  first 
organist  in  England,  perhaps  in  Europe.  His  father  had 


been  musical,  though  not  professionally  so.  His  wife  was 
destitute  of  the  talent,  and  so  were  his  children  by  he;. 
But  he  had  another  liaison  with  a  musical  lady,  and  both 
the  sons  and  daughters  of  that  union  proved  musicians  of 
superior  talent. 

It  is  worthy  of  remark  in  passing,  how  many  of  those 
men  who  have  made  the  most  conspicuous  figures  in  the 
world  have  left  no  sons,  or  none  that  came  to  maturity. 
We  need  only  mention  Alexander  the  Great  and  Julius 
Csesar  in  ancient  times;  the  first  Napoleon,  General  Wash- 
ington, and  Benjamin  Franklin  among  the  moderns;  to 
say  nothing  of  some  of  our  most  celebrated  historians  and 

Whatever  apparent  irregularities  there  may  be  in  the 
transmission  of  certain  intellectual  talents  and  moral 
qualities,  it  is  certain  that  wherever  any  particular 
physical  organization  is  required  for  a  special  vocation, 
its  perfection  can  generally  be  attained  only  through 
inheritance.  A  fine  example  of  this  might  have  been 
seen  forty  or  fifty  years  ago  among  the  fishwomen  who 
occupied  the  village  of  ISewhrven,  near  Edinburgh.  They 
were  accustomed  to  load  vh3mselves  every  morning  with 
immense  burdens  of  fish  with  which  they  walked  many 
miles  during  the  day,  uttering  cries  which  could  be  heard  at 
a  great  distance.  They  seldom  intermarried  with  any  but 
the  hardy  fishermen  of  the  same  village;  and  thus  had 
been  formed  a  race  of  such  stalwart  females  as  made  all 
others  appear  as  pigmies  by  their  side.  Some  remains  of 
this  race  may  yet  be  seen;  but  the  facilities  of  railway 
transmission  have  superseded  the  demands  on  their  strength, 
the  shopkeepers  have  thus  got  the  best  of  the  trade  out 
of  their  hands;  and  as  a  separate  people  located  in  one 
spot,  they  have  ceased. 

On  the  other  hand,  the  most  eminent  teachers  of  dancing 
in  our  great  cities  have  inherited  the  profession  through 



several  generations.  It  woulil  be  impossible  to  make  a 
good  dancing-master  of  a  ploughman's  son,  or  a  danseuse 
of  the  daughter  of  a  "NTewhaven  tishwoman.  Any  one  who 
has  had  an  opportunity  of  observing  the  footmen  that 
attend  Queen  Victoria  in  her  migrations  through  the 
country,  must  have  been  struck  with  the  singular  light- 
ness and  rapidity  of  their  steps,  reminding  one  of  Mercury, 
the  messenger  of  the  gods,  with  his  winged  feet.  These 
servants  could  not  be  made  out  of  clod-hoppers  by  any 
course  of  training.  They  are  born  of  families  that  have 
been  in  the  service  of  princes  and  nobles  for  generations 
back — both  men  and  women  accustomed  to  practice  this 
noiseless  elastic  movement. 

Such  are  the  seeds,  moral,  intellectual,  and  physical, 
which  parents  sow  in  their  children;  and  such  character- 
istics as  we  have  alluded  to  are  the  legitimate  fruit  of 
ancestral  virtue  or  vice,  superior  or  interior  intellectual 


THE  beauty  and  ever-changing  expression  of  an  emotional 
human  face  has  in  all  ages  fixed  the  attention  and  called 
forth  the  admiration  of  lovers,  poets,  and  philosophers. 

"  Bead  o'er  the  volume  of  his  lovely  face, 
And  find  delight  writ  there  with  beauty's  pen; 
Examine  every  several  lineament, 
And  what  obscure  in  this  fair  volume  lies, 
Find  written  in  the  margin  of  his  eyes. " — SHAKESPEARB. 

"  How  much  her  grace  is  altered  on  the  sudden! 
How  long  her  face  is  drawn !  How  pale  she  looks, 
And  of  an  earthly  cold !  Mark  you  her  eyes." — IDEM. 

"  Her  face  had  a  wonderful  fascination  in  it.  It  was  such  a  calm,  quiet, 
face,  with  the  light  of  the  rising  soul  shining  so  peacefully  through  it.  At 
times  it  wore  an  expression  of  seriousness,  of  sorrow  even  ;  and  then  seemed 
to  the  very  air  bright  with  what  the  Italian  poets  so  beautifully  call  the 
'  lampeggiar  dell'  anglico  riso,' — the  lighting  of  the  angelic  smile. "- 


Every  face,  however,  is  not  alike  transparent  to  the  ordi- 
nary observer.  But  none  can  conceal  the  character  and 
propensities  of  their  inmost  nature  from  the  penetration 
and  scrutinizing  glance  of  the  skilled,  scientific  Physiogno- 
mist. Every  man  in  his  age  has  a  soul  of  crystal  through 
which  all  men  may  read  his  actions;  yet  some  men's  hearts 
and  faces  are  so  far  asunder,  that  they  try  to  make  it 


appear  that  no  intelligence  is  held  between  them.  This, 
however,  is  self-deception,  very  delusive. 

Not  only  is  the  face  of  every  human  being  recognizably 
and  perceptibly  different  from  that  of  every  other  indi- 
vidual of  our  species;  but  every  individual  face  is  under- 
going various  kinds  of  changes  throughout  the  whole  course 
of  life,  and  thus  becoming  a  physiognomical  stereotype 
plate,  as  readable  to  the  Physiognomist  as  the  most  legible 
letterpress  page  is  to  the  linguist.  We  often  hear  wonder 
expressed  at  the  infinite  variety,  and  yet  amazing  similarity 
of  some  one  phenomenon  in  organized  matter.  No  one 
has  ever  yet  found,  on  comparison,  two  blades  of  grass, 
leaves  of  trees,  animals,  or  aught  else  endowed  with  life, 
exactly  alike.  We  sometimes  hesitate  whether  to  admire 
most  this  endless  variety  with  striking  similarity  in  nature, 
or  the  godlike  faculty  with  which  we  are  endowed  for 
its  perception  and  appreciation.  ^« 

Any  law  of  nature,  which  is  found  universally  prevalent, 
may  be  relied  on  and  universally  applied  in  the  examina- 
tion of  natural  phenomena  and  solution  of  physical  pro- 
blems. Nature  never  lies  when  questioned  by  the  honest, 
candid  truth-seeker. 

The  colour  of  the  eye,  in  all  civilized  nations,  is  of  almost 
every  shade;  whereas,  among  barbarous  tribes  and  uncivil- 
ized nations,  the  colour  is,  almost  without  exception,  the 
same  in  every  individual.  On  whatever  principle  this  may 
be  accounted  for,  we  find  the  fact  to  be,  that  the  tribes  and 
nations  of  uniform  colour  of  eye  are  gradually  disappearing 
before  the  peoples  of  the  many-coloured  eye.  The  most 
remarkable  instances  of  this  are  the  gradual  disappearance 
of  the  Celts  from  all  the  western  countries  of  Europe; 
the  Indian  tribes,  from  the  American  continent,  and  the 
aborigines  from  all  the  islands  of  the  Pacific.  The  Physiog- 
nomist of  the  past  was  not  capable  of  comprehending  the 
present  age;  for  the  human  face  changes  with  the  ever- 


changing  exigencies  of  the  times  and  nature.  This  law  of 
change  runs  through  all  nature,  and  is  applicable  to  this 
science  in  a  pre-eminent  degree.  The  observations  I  am 
making  are  true  for  this  age;  but,  owing  to  the  changes 
which  are  gradually  and  incessantly  taking  place  in  man- 
kind, and  necessarily  affecting  the  "human  face  divine," 
the  rules  applicable  now  may  not  be  pertinent  in  fifty  years 
hereafter,  except  as  they  must  be  changed  to  coincide  with 
the  shifting  phases  of  the  panoramic  mutations  of  kaleido- 
scope facial  phenomena.  The  only  plan,  then,  is  to  keep 
investigating  until  you  become  thoroughly  imbued  with 
the  phenomena  of  the  passing  age,  and  perfectly  conversant 
with  its  distinctive  characteristics. 

Forms  are  ever  changing.  Fifty  or  a  hundred  years  ago 
they  were  very  different  from  those  of  the  present  day. 
Consequently,  so  are  the  dispositions  and  aspirations  of  the 
people.  But  in  the  coming  time,  the  changes  will  be  much 
more  rapid  than  in  past  ages.  Since  the  invention  of 
printing,  everything  intellectual  has  been  progressing  in  a 
geometrical  ratio;  but  since  the  independence  of  the  United 
States  of  North  America;  the  invention  of  the  Magnetic 
and  Electric  Telegraph;  the  Morse  system  of  recording 
messages;  the  introduction  of  the  Hoe  printing  press;  and 
the  consequent  almost  universal  diffusion  of  every  species 
of  knowledge,  one  year  in  this  age  (1873)  is  more  than 
equal  to  a  century  five  hundred  years  since.  This  amazing 
rapidity  in  all  intellectual  stimulants  and  appliances  must, 
and  has  affected  the  human  face  to  such  a  degree,  that  it 
can  only  be  appreciated  by  the  connoisseur  in  pictorial  and 
sculptural  art.  The  rapidity  of  the  change  is  astonishing; 
and  the  reason  might  be  given,  but  the  ordinary  mind  is 
prepared  for  only  part  of  the  truth  at  present.  The  rest 
shall  be  retained  for  another  and  future  occasion,  as  I 
intend  to  write  on  this  theme  again.  In  a  brief  article  like 
the  present,  this  vast  and  absorbing  subject  cannot  be 


The  change  of  the  human  face,  from  birth  to  old  age,  is 
one  of  the  most  remarkable  of  natural  phenomena.  Nothing 
in  nature  presents  to  the  investigator  of  her  beauties  germs 
so  capable  of  expanding  the  thoughts  by  study,  as  this 
change  in  the  face  of  the  human  creature.  In  every  person 
the  subject  may  be  easily  illustrated,  for  every  one  has  to 
pass  through  the  same  ordeal.  The  infant  has  a  round 
dimpled  face  with  a  body  soft  in  all  its  parts.  As  age 
increases,  it  grows  hard  in  bone  and  muscle ;  lines  become 
discernible,  and  the  countenance,  changing,  gives  more 
expression  to  the  face.,  which,  by  and  by,  exhibits  indelible 
marks  as  records  of  vice  or  virtue,  past  and  present,  that 
give  to  the  individual  a  fixed  and  idiosyncratical  expression 
by  which  he  can  be  recognized  and  distinguished  from  every 
other  human  being.  But  the  animal  kingdom  does  not 
present  to  the  observer  such  a  variety  of  expression.  Such 
sameness  of  countenance  obtains  among  the  lower  animals 
of  the  same  species  that,  were  it  not  for  some  peculiarity, 
such  as  colour,  or  form,  or  size,  it  would  be  impossible  to 
distinguish  them.  Take  a  flock  of  white  sheep  and  try 
the  experiment.  This  difficulty  is  acknowledged  and 
attested  by  the  universal  practice  of  proprietors  marking 
the  animals  of  their  flocks,  herds,  and  piggeries  with  their 
own  initials,  so  as  to  be  able  to  identify  them  when  mixed 
with  other  flocks.  Very  different  is  the  feeling  about  the 
members  and  individuals  of  the  human  family.  Who  ever 
heard  of  a  person  being  marked  that  he  might  be  recog- 
nized? The  amazing  variety  and  instantaneously  recogniz- 
able peculiarity  of  face  specially  belonging  to  every  one 
precludes  the  slightest  necessity  for  any  other  distinction 
The  most  casual  observer  can  see  no  two  alike;  but  it  is 
worthy  of  remark  that,  the  higher  we  rise  in  the  grade  of 
intelligence  and  intellectual  development,  the  more  easily 
is  the  individuality  recognizable  by  physiognomical  expres- 
sion. Compare  the  faces  of  men  of  mark,  who  have  held 


high  positions  of  public  trust  and  great  responsibility,  with 
those  who  are  mediocre  individuals  who  have  jogged  on 
through  life  in  an  even,  monotonous  course,  and  you  will  at 
once  perceive  how  easy  it  is  to  recognize  the  men  of 
distinction  from  those  of  the  common  level  in  life. 

Nature's  noblemen,  the  aristocracy  of  goodness  and 
intellect,  are  ever  more  easily  and  readily  distinguished 
than  the  commonalty  How  readily  men  of  gigantic  intel- 
lect are  known  by  even  a  common  photogram,  no  matter 
how  poorly  it  has  been  taken.  For  instance,  Shakespeare, 
Milton,  Washington,  Lincoln,  Greeley,  Grant,  Burns,  Sir 
Walter  Scott,  Gladstone,  Disraeli,  Spurgeon,  with  hundreds 
of  others,  who  have  occupied  positions  of  such  eminence  thai 
every  one  has  become  familiar  with  their  faces.  A  few 
lines  etched  by  a  skilled  physiognomical  artist  will  render 
such  a  face  asGreeley's  at  once  recognizable,  whereas,  when 
you  descend  in  the  scale  of  intelligence  and  intellectuality, 
you  find  that  faces  become  less  marked,  until  they  become 
nearly  as  undistinguishable  as  sheep,  as  in  soldiers  of  the 
regular  or  standing  army  of  the  Eui'opean  nations.  Such 
also  is  the  case  in  families  in  which  nothing  has  disturbed 
the  monotony  of  the  ever-recurring  daily  routine  of  exist- 
ence. These  all  become  almost  as  like  as  twins.  Descend 
still  further,  to  the  savage  jtribes,  and  there,  on  a  cursory 
inspection,  you  feel  disposed  to  think  them  all  perfectly 
alike.  The  horse  is  more  intelligent  than  the  ox  or  hog, 
and  less  variety  of  physiognomical  expression  is  perceptible 
in  the  hog  or  hippopotamus  than  in  the  horse.  This  is 
simply  another  proof  that,  in  proportion  to  the  develop- 
ment of  intelligence,  the  more  perceptible  is  the  variety  of 

The  change  of  countenance  is  not  so  great  in  youth  as  it 
is  between  the  ages  of  twenty  and  thirty,  unless  it  has  been 
previously  affected  by  sickness.  So  intimately  connected 
are  all  the  parts  of  the  body  that,  whatever  affects  one  part 


of  necessity  affects  every  other  part.  If  the  frame  ii 
dwarfed,  the  parts  are  similarly  affected.  Those  who  under- 
stand this  can  tell  how  each  part  is  affected  by  age,  disease, 
or  education,  for  all  are  alike  affected  by  change.  I  will 
not  say,  in  this  chapter,  what  effect  each  part  exercises  over 
the  others,  though  this  is  very  important  to  be  well  under- 
stood ;  for  in  that  branch  of  Physiognomy  much  depends  on 

"  A  sweet  attractive  kind  of  grace  ; 
A  full  assurance  given  by  looks, 
Continual  comfort  in  a  face, 

The  lineaments  of  gospel  books  ;— 
I  trow  that  countenance  cannot  lie, 
Whose  thoughts  are  legible  in  the  eye." — SPENSER. 

"The  cheek 
Is  apter  than  the  tongue  to  tell  an  errand." — SHAKESPEARE. 

"  The  cares,  and  sorrows,  and  hungetings  of  the  world,  change  counten- 
ances as  they  change  hearts ;  and  it  is  only  when  those  passions  sleep,  and 
have  lost  their  hold  forever,  that  the  troubled  clouds  pass  off  and  leave 
heaven's  surface  clear.  It  is  a  common  thing  for  the  countenances  of  th« 
dead,  even  in  that  fixed  and  rigid  state,  to  subside  into  the  long-forgotten 
expression  of  sleeping  infancy,  and  settle  into  the  very  look  of  early  life ;  so 
calm,  so  peaceful,  do  they  grow  again,  that  those  who  knew  them  in  their 
happy  childhood,  kneel  by  the  coffin's  side  in  awe,  and  see  the  angel  even 
spon  earth."— DICKENS. 


"Common  Sense  is  the  complement  of  those  convictions  or  cognition* 
which  we  receive  from  nature,  which  all  men  possess  in  common,  and  by 
which  they  test  the  truth  of  knowledge  and  the  morality  of  actions;  the 
faculty  of  first  principles;  such  ordinary  complement  of  intelligence,  that 
if  a  person  be  deficient  therein  he  is  accounted  mad  or  foolish ;  native 
practical  intelligence ;  natural  prudence ;  mother  wit;  tact  in  behaviour ; 
acuteness  in  the  observation  of  character,  in  contrast  to  habits  of  acquired 
learning  or  of  speculation." — SIB  WM.  HAMILTON. 

IN  an  ingenious  and  forcible  article  on  the  theory  of 
Common  Sense,  Dr.  W.  B.  Carpenter  maintains  that  this 
fine  mental  power  consists  in  the  capacity  to  bring  all 
the  results  of  pertinent  experience  to  bear  upon  any  question 
which  is  submitted  to  the  decision  of  the  judgment,  to 
which  exercise  it  is,  of  course,  necessary  that  the  mind 
should  instantaneously  discriminate  between  those  ex- 
periences which  are,  and  which  are  not  relevant  to  the 
matter  in. hand.  One  of  the  most  frequent  and  useful 
effects  of  this  convergence  or'  experiences  is  to  enable  the 
thinker  to  form  a  correct  and  rapid  estimate  of  the 
means  which  are  best  adapted  to  the  end  which  he  has 
in  view. 

346  COMMON    SENSE. 

AD  able  writer,  in  commenting  upon  Dr.  Carpenter's 
interesting  and,  in  many  respects,  admirable  theory,  accepts 
it  with  the  needed  amendment,  that  imagination  as  well 
as  experience  enters  into  the  higher  exercises  of  Common 
Sense;  for  with  skill  in  using  experience,  there  must 
be  also  "a  touch  of  poetic  insight,  a  talent  for  the  use  of 
undeveloped  agencies,  a  gift  for  preferring  an  unexpected 
method  to  an  expected,  a  great  alacrity  and  courage  for 
new  lines  of  enterprise."  In  other  words,  originality,  as 
well  as  the  power  of  correctly  applying  experience,  is 
involved  in  the  exercises  of  Common  Sense.  The  first 
Napoleon's  system  of  tactics  was  not  due  exclusively  to 
the  instructions  which  he  received  in  the  school  of  Brienne, 
and  which  were  founded  on  the  military  experience  of  the 
past,  but  to  his  own  intuitive  and  original  insight  into 
those  martial  arrangements  which  would  best  subserve 
his  gigantic  purposes.  The  common  sense  which  he  so  con- 
spicuously displayed  in  all  the  complications  of  his  affairs, 
was  indeed  always  more  or  less  marked  by  original  genius. 
At  a  time,  for  instance,  when  nobility  was  universally 
understood  to  be  an  inherited  and  not  a  native  grandeur, 
there  was  wonderful  freshness  and  independence  of  view 
in  his  reply  to  the  Italian  flatterer  who  was  endeavouring 
to  prove  to  him  his  descent  from  the  Dukes  of  Treviso. 
Ere  the  wily  courtier  had  completed  the  false  genealogy, 
Napoleon  broke  in  with  the  curt  declaration  that  his  patent 
of  nobility  dated  only  from  the  battle  of  Montenotte — the 
first  victory  which  he  had  gained  over  the  Austrians  in 

The  gift  by  which  we  are  enabled  to  bring  the  results 
of  experience,  and  the  suggestions  of  intuition  to  rapid 
convergence  upon  a  given  question,  is  a  distinct  and  natural 
power  which  may  be  transmitted  by  inheritance. 

It  'sometimes  happens  that  an  individual  displays  more 
Common  Sense  in  youth  than  in  maturity.  This  pheno- 


menon  is  owing  to  the  fact  that  he  finds  it  comparatively 
easy  and  rapid  work  to  discriminate  and  apply  the  limited 
experiences  of  early  life,  but  from  want  of  mental  grasp  is 
confused  by  the  accumulating  and,  to  him,  contradictory 
suggestions  which  are  furnished  by  succeeding  years.  The 
fact  that  a  long  course  of  education  sometimes  impairs  the 
practical  capacity  or  Common  Sense  of  the  student,  is  also 
due  to  the  bewildering  effects  of  the  accumulation  of  know- 
ledge in  excess  of  the  power  to  digest  and  apply  it. 

Common  Sense  is  the  general  characteristic  which  estab- 
lishes the  fact  that  a  person  is  not  a  fool  or  a  lunatic.  Its 
facial  markings  are  so  decided  that  they  can  scarcely  be 
mistaken  even  by  the  most  carelsss  observer.  A  fool  is 
nearly  always  seen  with  vacant  staring  eyes  and  open 
mouth.  It  is  thus  that  he  is  described  by  Dryden  in 
the  lines — 

"The  fool  of  Nature  with  stupid  eyes 
And  gaping  rnouth  that  testified  surprise." 

Born  without  intelligence,  or  deprived  of  it  by  some 
unhappy  accident,  he  will  testify  to  the  fact  by  the  physiog- 
nomical disproportion  of  his  features  and  the  vacancy  of  his 
expression  ;  for,  as  Sir  Thomas  Browne  has  it, — "  In  mystic 
characters  we  all  bear  in  our  features  the  motto  of  our 
souls."  Lunatics  are  not  so  easily  recognized  as  fools. 
They  are  often  men  who,  previous  to  their  derangement, 
were  possessed  of  a  high  degree  of  mental  development,  but 
who  have  been  thrown  out  of  their  intellectual  balance  by 
some  ill-explained  but  abnormal  condition  of  the  nervous 
system.  As  this  condition  is  usually  the  result  of  undue 
intellectual  exertion,  of  keen  emotions,  or  of  long-continued 
anxieties,  it  has  come  to  be  a  popular  and  not  unreasonable 
idea  that  dullards  never  go  mad,  since  their  phlegmatic 
forms  are  incapable  of  the  excitements  in  which  madness 



Lunatics  may  be  compared  to  a  ship  which  has  plenty 
of  sail,  but  no  ballast;  or  to  a  watch  in  movement  without 
a  balance-wheel.  Their  eyes,  which  have  a  peculiar  glazed- 
ness,  are  sometimes  fixed  upon  an  object  or  upon  vacancy 
with  a  ghastly  stare,  and  sometimes  wander  from  one  point 
to  another  with  a  restless  and  hunted  look,  which  it  is  very 
painful  to  witness.  The  expression  of  sadness  which  so 
often  marks  their  fiaces  is  appalling  rather  than  pathetic. 

It  appears  as  if  two 
synchronous  trains  of 
thought  were  con- 
stantly passing 
through  their  minds, 
and  in  the  futile  effort 
to  harmonize  them, 
they  were  burdened, 
confused,  and  even 
agonized.  The  un- 
steadiness which  is 
noticeable  in  all  their 
actions  is  but  the 
external  sign  of  their 
nervo- mental  irregu- 

I  append  the  cuts  of  a  fool  and  a  lunatic. 
A  person  possessed  of  common  sense  never  keeps  his 
mouth  open  like  a  fool,  or  performs  irregular  and  unreason- 
able actions  like  a  madman.  The  degree  in  which  he 
possesses  this  quality  will  depend  upon  the  harmony  of  his 
whole  being.  It  is  a  law  of  nature,  that  we  cannot  do 
outside  of  ourselves  that  which  is  not  in  accordance  with 
our  interior  organization,  and  hence,  as  the  act  of  judg- 
ing is  only  a  balancing  of  the  various  considerations 
which  are  connected  with  a  given  subject,  such  as  value, 
weight,  form,  logical  force,  &c.,  the  balancing  power,  or 

Foolish  Sam. 


common  sense  is  dependent  upon  a  balanced  condition  of 
the  system. 

It  is  almost  universally  the 
case,  that  when  the  mind  is 
exclusively  directed  to  a  parti- 
cular department  of  knowledge 
or  action,  the  special  intellectual 
sense  is  developed  at  the  ex- 
pense of  the  common  sense. 
James  Brindley,  the  great 
engineer,  a  genius 

**  Of  mother  wit,  and  wise  without 
the  schools," 

is  a  striking  example  of  this 
truth.  After  having  con- 
structed the  Bridgewater  Canal, 
under  difficulties  which  caused 
the  practical  men  of  the  day 
to  condemn  the  project  as 
utterly  chimerical,  he  is  said 
to  have  been  waited  on  by 
a  committee  of  the  House  of 

Commons,   who   asked    him    for     Major   a  lunatic    copied  from  the 

'  Characters  of  Glasgow,    pub- 

what  object  rivers  were  formed.  Hshed  by  John  Tweed,  11  St. 
The  ardent  engineer  replied,  Enoch  Square,  Glasgow. 
with  more  enthusiasm  than  common  sense, — "  To  feed 
navigable  canals."  Some  of  the  most  remarkable  and  useful 
men  that  the  world  has  known  have  owed  their  success, 
not,  as  is  usually  the  case,  to  the  specialization,  but  to  the 
universality  of  their  power?.  Such  a  man  was  Leibnitz, 
who  was  not  only  primus  i  'tter  primos  among  mathema- 
ticians, but  was  also  well-nigh  equally  distinguished  as  a 
metaphysician,  naturalist,  jurisconsult,  theologian,  and  his- 
torian. Of  this  great  man,  Dugald  Stewart  unhesitatingly 
declared  that  literature  and  science  had  gained  more  by 


his  universality  than  they  could  possibly  have  lost  through 
the  diffusion  of  his  powers. 

The  lack  of  common  sense  which  we  so  often  observe 
in  the  pulpit  is  largely  owing  to  the  fact  that  the  atten- 
tion of  preachers  is  so  exclusively  centred  upon  one  class 
of  ideas  that  they  are  blind  to  other  considerations,  which, 
to  laymen,  are  the  patent  facts  of  human  experience.  In 
their  violent  attacks  upon  the  sins  of  the  Jews,  and  the 
vices  of  the  Corinthians  (while  the  sinners  of  their  own 
congregations  sit  unreproved  and  uninstructed  beneath 
them)  they  often  remind  me  of  the  boy  who  stood  throw- 
ing stones  at  a  barn  swallow  that  was  building  its  nest 
beneath  the  eaves  of  a  lofty  edifice.  When  asked  why 
he  attempted  to  strike  this  far-off  bird,  while  hundreds 
of  the  same  species  were  standing  near  him,  he  replied, 
that  if  he  could  succeed  in  killing  the  one  in  the  eaves, 
he  would  then  feel  sure  that  he  could  hit  all  the  rest. 
The  parsons,  to  whom  I  have  referred,  seem  possessed 
of  a  similar  idea  which  prompts  them  to  the  inspiring 
thought  that  if  they  can  only  make  the  dead  Jews  and 
Corinthians  feel  the  point  of  their  darts,  they  can  after- 
wards impale  every  living  sinner  at  their  discretion. 

JOHN  G.  WHITTIER,  a  celebrated  American  poet  and  philanthropist, 
the  latter  is  shown  by  his  long  and  relatively  narrow  face  ;  the  capacity 
for  poesy  gives  the  intelligent  look  with  well-proportioned  features. 


THERE  are  few  abstract  things  so  generally  recognized  and 
admitted  as  the  influence  exercised  on  the  Physiognomy 
by  a  protracted  continuance  in  any  particular  calling  or 
occupation.  Even  in  occupations,  the  successful  prosecu- 
tion of  which  does  not  draw  very  largely  upon  the  resources 
of  the  mind,  we  find  the  principle  very  appreciably  at 
work;  and  few  men  endowed  with  any  powers  of  obser- 
vation, even  although  these  powers  may  be  developed  only 
in  a  very  rudimentary  degree,  can  have  failed  to  be  struck 
with  the  approximate  correctness  which  attends  his  specu- 
lations as  to  the  probable  calling  of  a  chance  acquaintance, 
even  although  he  may  have  no  other  ground-work  of 
hypothesis  than  the  Physiognomy  alone.  Thus,  on  a 
Sunday  or  fete  day,  when,  for  the  time  being,  the  more 
material  indications  are  obliterated  in  the  metamorphoses 
effected  by  the  powerful  agencies  of  soap,  hair-brushes, 
and  broad-cloth,  there  is  little  difficulty  in  pointing  out 
the  vagrant,  the  artizan,  the  shopman,  or  the  clerk;  and 
when  the  facial  index  would  seem  to  fail  in  its  functions, 
because  it  is  in  impractical  hands,  an  inquiry  would  almost 
invariably  result  in  the  elucidation  of  exceptional  and  ex- 
planatory circumstances,  or  in  the  discovery  of  an  abnormal 
specimen  of  humanity.  If  this  hold  good  in  the  lower 
strata  of  the  social  system,  in  which  there  is  a  less  urgent 
demand  for  mental  activity,  we  might  be  prepared  to  tinJ 


the  principle  much  more  manifestly  at  work  in  those 
higher  grades  in  which  the  intellectual  predominates  over 
the  ordinary  and  the  commonplace.  And  here,  indeed,  we 
do  find  this  operation  of  nature  leaving  its  handwriting  on 
the  visages  of  habitual  thinkers  with  a  pencil  of  no  un- 
certain touch.  As  the  process  of  serious  reflection  and 
mental  analysis  is  carried  on  entirely  within  the  inmost 
chambers  of  the  organization,  and  as,  for  the  time  being, 
the  visual  organs  are  not  required  in  their  ordinary 
functional  capacity,  the  eyes  are  either  closed,  or  they 
are  n'xed  on  vacancy,  utterly  failing  in  discerning  objects 
before  them,  which  at  other  times  would  have  aroused 
the  most  lively  interest  and  curiosity.  Habitual  indulgence 
in  reverie  speedily  fastens  an  indelible  stamp  upon  the 
Ph3Tsiognomy.  The  eyes,  from  habitually  retreating  back- 
wards, to  watch,  as  it  were,  the  weighty  operations  going 
on  in  the  laboratory  of  the  organization,  seem  at  last  to 
take  up  their  permanent  abode  there.  Thus,  the  hollow 
sunken  eye,  which  marks  the  visage  of  maturity  and  of 
age,  invariably  denotes  long  and  continued  struggling  with 
mental  problems.  As  in  thinking,  eagerness  and  impulse 
are  the  antipodes  of  mature  deliberation  and  patient  un- 
compromising investigation,  so  might  we  be  prepared  to 
find  the  marks  which  denote  the  votaries  of  the  former  to 
be  the  antipodes  of  the  traces  I  have  just  been  describing, 
and  such  is  the  fact.  The  unseen  and  hard-fought  strife, 
with  conclusions,  which  has  its  seat  in  the  organization 
of  the  thinker,  soon  produces  its  handwriting  on  the 
outside,  and  the  ploughshare  of  thought  slowly  but 
surely  turns  up  the  furrows  across  the  brow  and  the 
face — furrows  that  can  never  afterwards  be  effaced.  No 
great  thinker  ever  had  a  smooth  face.  Not  to  men  of 
deep  reflection,  but  to  children  of  tender  years,  and  to 
children  of  older  growth,  belongs  the  smooth  uri wrinkled 
brow,  which  betokens  the  mind  contented  with  its  sur- 

THE    THINKER.  353 

roundings,  and  unspeculative  as  to  the  why  and  wherefore 
of  the  many  mysteries  which  surround  us  from  the  cradle 
to  the  grave.  In  such  men  as  Pope,  Dryden,  Cuvier, 
Leibnitz,  Liebig,  Morse,  Robert  Dale  Owen,  and  a  host  of 
other  glorious  names  of  similar  calibre,  we  have  the  deep 
and  well-defined  wrinkles  of  the  indomitable  and  uncom- 
promising thinker,  who  will  accept  nothing  for  granted,  and 
will  have  none  of  halting  conclusions  or  insecure  and 
tottering  premises.  Here  we  have  the  attenuated  features, 
the  long  deep  furrows  stretching  across  the  forehead,  and 
that  drawing  together  of  the  occipito  frontallis  muscle 
which  produces  those  wrinkles  transversely  to  the  muscle 
and  forehead,  the  muscle  running  up  and  down  over  the 
forehead,  and  attaching  or  extending  with  its  tendinous 
oponeurosis  from  the  brow  over  the  .top  of  the  head  to 
the  occipital  bone.  The  shortening  process  thereby  in- 
curred, results  in  an  elevation  of  the  eyebrows  and  a 
consequent  wrinkling  of  the  skin  of  the  forehead.  But 
other  causes  contribute  in  forming  the  outward  and  visible 
marks  of  sustained  thought  and  deliberation.  By  reason  of 
the  mental  abstractions  closing  the  secernent  system,  thereby 
cutting  off  and  removing  the  supply  of  adipose  or  fat 
from  the  body,  the  cushioning  behind  the  scalp  is  therefore 
diminished;  the  skin  becomes  localized  into  a  smaller  circle, 
and  there  lies  more  loosely  and  less  closely  packed,  until 
eventually,  folding  up  to  accommodate  itself  to  the  narrowed 
space,  the  permanent  wrinkles  are  formed  for  the  uncomplex 
reason  that  there  is  more  surface  of  skin  than  area  of  scalp. 
Mature  is  never  at  a  loss  in  adapting  herself  to  abnormal 
conditions  and  occasions.  There  is  no  greater  self-decep- 
tion than  for  a  man  to  conclude  that  he  has  good  grounds 
for  claiming  to  be  considered  a  thinker — that  is,  a  thinker 
in  the  higher  sense  of  which  we  are  treating — simply 
because  he  is  in  the  habit  of  dwelling  listlessly  on  the 
incidents  of  past  history — whether  personal,  national,  or 

354  THE   THINKER.      ' 

cosmopolitan.  Fifty  years  of  this  kind  of  reflection  would 
not  of  itself  suffice  to  produce  one  solitary  wrinkle;  and 
a  man  fond  of  sitting  on  the  rocks  of  the  sea-shore  and 
watching  the  ceaseless  conflict  of  waves  and  rock-bound 
coast,  would  have  fully  as  good  a  title  to  he  regarded  as 
a  profound  geologist,  intimately  acquainted  with  the  struc- 
ture and  composition  of  the  crust  of  the  earth.  Neither 
occupation  demands  any  effort  of  the  mind,  and  both  are 
equally  unproductive  of  solid  results  and  of  wrinkles.  The 
soi-disant  Socrates,  and  the  suppositious  sea-side  dreamer, 
are  merely  participators  in  an  amusement  in  which  a  child 
of  tender  years  can  equally  as  well  engage,  and  in  which 
all  three  have  an  equally  small  chance  of  fame  and 

Life  sorrows  and  troubles  of  great  magnitude  are  fre- 
quently found  to  induce  the  facial  peculiarities  of  which 
we  are  treating  in  people  who  may  not  have  been  before 
suspected,  and  may  indeed  have  been  entirely  innocent 
of  anything  even  faintly  approaching  to  deep  and  serious 
thought.  And  why?  The  importance  of  the  crisis  with 
which  they  are  confronted  is  so  immediate  and  so  pressing, 
that  it  will  not  and  cannot  be  dismissed  from  the  presence 
of  the  mind,  as  more  diminutive  annoyances  have  hitherto 
been.  They  stand  at  bay,  and  the  mental  conflict  begins 
and  is  carried  on  until  some  vista  of  fair  weather  is  worked 
out  in  the  organization,  if  that  be  possible;  until,  if  no 
better  may  be,  a  state  of  calm  and  patient  endurance  is 
reached,  or  until  broken,  defeated,  crushed  in  the  unequal 
and  unwonted  strife,  the  mind  sinks  into  the  dull  apathy 
of  despair.  But  this  enforced  cudgelling  of  the  brain  leaves 
the  same  graven  furrows  and  wrinkles  which  fall  to  the 
lot  of  the  higher  order  of  beings  who  are  mental  warriors 
from  choice,  form,  and  genius.  No  more  telling  instance 
of  this  can  possibly  be  found  than  in  the  case  of  Abraham 
Lincoln.  The  stupendous  and,  for  a  time,  well-nigh  over- 

THE   THINKER.  355 

whelming  difficulties  which  he  had  to  encounter  soon  after 
assuming  the  Presidentship,  had  the  effect,  immediate  and 
almost  perceptible  in  its  progress,  of  deepening  the  furrows 
upon  his  brow,  of  graving  the  wrinkles  on  his  entire  face, 
and  inducing  that  expression  of  application  and  depth  of 
thought  by  which  he  was  distinguished.  An  ambrotypo 
of  Daniel  Webster  in  his  old  age,  which  we  have  in  our 
possession  and  which  is  copied  for  this  book,  shews  indis- 
putably that  he  was  a  Titan  among  mind  workers.  His 
face  was  then  covered  with  wrinkles,  and  the  attenuated 
visage  and  sunken  eye  tell  a  tale  too  unmistakably  of 
consecutive  years  of  mental  analysis  and  abstract  thinking, 
for  a  beholder  to  doubt  for  a  moment  that  supreme 
Platonism  and  profound  cogitation  resided  in  the  great 
man.  The  visual  organs  of  children  are  prominent,  because 
they  are  eager  to  gaze  superficially  and  unthinkingly  at 
an}*  and  every  object  which  may  arrest  their  fitful  atten- 
tion. They  are  delighted  with  frivolities  calculated  to 
enchain  their  facile  powers  of  wonderment;  but  the  owner 
of  a  thoughtful  and  contemplative  mind  can  be  discerned 
by  his  slow  and  measured  step.  Thoughtlessness  and 
frivolity  caper  along  with  a  mind  equally  unballasted 
and  unchained  ;  but  the  brisk,  purposeful  step  which  is 
direct,  measured,  orderly,  and  staid,  stamps  the  abode  of 
deep  and  weighty  thought.  To  the  latter  the  ordinary 
subjects  of  mere  worldly  concern  are  unheeded;  and  if  a 
chance  smile  (he  never  laughs)  is  called  up  it  is  regarded  as 
a  lapse  and  a  waste  of  time.  The  jocund  laugh  and  merry 
jest  are  impossible  with  him  ;  and  he  sighs  in  vain  for 
power  to  engage  in  these  despised  pursuits,  knowing  full 
well  that  it  is  this  unbending  that  would  best  refresh  the 
weary  mind  and  ja-ied  body.  Great  thinkers  carry  their 
heads  in  a  forward  attitude ;  and  the  head  thrown  back — 
that  infallible  indication  of  a  vacant  mind — is  a  posture 
that  will  in  them  be  looked  for  in  vain.  In  the  child  we 



almost  invariably  find  the  eyes  eagerly  projected  from  their 
sockets;  but  with  maturity  come  cares  and  anxiety,  pro- 
moting serious  reflection  and  gradually  withdrawing  the 
eyes  into  their  coverts.  Old  age,  witli  its  habitual  discretion 
and  meditation,  next  supervenes,  and  then — how  sunk  the 
eye — how  wrinkled  the  withered  brow — how  staid  the  walk 
— and  how  ever  present  are  those  indications  which  mark 
contemplation  and  anxious  solicitude! 

Dugald  Stewart  wrote  of  thinkers,  that  "  there  are  very 
few  original  thinkers  in  the  world,  or  ever  have  been; 
the  greater  part  of  those  who  are  called  philosophers  have 
adopted  the  opinions  of  some  who  went  before  them." 
Cicero  well  understood  how  man  was  divine,  as  the  follow- 
ing quotation  from  his  writings  will  shew.  "  Whatever 
that  be  which  thinks,  which  understands,  which  wills, 
which  acts,  it  is  something  celestial  and  divine,  and  upon 
that  account  must  necessarily  be  eternal."  Byron  well 
illustrated,  in  brief  lines,  that  storms  of  thought  were 

aroused  by  mortal  anguish "  Now  furrowed  o'er  with 

wrinkles,  plough'd  by  moments,  not  by  years  and  hours — 
all  tortured  into  ages — hours  which  I  outlive." 

SARAH  BEUNIIAKDT,  a  distinguished  French  actress  and  artist  who 
has  won  crowns  of  success  in  England,  America,  and  in  her  native 
country.  This  portrait  shadows  forth  a  subtle,  independent,  and  fertile 
intellect  which  knows  no  master. 



THE  world  in  which  we  live  is  ascertained  to  be  nearly  an 
exact  globe  or  sphere;  and  ail  the  organic  matter  found  on 
its  surface  exhibits  more  or  less  roundness  of  form.  Regular, 
well-marked  angles  belong  to  mineral  crystallization;  but 
every  animal  and  vegetable  has  a  curvilinear  boundary  in 
one  or  more  directions.  Very  few  even  of  the  humbler 
plants  have  square  stalks  like  the  hemlock ;  almost  every 
stem,  from  the  tender  grass  to  the  gigantic  forest-tree  is 
cylindrical;  and  in  the  animal  creation  there  are  even  fewer 
sharp  points  and  angles  than  in  the  vegetable. 

In  the  human  subject,  this  curvilinear  arrangement  differs 
considerably  in  different  individuals.  The  unpractised  eye 
detects  it  most  readily  in  the  hair,  which  is  easily  seen  to 
be  either  lank  and  straight,  or  inclined  to  curl.  But  when- 
ever the  hair  is  curly,  the  lines  of  the  face  will  be  found 
more  curved  than  those  of  a  straight-haired  person.  Only 
let  the  reader  remember  that  in  judging  of  portraits,  and 
even  living  subjects,  he  may  be  deceived  by  artificial  curls. 
Waviness  or  curliness  in  the  hair  is  so  undeniably  becom- 
ing, that  all  British  ladies  before  Victoria's  time,  and  most 
gentlemen  too,  turned  their  hair  with  papers  or  irons;  and 
many  do  it  still.  But  where  this  is  found  naturally,  we 
have  a  curly  subject;  and  we  are  now  to  describe  his 
general  character,  intellectual  and  moral. 

First,  be  it  observed  that  one  cause  of  curliness  in  a  child 

358         CURLY   LINES;    OR,    CURVILINEAR   HUMAN   FORMS. 

is  great  mental  activity  or  strong  physical  excitement  in  the 
parents  previous  to  the  birth  of  their  offspring;  and  this 
occurs  more  frequently  in  large  towns  than  in  rural  dis- 
tricts. There  may  be  parents  possessed  of  great  mental 
activity,  living  in  the  country ;  but  the  tendericy  of  city 
life  is  to  intensify  all  the  attributes  of  human  nature. 
When  men  and  women  crowd  together  in  these  dense 
masses,  they  are  pressed  downwards  towards  lower  vice,  or 
pushed  up  to  higher  virtue.  Large  cities  are  great  magnets 
which  draw  thousands  from  the  surrounding  country  and 
grind  them  to  powder.  Then  the  new  forms  that  arise 
exhibit  less  angularity,  and  less  straightness  than  those 
found  in  rural  districts. 

Curly  hair  is  generally  indicative  of  quick  perception, 
keen  temper,  and  a  feeble  sense  of  right  and  wrong. 
Curved  lines  in  the  face  lead  us  to  expect  a  loving  nature, 
and  a  hopeful,  sprightly  temper.  People  thus  formed  are 
lively  in  all  their  emotions;  you  will  generally  find  them 
good-natured;  and  though  they  may  get  mad  about  a  trifle 
and  abuse  you,  you  will  see  them  on  the  stool  of  repentance 
the  next  minute.  On  the  contrary,  the  most  definite  people 
are  those  who  are  built  on  the  straight  principle.  They 
are  capable  of  high  scientific  attainments,  whereas  the 
round,  curly  men  are  generally  gassy,  seldom  fond  of  hard 
study  or  close  application;  but  clever  at  making  a  good 
show  out  of  whatever  knowledge  they  have  acquired. 

Among  the  lower  animals  we  remark  that  dogs  of  the 
St.  Bernard  and  Spaniel  breeds  have  curly  hair,  and  are 
remarkable  for  their  active,  hopeful,  affectionate,  and  withal 
somewhat  tricky  dispositions.  The  little  poodle  may  be 
seen  fondly  caressing  its  mistress;  but  if  provoked,  can  be 
angry  enough,  and  shew  its  resentment  with  considerable 
bodily  activity.  The  curly-woolled  sheep  is  similarly  affec- 
tionate, sprightly,  and  passionate. 

Then  look  at  the  curly-headed  negro — the  lowest  type  of 

LINES;    OR,   CURVILINEAR   HUMAN   FOUMS.         359 

humanity  —  full  of  childish  glee,  dancing,  singing,  and  enjoy- 
ing animal  life;  impulsive,  and  easily  stimulated  to  work 
by  sufficient  compensation,  but  little  capable  of  continued 
application  to  anything;  and  then  how  passionate  and 
vengeful  if  not  restrained  by  circumstances. 

The  lines  of  a  sheep's  face  run  in  short  curves,  so  do 
those  of  the  spaniel,  the  same  is  observable  in  the  negro; 
and  a  sameness  of  disposition  in  the  particulars  we  have 
named  is  found  to  pervade  them  all. 

It  is  worth  remarking  that  as  curly  people  have  more 
of  the  animal  nature  and  less  of  the  higher  intellectual, 
so  children  are  rounder  in  form  than  full  grown  persons; 
and  no  one  needs  to  be  told  that  their  animal  propensities 
are  vigorous,  while  the  intellectual  are  little  developed. 
So  the  negro  race  have  physically  much  of  the  constitu- 
tion which  belongs  to  childhood,  and  no  one  could  better 
describe  their  character  than  by  calling  them  childish  men. 

All  men  possess  the  instincts  of  animal  life  in  common 

Curly  Face. 


Straight  Face. 

with  the  brute  creation,  only  in  various  degrees  of  strength; 
and  more  or  less  under  the  control  of  their  higher  powers. 
And  a  man  having  the  curly  attributes  of  the  lower  animal 

360        CURLY   LINES;    OR,    CURVILINEAR    HUMAN   FORMS. 

life,  may  yet  raise  himself  to  greatness  by  the  diligent 
cultivation  of  his  higher  intellectual  nature. 

Here  are  two  opposite  characters  represented  by  a  straight 
face  and  a  curly  one.  It  would  be  a  poor  observer  that 
could  not  perceive  a  difference  of  character  under  so  striking 
a  dissimilarity  of  form.  One  is  naturally  constituted  to  go 
straight,  and  the  other  more  or  less  round  about. 

At  college,  the  straight  men  are  the  hard  students,  the 
curly  are  the  promoters  of  games  and  sports — what  we  call 
fast  young  men,  who  slip  through  their  term  of  study  and 
graduate  with  very  superficial  knowledge.  They  may  excel 
in  such  light  matters  as  music,  poetry,  painting,  gymnastics, 

Systematic,  punctual,  and  straight- 
forward gentleman. 

Surly,  selfish,  conceited,  and  de- 
ceptive scamp. 

but  seldom  in  mathematics,  or  other  branches  requiring 
severe  thought.  We  rarely  or  never  find  these  curly  dogs 
obtaining  a  degree  at  West  Point,  for  there  is  no  partiality 


there,  and  students  must  be  thoroughly  informed  before 
being  permitted  to  graduate.  Several  of  these  curly  fellows 
have,  however,  entered  that  school,  but  they  have  been 
obliged  to  leave  after  a  short  time,  in  consequence  of  some 
scheming,  or  bringing  imperfect  lessons. 

The  foregoing  cuts  may  still  further  illustrate  the  con- 
trasts we  are  describing. 

The  straight-faced  and  straight-haired  men  are  orderly 
and  punctual;  they  love  good  morals,  and  abhor  vicious 
indulgences.  On  the  other  hand,  that  class  of  men  who 
are  most  addicted  to  excesses,  or  what  the  world  calls 
pleasure,  are  most  commonly  of  the  curly  structure. 

The  straight  men  make  the  best  mechanics;  because, 
being  exact  and  honest  in  themselves,  they  more  naturally 
turn  out  solid  and  stable  work,  for  the  product  of  the 
artificer's  labour  is  only  character  and  disposition  wrought 
out  upon  tangible  objects,  which,  therefore,  become  re- 
gistered evidence  of  that  character.  As  stable  men  do 
firm  and  stable  work,  so  fanciful  artizans  make  light  and 
showy  articles.  An  honest  workman  performs  a  good  job, 
but  a  dishonest  scamp  accomplishes  a  mean  sham.  Straight 
men  tell  the  truth  and  are  transparent  as  glass;  you  know 
their  intentions,  and  can  discern  that  all  they  do  is  at 
least  intended  for  good.  But  round-about  men  often  dis- 
appoint you.  They  are  more  attractive  at  first  sight,  more 
plausible,  more  winning  in  their  ways,  but  they  do  not 
wear  so  well;  do  not  bear  knowing  so  thoroughly.  If 
they  do  not  deliberately  and  intentionally  deceive  you  to 
accomplish  a  selfish  end,  they  may  prove  untruthful  through 
mere  thoughtlessness  and  carelessness  about  strict  integrity; 
and  this  to  a  degree  that  may  deeply  wound  and  grieve 
you.  Do  not  mistrust  and  avoid  every  curly-headed  man 
as  if  he  were  necessarily  a  rogue,  but  for  an  enduring 
steady  friend,  cultivate  the  acquaintance  of  the  straight 
man;  less  fascinating,  less  get-atable  at  first,  it  is  worth 

362         CURLY    LINES;    OR,    CURVILINEAR   HUMAN   FORMS. 

your  while  to  persevere  in  winning  his  esteem,  and  gaining 
his  affection. 

The  ancient  Greeks  judged  intellectual  character  much 
from  bodily  forms,  yet  they  regarded  honesty  more  highly 
than  rounded  beauty.  Socrates  was  angular  of  form,  yet 
profoundly  intelligent  and  philosophic.  So  we  shall  often 
find  the  disinterestedness,  the  integrity,  and  the  ability  of 
a  Socrates  in  connection  with  those  straight  lines  and  sharp 
angles  which  militate  against  our  ideas  of  what  is  hand- 
some and  attractive  in  the  human  form.  William  Pitt,  who 
wielded  the  energies  of  the  British  Empire  through  the 
most  awful  period  of  her  history,  was  a  man  of  straight 
physique,  as  a  glance  at  any  good  portrait  of  him  will 
shew.  His  great  rival,  Charles  James  Fox,  was  just  as 
strikingly  round  and  curly.  We  are  told  that  he  (Fox) 
was  distinguished  at  school  for  quickness  of  parts,  warmth 
of  affection,  and  occasionally  earnest,  but  irregular  applica- 
tion to  study.  Also  that  in  his  early  manhood  he  was 
ardent  and  thoughtless  in  the  pursuit  of  pleasure. 

The  Earl  of  Bute,  another  statesman  of  George  III.'s 
reign,  was  a  handsome  round-faced,  curly  subject.  He 
had  no  great  talent,  but  obtained  his  place  and  power  by 
the  personal  influence  which  he  early  gained  over  the 
monarch.  The  British  nation  believed  that  America  was 
lost  to  her  through  his  counsels;  and  there  is  little  doubt 
that  that  loss  mainly  contributed  to  overthrow  the  intellect 
of  the  king,  who  had  yielded  himself  to  be  guided  by  this 
handsome,  plausible,  ambitious,  weak-minded  fellow,  rather 
than  by  the  talented,  far-seeing  Pitt. 

Wellington  was  one  of  the  straight-lined;  and  he  was 
distinguished  in  the  Cabinet  for  a  purity  of  motive  and 
conduct  rare  among  statesmen,  no  less  than  he  had  formerly 
been  for  bravery  and  military  skill. 

Kelson  was  physically  such  another,  and  was  remarkable 
for  integrity  of  purpose,  with  disdain  of  everything  selfish 


and  sordid.  Perseverence  was  a  striking  feature  in  his 
character;  and  we  are  told  that  "he  always  went  straight 
to  his  object,  and  so  escaped  all  those  difficulties  incident 
to  doubt,  finesse,  or  timidity,  which  embarrass  the  pro- 
ceedings of  vacillating  and  crafty  minds."  Among  American 
notables,  we  cannot  forbear  to  allude  to  Martin  Van  Buren, 
as  a  curly  formed  man  in  an  extreme  degree,  and  a  more 
deceptive  and  wily  turncoat  than  he  never  lived.  Lincoln 
may  be  named  as  a  good  example  of  the  straight-lined  type, 
likewise  Grant  and  Sherman. 

A  curly,  ambitious,  and  jealous  Dog, 



THERE  is  a  principle  in  nature  that  every  motion  accords 
with  the  life-principle  of  the  animate  being  producing  that 
motion.  For  instance,  the  turtle  waddles  slowly  along,  and 
thus  shews  that  its  mind  has  little  energy,  and  its  range  of 
thought  is  limited.  The  deer,  on  the  contrary,  bounds  over 
the  hills  and  mountains,  and  spins  away  before  the  pur- 
suing hounds,  in  perfect  accordance  with  his  active  nature. 
Having  a  quick,  instinctive  perception  of  danger,  on  the 
slightest  suspicion  of  it  he  darts  away  with  the  rapidity  of 
the  wind,  displaying,  at  every  bound,  how  beautifully  his 
limbs  express  the  eager  rapidity  of  his  mind.  He  delights 
to  range  over  the  lofty  mountain-tops,  and  scale  the  preci- 
pitous cliffs.  It  would  be  derogatory  to  his  character  to 
suppose  he  left  his  mind  behind,  or  that  it  had  less  range  or 
scope  than  his  body. 

Men  who  are  great  travellers  have  more  intelligence  and 
mental  range  than  those  who  remain  at  the  old  homestead. 
Compare  such  men  as  Columbus,  Vespucci,  Cabot,  Cook> 
Humboldt,  Irving,  Agussiz,  Livingstone,  Darwin,  and  hun- 
dreds of  others,  who  have  visited  all  parts  of  the  world, 
with  men  who  have  staid  at  home  and  kept  their  minds 
within  a  narrow  range  of  thought.  Whatever  applies  in 
one  department  of  animal  life,  as  a  general  principle,  appliea 


equally  to  all  portions  of  aniraality.  We  find  the  dog 
ranging  over  mountains  and  valleys  in  rapid  succession; 
consider  how  favourably  he  compares,  in  the  excellence  of 
his  mental  capacity,  with  the  sloth,  whose  range  of  activity 
includes  only  a  few  yards  per  diem. 

The  fundamental  principle,  in  judging  of  the  human  walk, 
is,  that  it  is  simply  the  result  of  character — the  mind  is 
the  motive  power,  and  the  walk  is  the  result.  Let  it  be 
admitted  as  a  principle,  that  whatever  is  produced  bears 
the  indelible  stamp  of  the  producer;  and  then  we  can  easily 
account  for  the  fact  that  every  likeness  painted  by  a  Ger- 
man artist  from  imagination  resembles  the  German  face  and 
character.  So  also  is  this  the  case  with  the  Italian,  the 
Frenchman,  and  the  Englishman;  each  gives  his  work  of 
imagination  the  national  likeness  peculiar  to  his  own 

Philosophically,  the  legs  may  be  considered  as  animal 
imitators  of  the  mind  of  their  master.  And  as  we  conclude 
that  every  freeman  is,  or  ought  to  be,  master  of  his  own 
legs,  then  we  can  easily  see  how  they,  in  their  motions, 
bespeak  the  character  of  the  individual  to  whom  they 
belong,  provided  they  are  in  a  normal  condition.  Hence, 
we  see  the  quick  step  produced  by  the  active  mind;  the 
slow,  dragging  step  by  the  stupid  and  inactive  mind;  and 
the  bounding,  springing  step  by  the  sprightly  elastic  mind. 

Another  principle  in  nature  is,  that  no  one  can  produce 
naturally  that  for  which  he  has  not  an  organization.  We 
fail  to  judge  accurately  of  a  faculty  or  quality  in  which  we 
are  ourselves  deficient.  Thus,  the  natural  walk  must  be 
in  accordance  with  the  organic  structure.  Hence,  men  who 
are  tall,  generally  take  long  slow  steps,  and  have  slow,  far- 
ranging  minds.  As  examples  of  this,  we  may  mention 
Washington,  Lafayette,  Lincoln,  in  America;  Walpole,  New- 
castle, and  Castlereagh,  of  England;  Havelock  and  Lord 
Sligo  of  India,  &c.,  who  were  all  tall,  dignified  forms,  and 


were  remarkable  for  their  slow,  measured,  and  dignified 
walk.  Short  men,  true  to  the  principle,  have  a  short  step, 
and  generally  employ  their  minds  on  small  insignificant 
matters.  From  this  rule  should  be  excepted  men  with  long 
bodies  and  short  legs.  Professor  Morse,  the  inventor  of 
the  electric  telegraph,  was  a  very  tall,  dignified  man,  with 
a  deliberate,  long  step,  slow  and  dignified,  which  shadowed 
forth  the  result  of  his  far-reaching,  inventive  mind.  He 
launched  into  seas  of  undiscovered  knowledge,  and  fields  of 
more  than  golden  value  were  discovered  by  him. 

In  the  common  acceptation  of  the  term,  a  short  person 
cannot  be  dignified ;  for  dignity  includes  stateliness  of  manner 
in  connection  with  height.  Nothing  that  is  short,  dumpy, 
or  stunted  can  be  looked  upon  as  dignified.  The  short  step 
and  mincing  walk  bespeak  the  small  mind,  as  a  general 
rule.  The  energetic  step  bespeaks  energy  of  character. 
The  man  who  is  not  formed  on  the  mechanical  plan  has  no 
skill  in  judging  of  mechanism.  He  who  has  no  colour  in 
his  eye,  skin,  &c.,  will  generally  be  found  to  be  an  inferior 
judge  of  colour.  Hence,  the  universal  law  of  nature,  that 
like  appreciates  and  best  judges  like,  applies  equally  to  all 
traits  of  human  character.  One  in  whom  centres  many 
colours,  having  bright  blue  or  brown  eyes  and  rosy  cheeks, 
will  judge  of  colours  better  than  one  in  whom  no  distinct 
tints  or  varied  hues  appear.  This  law  explains  the  reason 
why  men  confined  in  dark  cells  for  a  succession  of  years 
cannot  discern  and  judge  of  colour.  Any  plant  germinating 
in  the  dark  is  colourless,  because  it  has  been  shut  out  from 
the  sun-lisjht.  It  is  well  known  that  the  finest  art  colorists 


lived  and  studied  in  a  climate  refulgent  with  sunlight  and 
colour,  such  as  Italy  and  Spain;  while  in  Scotland,  England, 
and  Ireland,  where  fogs  and  murky  atmosphere  prevail 
more  than  half  the  year,  obscuring  the  sun's  direct  rays, 
we  find  more  pseudopts  than  in  any  other  well-tested 
civilized  country. 


The  law  of  nature  is,  that  we  can  always  judge  best  of 
any  faculty  of  which  we  possess  most.  The  man  who  takes 
the  longest  step  has  generally  the  most  comprehensive 
mental  range.  The  plain,  easy  walk  is  indicative  of  an 
unassuming  mind;  the  plunging  or  stamping  step,  an 
unvarnished  mentality.  The  unsteady  gait  results  from 
unreliability  of  character;  while  the  light,  tripping  step 
bespeaks  a  playful  and  hopeful  disposition.  The  mechanic's 
tread  is  measured  and  regular;  the  speculator's  walk  is 
irregular,  because  he  is  organized  to  do  things  out  of  the 
regular  routine,  and,  by  fits  and  starts,  seizes  the  oppor- 
tunity to  make  a  speculation  whenever  the  chance  occurs. 

As  an  interesting  instance  of  indications  of  the  true 
character  in  the  walk,  all  of  which  are  palpably  apparent 
to  the  scientific  Physiognomist,  it  may  be  stated  here, 
merely  as  a  fact,  that  when  the  author  was  some  years 
since  delivering  a  course  of  lectures  at  'Clinton  (Iowa),  a 
young  man,  walking  across  the  lecture-room  to  test  the 
lecturer's  powers  to  judge,  and  the  science  of  Physiognomy 
to  point  out  his  character  and  capacity,  elicited  from  the 
author  the  decided  opinion,  that  "  he  might  become  success- 
ful in  literary  pursuits."  The  gentleman's  name  is  Mr. 
Bernard  Wayde,  who  adopted  the  directing  opinion  of  the 
lecturer,  by  commencing,  within  a  few  weeks  after,  to  write 
for  the  press.  So  successful  has  Mr.  Wayde  been  as  a 
literary  man,  that  he  is  now  (1872),  residing  in  Edinburgh 
as  correspondent  and  novel-writer  for  some  of  the  most 
influential  journals  of  New  York  and  other  American 
cities,  after  having  edited  four  papers,  as  well  as  written 
numerous  plays  and  novels;  several  of  his  plays  having  been 
dramatized  with  remarkable  success.  Thus  does  the  walk 
unerringly  indicate  character. 



To  the  most  casual  observer  it  must  have  occurred  that 
there  are  perhaps  no  two  human  beings  that  walk  in 
precisely  the  same  manner;  the  gait  of  every  one  is  as 
peculiarly  his  own  as  his  handwriting.  Though  there  are 
many  who  have  something  similar 
in  their  movements  and  attitudes 
during  locomotion,  and  appear  to  the 
cursory  observer  to  walk  alike;  yet 
to  the  practised  eye  there  are  esseii- 
tiul  points  of  difference  in  their 
peripatetic  characteristics.  Educa- 
tion and  training,  assisted  by  the 
mimic  inclination  of  our  nature,  do 
much  to  produce  styles  of  walking; 
but  the  close  observer  can  detect  at 
a  glance  each  person's  idiosyncrasy, 
and  thus  can  tell,  almost  certainly, 
the  physical,  mental,  and  moral 
\  Toddler— Foolish  Mary.*  qualities  and  tendencies  of  the 


In  this  article,  we  intend  to  classify  all  varieties  of  human 
pedestrian,  ambulatory,  and  peripatetic  locomotion  under 

*  This  cut,  and  the  others  illustrating  this  chapter,  were  copied  by  per- 
mission from  "The  Characters  of  Glasgow,"  a  valuable  octavo  volume 
published  by  Mr.  John  Tweed,  11  St.  Enoch  Square,  Glasgow. 


the  two  general  heads  of  Natural  and  Artificial  Peripatetic 
Manifestations  of  Character 


By  the  natural  gait,  we  mean  that  mode  of  walking 
peculiar  to  each  individual.  Let  us  enumerate  a  few  of 
the  most  usual  and  well-marked  salient  characteristics 
of  these,  while  we  specify  them  under  epithets  sufficiently 
expressive  of  the  pedestrian  idiosyncrasy. 

1.  The  Toddling  Gait. — This  manner  of  locomotion  is 
essentially  childish,  and  unmistakably  tells  you  that  every 
attribute  of  a  petty,  trifling,  finikin  character  may  fairly 
and  unhesitatingly  be  predicated  of  the  human  form  that 
todcjles.  If  an  acquanitance  meets  it,  every  expression  of 
childish  pleasure  is  manifested  by  the  toddler.  It  cannot 
rest  or  stand  at  ease  for  a  moment,  but  keeps  moving  up 
and  down,  round  and  round,  and  gets  so  excited  that  it 
stops  short  in  the  middle  of  a  sentence  and  toddles  off 
abruptly.  Then,  when  you  have  smiled  the  natural  bene- 
ficent and  compassionate  smile  of  half-pity,  half-contempt, 
and  total  forgiveness,  while  turning  away,  in  a  moment  you 
hear  pitty-patty,  toddle,  toddle,  up  behind  you,  calling  out 
that  it  had  just  forgot  to  mention  that  its  dear  Persian 
tabby  had  that  morning  had  three  beauties  of  kittens;  but, 
poor  little  darlings,  they  were  not  yet  able  to  frisk  so  jolly 
as  their  mother,  the  beauty,  did  when  it  first  received  her 
from  Lady  Mary  Frisk.  The  features  almost  invariably 
developed  in  the  toddler  are  of  the  small,  chubby,  childish 
mould,  round,  soft,  and  cheerful;  and  it  may  b*e  remarked 
that,  in  its  right-hand  pocket,  there  is  generally  a  store  of 
comfits  or  small  sweets,  one  of  which  is  popped  into  its 
mouth  by  way  of  self-gratulation  or  reward  after  encounter- 
ing and  so  delightfully  enchanting  an  acquaintance,  as  it 




did  on  the  occasion  just  mentioned.  When  toddler  is  of  the 
masculine  gender,  it  may  be  remarked  that  the  toes  of  his 
shoes  are  much  further  out  of  repair  than  the  heels;  that 
there  are  seldom  all  the  buttons  on  the  garments,  and  that, 
both  a  glove  and  an  umbrella  have  just  been  lost,  occasion- 
ing the  necessity  for  trying  to  recollect  every  place  Mr. 
Toddler  has  been,  and  thereupon  revisiting  it.  This 
generally  terminates  its  day,  but 
without  ever  recovering  the  lost 
articles.  In  childish  grief,  and  from 
sheer  exhaustion,  toddler,  with  a 
vexed  heart  retires  to  rest,  but  rises 
the  next  morning  to  go  through  a 
similar  fruitless  round  of  duty.  Mrs. 
or  Miss  Toddler  acts  in  a  similar 
manner,  but  always  displaying  in 
her  routine  of  duty  all  the  coquettish, 
little,  childish  graces  that  so  admir- 
ably become  her  sex.  It  would  be 
cruel  to  expose  or  ridicule  this  darling, 
charming,  natural,  little  creature. 
We  have  all  seen  her  and  many  of 
her  kindred  often  enough  to  be  suffi- 
ciently well  acquainted  with  her 
gyrations  and  winning  ways. 

2.  The  Striding  Gait. — Who  has 
not  seen  the  man  with  the  long 
striding  pace?  Always  in  earnest 
t  pursuit  of  socne  definite  object  or 
project,  he  strides  along  with  pur- 
pose-like  tread  until  he  obtains  it,  or 
definitely  ascertains  the  reason  for 
disappointment.  Every  feature  of 
his  face  bespeaks  its  earnest  sympathy  with  his  progressive 
measured  gait.  Though  this  style  of  pedestrian  locomotion 

The  Striding  Gait  - 
Bob  Dreghorn. 


is  generally  seen  in  persons  above  the  middle  height,  yet 
it  is  frequently  met  with  in  those  of  diminutive  stature 
There  is,  however,  mostly  this  difference,  the  long-paced, 
tall  individual  carries  the  trunk  of  the  body  much  more 
erect  than  the  undersized  person,  and  pendulates  the  arms 
more  freely  and  better  in  keeping  with  the  whole  figure; 
while  the  diminutive  strider  generally  manifests  uneasiness 
and  difficulty  in  managing  the  arms;  sometimes  they  are 
controlled  by  hooking  the  thumbs  in  the  vest  pockets  or 
cleeking  them  in  the  arm-holes;  but  no  matter  how  they 
are  carried,  they  seem  to  be  either  in  the  way,  or  hard  to 
manage.  It  som times  happens,  however,  that  the  under- 
sized strider  has  abnormally  short  arms,  and  then  they 
appear  like  the  short  wings  of  the  auk,  or  the  forelegs 
of  the  kangaroo,  and  serve  the  purpose  well  in  being  used 
as  strong  levers  in  raising  the  body  in  gymnastic  exercises, 
ascending  the  shrouds  on  board  ships,  or  in  burglaries.  It 
is  well-known  that  this  is  the  prevailing  feature  in  the 
notorious  burglars  of  large  cities.  But,  in  the  other  features 
of  the  persons  peculiar  for  the  striding  gait,  we  may  remark 
that  there  is  the  long,  slow,  measured,  quiet  pace  in  some, 
while  others  have  a  quick,  impetuous  movement,  displaying 
that  push  and  determination  of  character  that  does  or  is 
prepared  to  bear  down  all  opposition  to  any  project  that 
has  been  undertaken.  It  may  be  remarked  that  an  accom- 
panying cephalic  feature  in  this  character  is  a  broad  massive 
head,  thick,  square  nose,  wide  nostrils,  and  square,  massive, 
prominent  chin,  compressed  medium  lips,  and  eyes  either 
prominent  and  severe,  or  sunken  with  a  falcon  expression. 
The  late  Dr.  Chalmers  was  of  the  full-eyed,  strong- featured 
type;  and  of  the  latter,  was  the  famous  Dr.  Henry  Cooke, 
the  champion  of  trinitarianism  in  Ulster.  But  the  reformer, 
John  Knox,  of  Scotland,  was  perhaps  the  best  example  of 
this  character.  Then  we  must  remark  that  the  striding, 
slow,  deliberate  pace  is  accompanied  by  round,  soft  facial 


features,  rather  loose  and  flabby,  the  underlip  generally 
keeping  time  with  the  step,  as  it  is  seen  to  hang  loose, 
the  mouth  being  almost  always  slightly  open.  Though  this 
character  is  generally  successful  in  the  course  of  a  long 
steady  career  in  one  line  of  life,  yet  it  is  seldom  found  that 
any  mighty  effort  is  attempted.  The  impetuous  striders  are 
too  ready  as  well  as  eagerly  willing  to  surpass  what  they 
call  the  slow,  jogging  stagers.  The  impetuous  rapid  strider 
has  his  purpose  and  goes  right  ahead  to  accomplish  it, 
bearing  down  all  obstacles;  while  the  quiet,  slow,  cautious 
strider  has  also  his  object  before  him,  but  patiently  fore- 
sees the  difficulties,  and  determines  to  watch  and  stride 
cautiously  and  zig-zag  to  the  end,  no  matter  what  dis- 
couragement may  be  thrown  across  his  path.  The  rapid 
strider  leaps  over  or  kicks  minor  hindrances  out  of  his 
course ;  the  slow  strider  steps  over  them  quietly,  and  leaves 
them  there  for  the  next  comer.  Daniel  Webster  belonged 
to  the  class  of  the  strong  and  gigantic  intellects,  and  his 
gait  gave  token  of  the  great  mind  within  his  vigorous 

3.  The  Lurching  Gait. — Sometimes  this  manner  of  walk- 
ing is  denominated  rolling.  It  is  seen  to  perfection  in 
people  who  are  half-seas  over,  just  before  the  real  staggering 
attempt  at  progressive  motion  is  commenced.  In  persons 
3f  sober  habits,  however,  the  rolling  and  lurching  gait  is 
characteristic  of  innate  overweening  conceit,  if  displayed 
in  an  impetuous  character;  while  it  betokens  diffidence  and 
awkwardness  in  a  timid,  retiring  individual.'  The  rapid 
roller  is  marked  by  strength  of  purpose  and  self-reliance, 
and  becomes  dictatorial  and  overbearing  among  his  asso- 
ciates; as  a  commercial  traveller  he  is  almost  always 
successful,  and  no.  matter  how  often  foiled  in  his  efforts, 
he  returns  to  the  charge,  and  mostly  succeeds  in  carrying 
his  point  Tall,  heavy  rollers  often  become  bullies,  and 
are  found  as  patrons  of  the  ring,  the  race-course,  and  the 


gambling  hell  They  are  always  ready  with  the  word  of 
defiance,  the  fist,  the  shillelah,  the  revolver,  the  bowie- 
knife,  or  the  stilletto,  according  to  the  nation  to  which  they 
belong.  Look  the  rolling  and  lurching  bully  in  the  face, 
and  you  catch  his  wicked  defiant  look  or  stare;  see  his 
squat  snout,  compressed,  puckered  lips,  broad  underface, 
square,  broad  chin,  bull-neck,  and  short,  broad  hands,  which 
he  never  extends  open  with  the  palm  upward.  When  he 
stands,  he  naturally  poises  himself  in  an  attitude  of  defiance, 
with  his  feet  well  apart,  but  not  awkwardly,  as  much  as  to 
say,  "  I'm  ready,  come  on."  This  type  of  character  is 
commonest  in  the  midland  counties  and  borderland  of 
England  and  Scotland,  the  counties  of  Mayo,  Gal  way,  and 
Tipperary,  in  Ireland,  and  the'  Kaffirs  of  Africa.  The 
Normans  and  Norsemen  were  the  most  distinguished  foi 
this  phase  of  character  during  the  middle  ages.  But  let 
us  look  for  a  moment  at  the  timid  lurching  character.  He 
is  slow  in  his  movements,  and  the  uncertain  straight-toed 
alternate  motion  of  his  feet,  with  a  half-kneeling  expression 
of  his  legs,  while  he  sways  timidly  from  side  to  side,  like 
a  ship  with  rigging  too  heavy  and  without  ballast.  His 
look  is  generally  shy,  his  eye  having  a  distrustful,  half- 
averted  expression.  This  character  is  so  seldom  good  for 
anything  but  the  lowest  drudgery,  he  is  mostly  found 
among  the  basest  and  most  degraded  in  the  back  slums  of 
large  towns  and  cities,  through  which  he  may  be  often 
met  prowling  about,  intent  upon  some  favourite  vicious 
gratification,  or  nefarious  project. 

4.  The  Sweeping  or  Mowing  Gait. — This  well-marked 
and  pronounced  mode  of  peripatetic  progression  is  much 
more  easily  observed  in  women  than  in  men.  This 
simply  arises  from  the  flowing  nature  of  the  female 
costume,  which  receives  the  vibratory  motion  from  the 
body,  and  gives  marked  and  palpable  indication  of  it  in 
its  sweeping  pendulation  in  a  room  or  on  the  street.  But 



it  is  nevertheless  equally  observable  in  the  opposite  sex 
when  watched  carefully.  In  the  male  animal,  the  right-to- 
left  and  left-to-right  sweep 
at  every  step,  is  almost 
always  in  conjunction  with 
a  peculiar  wriggle  perpendi- 
cular of  the  whole  body 
from  head  to  foot.  The  effect 
of  this  double  vibration  and 
contortion  of  the  whole  body 
instantly  impresses  the  ob- 
server with  the  true  cause  of 
the  outward  manifestations 
— an  intense  self-conceit  and 
overweening  persuasion  of  su- 
perior knowledge  and  ability. 
The  immense  variety  of  coun- 
tenance accompanying  this 
corporeal  expression  of  char- 
acter would  occupy  too  much 
space  in  describing;  but  the 
most  prominent  visual  pecu- 
liarities may  be  stated,  as  a 
narrow  head,  low  forehead, 

eyes  in  close  proximity,  irregular  nose  tending  to  a  thin 
upper  half,  long  upper  lip,  pouting  mouth,  curling  lip, 
and  flabby  cheeks,  conveying,  on  the  whole,  an  utter 
want  of  sympathy,  which  is  generally  well  borne  out  by 
the  almost  invariable  sa'usage  ringers  of  the  hand  that 
never  gives  a  kindly  grasp.  Morally,  this  character  is  a 
hypocrite,  and  generally  may  be  found  among  those  accused 
of  false  pretences.  This  gait  radically  indicates  vacillation, 

5.   The  Fiiwi  Gait. — This  is  found  only  in  strong  charac- 
ters,   whether  physical,    moral,    ot  religious.      It  at   once 

The  Sweeping  gait.    Blind  Alick. 


indicates  strength,  and  bespeaks  the  confidence,  dread,  or 
veneration  of  the  beholder,  in  accordance  with  the  accom- 
panying characteristics  of  the  countenance.  The  whole 
structure  of  the  person  whose  walk  is  firm,  manifests  com- 
pactness, solidity,  and  stability.  He  is  staunch  in  every 
sense,  and  in  all  his  intercourse  there  is  a  reliable  and 
unshaken  steadiness  and  resolute  constancy  upon  which 
the  sheerest  stranger  seems  to  place  implicit  reliance. 
Then,  the  strong,  firm  tread  and  gait  of  one  who  inspires 
dread  is  associated  with  a  stern  countenance,  lack  of  sym- 
pathy with  others,  and  devotion  to  self-indulgence.  This 
character  may  be  easily  known  by  his  sturdy  tread,  often 
light,  but  as  certain  as  a  bull's-eye  shot;  his  low  forehead, 
snub-nose,  hanging  jaws,  pig's  throat,  broad  chest,  well- 
developed  lumbar  regions,  full,  beautifully-proportioned 
lower  limbs,  and  well-arched  foot,  which  all  bespeak  the 
character  to  awe  the  timid  beholder.  This  is  the  physical, 
without  either  moral  or  spiritual  restraint.  Now,  look  at 
the  historical  examples  of  this.  The  most  remarkable,  well- 
authenticated  instance  we  have  in  ancient  times,  is  that 
of  Agamemnon,  "  king  of  men,"  "  whose  tread  was  firm,  but 
like  music;  whose  heart  was  stern  as  Charon,  the  ferryman 
of  Hades,  and  whose  word  was  law  to  all  the  besiegers  of 
Troy."  In  recent  modern  times,  we  shall  only  mention  the 
Emperor  Napoleon  the  Great,  whose  step  and  build  are  so 
well-known  that  they  require  only  to  be  mentioned  to 
recall  their  peculiar  characteristics.  His  whole  frame  was 
so  firm  and  well  knit  together,  that  it  moved  in  perfect 
harmony;  but  the  secrecy  and  feline  trait  of  his  nature  so 
much  affected  all  his  movements,  that  his  step  was  as  sure 
and  silent  as  the  tiger's,  and  hence  his  spring  and  onset 
was  as  sudden  and  terrible.  He  is  the  best  example  of 
human  physical  firmness  of  gait,  bespeaking  stern  firmness 
of  command.  All  his  features  and  build  indicate  these 
qualities  in  a  pre-eminent  degree.  Below  the  middle  height, 


but  massive  in  all  parts  of  his  body,  he  shewed  strength  at 
all  points.  His  head  was  large,  broad,  and  square;  the  deep, 
vertical  furrows  in  the  forehead,  between  the  brows,  indi- 
cating intense  concentration;  the  deep  eyes,  aquiline  nose, 
compressed  lips,  and  prominent  chin,  all,  in  harmony  with 
the  other  firm  features  of  the  frame,  manifested  in  an  extra- 
ordinary degree  the  pre-eminently  stern,  inexorably  firm 
character.  These  two  great  generals,  with  whom  we  might 
include  Wellington,  the  conqueror  of  the  latter,  are  suffi- 
ciently well-marked  and  amply  authenticated  characters 
to  fix  the  truth  of  our  observations  on  mere  physical 
firmness.  As  examples  of  moral  and  religious  firmness, 
we  mention  only  a  few  remarkable  names  whose  gait  and 
concomitant  features  have  been  so  well  authenticated,  that 
their  names  will  recall  their  distinctive  characteristics, 
especially  if  assisted  by  good  likenesses  or  statues.  Julius 
Caesar,  Brutus,  Gregory  VII.  (Pope),  Luther,  Knox  (of  Scot- 
land), Elizabeth  of  England,  and  Cecil  her  Minister,  the  pre- 
sent Emperor  of  Germany  and  his  Minister,  Prince  Bismarck; 
all  these  went  steadily  and  directly  to  the  point. 

6.  The,  Shuffling  and  Shambling  Gait. — This  mode  of 
peripatetic  locomotion  is  indicative  of  everything  that  is 
degraded,  low,  and  vile  in  character,  as  well  as  imperfect 
and  infirm  in  physical  conformation.  To  some  it  is  natural 
from  birth,  as  the  offspring  of  those  whose  physical  defects 
and  infirmities  are  perpetuated  in  their  persons.  Watch 
the  shuffler  physical,  as  he  trawls  his  broad,  flat,  nether 
extremities  along  the  street  or  floor.  Every  movement 
is  a  slovenly  effort  to  progress;  but  the  trail  in  the  mud, 
or  dust,  or  sand,  shews  the  slovenly  snail-like  attempt  at 
progress.  All  his  habits,  dress,  and  features  are  in  keeping 
with  these  attempts  at  pedestrianism.  His  habits  are 
slovenly  universally;  hair  untrimmed  and  unkempt;  ft.ce 
smeared,  and  eyes  bleared  and  blinking;  all  his  garments 
frnrn  the  throat  downward  bespattered  with  the  particles 


of  whatever  he  has  attempted  to  put  into  his  mouth  for 
months  past,  perhaps,  or  sprinkled  with  snuff  or  tobacco- 
nized  saliva.  Then  look  at  the  shoes  or  foot-coffins  in 
which  his  flat  substitutes  for  feet  are  rolling  and  lurching 
about.  They  are  off  at  one  side,  ripped  in  the  soles,  full 
of  side  chinks,  and  ever  ready  to  admit  the  slush  of  the 
street  to  cool  the  neglected  bunions  that  sorely  torment 
the  toes,  though  the  pain,  however  acute,  scarcely  ever 
rouses  the  forlorn  shuffler  to  attempt  a  cure,  no  matter 
how  simple.  Then  glance  for  a  moment  at  the  cut  of 
the  outer  garments.  The  coat  is  always  too  wide,  too 
long,  and  has  the  cuffs  nearly  to  the  tips  of  the  filthy 
fingers,  which  have  perhaps  never  made  the  acquaintance 
of  a  glove.  The  vest  wants  a  button  or  two,  and  is  seldom 
with  the  proper  button  in  the  opposite  hole.  Now  look  at 
the  trousers  or  pantaloons,  always  at  least  two  inches  too 
long,  and  ever  moist  about  the  ankles,  thus  beautifully  in 
harmony  and  keeping  with  the  shoes.  Is  it  now  necessary 
to  pollute  our  eyes  by  looking  into  the  facial  points  that 
so  logically  accompany  all  these?  Yes,  look  but  for  a 
moment  and  mark  the  striking  consistency.  The  brows 
are  elevated  and  unthoughtful,  the  eyes  bleared  and  sleepy, 
.  the  cheeks  puffed  with  gross  fat,  the  nose  misshapen  and 
moist,  the  lips  without  expression,  and  mostly  as  far  apart 
as  may  be  without  effort.  The  expression  of  the  whole  is 
disgusting  in  the  extreme,  and  bespeaks  no  more  in  the 
uneducated  than  the  first  remove  from  the  brute.  But  it 
must  not  be  forgotten  that  there  are  shufflers  who  have 
much  cunning,  and  often  manage  to  amass  wealth.  One 
of  these  died,  not  long  since,  in  London,  leaving  £4,000,000 
to  his  heirs,  after  cunningly  shuffling  and  cheating  for  sixty 

7.  The  Parallelopedic  or  Intoed  Gait. — This  characteristic 
of  pedal  progression  almost  invariably  indicates  closeness 
and  meanness  as  well  as  penurious  stinginess  of  character, 


It  is  often  accompanied  with  a  lurching,  hobbling,  painful 
carriage  of  the  body,  indicative  of  being  ill  at  ease,  with 
a  pinched,  miserable  expression  of  countenance.  It  also 
indicates  stealthiness  and  low  cunning.  The  feline  species 
of  every  kind  put  down  the  foot  in  this  manner;  but  the 
Indians  of  North  America  not  only  walk  with  the  feet 
parallel,  but  put  down  the  one  foot  straight  before  the 
other,  in  line;  and  they  are  notorious  for  their  cunning  and 
treachery  in  every  sense.  The  features  that  mostly  accom- 
pany this  gait  are  sharp  and  unattractive.  In  all  dealings 
or  transactions  with  those  whose  locomotive  pedestrian 
habit  is  intoed,  every  one  should  be  warily  on  his  guard. 
It  was  observed  that  when  two  solicitors,  equally  deformed 
in  this  manner,  happened  to  be  engaged  on  opposite  sides 
in  a  chancery  suit  in  London,  the  game  of  finesse  was  so 
well  kept  up  by  the  raising  of  new  points,  of  nice  difficulties, 
that  the  estate,  though  large,  was  completely  exhausted 
before  the  suit  was  half  completed. 

8.  Splay-footed  Gait. — Though  this  is  a  completely  or  dia- 
metrically  opposite   abnormity    to    No.   7.  yet  it  indicates 
many  similar  traits  of  character.     This  mostly  arises  from 
the  fact  that  intoed  deformity  generally  originates  in  the 
legs  being  caliper-shaped,  while  the-  splay-footed  is  caused 
by  the  knees  being  too   affectionate  towards  each  other. 
Still  there  are  several  traits  of  character  peculiar  to  the 
latter  gait.     In  the  splay-footed,  it  is  almost  universally 
found  that  the  character  of  the  shambling  shuffler  prevails, 
with  an  ill-disguised  dash  of  the  feline  cunning.     Indeed, 
most  of  the  characteristics  of  the  knock-kneed  and  splay- 
footed may  be  found  in  the  description  once  given  of  four 
such    characters,   who    resided   in   Dublin,    by   a   waggish 
friend   of  theirs,  that   "they  were   sagacious,   silly  fools." 
Anomalous  characters. 

9.  The  Plunging  Gait — This  is  not  an  infrequent  mode 
of  progressing.     The  distinctive  feature  of  the  plunger  is 


a  looseness  of  the  knee-joint,  which  gives  the  walk  the 
appearance  of  a  succession  of  curtsies,  but  with  the  painful 
appearance  of  being  at  every  step  almost  precipitated  on 
the  head.  The  form  of  those  so  affected  is  quite  in  accord- 
ance with  the  up  and  down  or  undulatory  appearance  of 
the  walk.  Alternately  you  will  find  them  in  high  spirits, 
full  of  hope  and  jubilant;  again  in  deep  depression,  soon 
to  rise  into  the  opposite  extreme.  Hence  the  life  of  the 
plunger  is  one  of  fear  and  dread,  hope  and  joy.  His 
countenance  most  truthfully  indicates  this.  Amid  deep' 
lines  of  sorrow  and  foreboding,  may  easily  be  perceived 
the  laughing  wrinkles  round  the  eyes,  and  the  traces  of 
the  cheerful  smile  that  often  plays  around  the  mouth,  and 
sets  the  chin  so  cheerily  in  harmony  with  the  mobile 
lips.  Almost  in  every  instance  the  plunger  will  be  found 
possessed  of  warm  affection,  but  subject  to  deep  depression 
on  any  want  of  affectionate  reciprocation  of  the  loving 

10.  The  Fatuous  Gait. — This  kind  of  walk  is  so  apparent 
to  the  most  careless  observer  that  it  only  requires  to  be 
pointed  out  or  mentioned  to  be  recognized  and  understood. 
The  gait  of  the  imbecile  may  be  observed  in  any  large 
community,  from  the  partially  weak-minded  to  the  drivel- 
ling idiot.  In  proportion  to  the  stage  of  weakness  of 
intellect,  the  walk  is  unsteady  and  paralyzed,  until  it 
becomes  as  nearly  as  possible  like  the  balancing  gait  of  a 
drunkard,  but  retaining  impetuosity  of  motion. 

Minor  varieties  of  natural  peripatetic  locomotion  might 
be  easily  enumerated,  but  enough  has  been  said  to  stimu- 
late the  intelligent  observer  to  analyze  the  peculiar  pedes- 
trian characteristics  of  almost  any  human  biped  that  may 
cross  his  path,  or  strut  before  him. 




By  artificial  gait  we  mean  that  mode  of  walking  inci- 
dental to  every  profession,  trade,  or  calling,  as  well  as 
that  taught  by  posture  and  calisthenic  masters  and 
mistresses,  as  preparations  for  the  drawing  and  ball-room. 
As  the  artificial  walk,  saunter,  and  strut  are  so  varied, 

and,  in  almost  every  in- 
stance, acquired  with  the 
intention  of  concealing  the 
natural  mode  of  pedestrian 
locomotion,  we  shall  not 
attempt  more  here  than 
the  pointing  out  of  a  few 
of  the  more  prominent 
artificial  styles  of  walking. 
Take,  then,  the  professional 
styles  first. 

1.  The  Military  Gait. — 
On  close  observation,  one 
may,  without  much  diffi- 
culty, perceive  that,  from 
the  field-marshal  in  every 
rank  of  the  arrny,  down  to 
the  raw  recruit,  there  is 
a  style  peculiar  to  each. 
The  best  mode  of  getting  an 
accurate  idea  of  the  differ- 
ence between  a  recruit  and 
a  trained  veteran  is  to  watch 
the  drill,  or  the  march  past, 
on  a  review  day.  Then 

The  Military  Gait. — Captain  Paton, 
of  Glasgow. 

mark  in  the  one  the  irre- 
gular dubious  step,  while 
in  the  other,  every  man  seems  to  be  so  completely  trained 


that  he  simply  might  be  looked  upon  as  a  nicely-adjusted 
part  of  a  very  smoothly  working  machine.  This  perfect 
drill  and  training  gets  at  length  BO  much  into  the 
nature,  that  the  old  soldier,  when  walking  alone,  steps 
with  as  much  precision  and  accuracy,  as  he  would  on 
the  parade-ground  or  on  the  march.  Habit  has  become 
so  thoroughly  a  second  nature  that,  except  from  the 
scarcely  now  natural  features,  and  the  forms  and  powers, 
one  could  scarcely  tell  the  real  character.  Next,  we  have 
in  the  sergeant,  sergeant-major,  lieutenant,  captain,  adjutant, 
major,  and  so  on,  still  rising  in  rank,  the  indubitable  char- 
acteristics of  office  naturally  stamped  upon  the  man  by  the 
exigencies  of  his  office.  But,  in  all,  the  military  strut  and 
tread  betrays  the  soldier  and  the  rank.  To  the  officers, 
both  subordinate  and  general,  the  same  remarks  apply, 
but  these  have  their  peculiar  and  distinctive  airs  and 
struts  of  importance,  until  we  come  up  to  the  colonel, 
the  general,  the  marshal,  and  the  commander-in-chief.  To 
see  these  higher  ranks  to  perfection,  they  must  be  observed 
in  the  promenade  and  the  ball-room.  The  general  rule  to 
observe,  in  judging  of  them  here,  is  that  the  more  strutting, 
and  lofty-looking,  and  supercilious  bearing  they  manifest 
among  civilians,  the  less  noble  and  elevated  is  their  char- 
acter in  all  the  nobler  attributes  of  mankind. 

2.  The  Clerical  Gait. — This  style  (or  want  of  style)  is 
so  varied  by  denominationality  and  conventionality  that 
we  must  merely  point  out  the  leading  characteristics  of 
a  few  of  the  principal  churches  as  manifested  in  the  gait 
of  the  clergy.  The  English  established  churchman,  of 
every  grade,  carries  himself  with  a  degree  of  importance 
and  superiority  on  all  occasions  of  intercourse  with  the 
clergy  of  other  denominations.  In  general  he  may  be  at 
once  known  by  his  attire,  and  the  self-important  air  ancj 
tone  of  dictation  he  assumes,  though  we  must  do  him  the 


justice  to  say  that,  in  sleek,  soft,  bland  insinuation,  and 
sanctimoniousness  he  is  far  surpassed  by  many  of  the 
clergy  of  the  dissenting  denominations.  In  their  disguises 
at  the  theatres,  racecourses,  and  fox-hunts,  is  the  best 
time  to  observe  their  peculiar  attitudes  and  gait.  The 
lower  limbs  are  generally,  in  comparison,  weak;  and  in 
walking,  run  parallel  from  the  knees  to  the-  heels,  keeping 
the  feet  almost  parallel.  This  habit  is  contracted  in  the 
constant  genuflections  necessarily  gone  through  in  the 
reading  of  the  church  service,  and  during  the  visiting  of 
the  sick,  in  their  probationary  curacies.  Also,  it  should 
be  noted  that,  from  habit,  when  they  wax  earnest  in  con- 
versation they  involuntarily  use  their  pulpit  attitudes,  and 
at  the  end  of  an  animated  sentence,  settle  their  gown  and 
imaginary  bands,  clasping  their  hands  in  the  attitude  of 
prayer.  The  Scotch  churchman  is  equally  important,  in 
his  own  way,  as  the  English;  but  his  modes  of  worship 
give  him  a  much  more  free  and  easy  manner,  though  he 
wishes  it  to  be  known  and  felt  that  he  is  a  superior  being, 
ever  since  the  hands  of  the  presbytery  were  put  upon  his 
head.  In  his  gait  he  slightly  resembles  the  Episcopalian, 
but  the  legs  and  knees  are  not  so  nearly  in  the  supplicatory 
attitude.  This  arises  from  the  fact  that  the  Scot  is  in 
the  habit  of  standing  and  praying  extempore.  Among 
dis.-senters,  we  may  take  under  the  same  head  the  Methodist 
and  the  Baptist  preacher.  These  are  so  much  alike  in 
gait  that  it  takes  a  keen  eye  and  much  experience  to 
discriminate  the  one  from  the  other.  They  both  have  the 
sleek,  solicitous,  bland  how-is-your-soul  and  where-is-your- 
money  look.  Still  there  is  in  the  Methodist  parson  rather 
more  of  an  independent  look  and  manner.  The  Roman 
Catholic  may  be  known,  all  the  world  over,  as  soon  as 
he  walks  and  pendulates  his  arms,  especially  if  he  has 
been  much  on  duty.  I!he  expression  of  the  genuflecting 


nether  limbs,  and  the  wave  of  the  hand  in  the  gesture 
of  consecrating  the  elements,  are  never  got  rid  of  by  the 
Roman  ecclesiastic. 

3.  The  Legal  Gait. — Like  the  clerical,  this  is  so  much 
dependent  upon  the  branch  of  the  legal  profession  to  which 
the  individual  belongs,  that  we  must  confine  ourselves  to 
the   general   characteristics   of  the   walk.      The   face   and 
attitudes  of  the  hands  far  more  plainly  indicate  the  profes- 
sional  physiognomical   traits    than    the   walk.      In   every 
branch  of  the  profession,  however,  the  sly,  cautious,  stealthy, 
hesitating,  parallel-footed  gait  prevails,  and  need  never  be 
mistaken  after  a  few  careful  observations.     In  all  countries 
the  man  of  law  who  has  devoted  his  life  to  it,  has  these 
distinctive  traits. 

4.  The  Medical  Gait — The  medical  man,  who  has  been 
some  time  in  practice,  becomes  cautious  and  quiet  in  his 
movements,  so  that  he  seems  almost  always  to  feel  as  if 
he  were  entering  the  sick  room,  where  silence  and  reticence 
are   necessary  for   the   safety   of  his   patient      Hence   he 
learns  to  tread  lightly,  and  contracts  the  habit  of  putting 
down   his  feet   nearly  parallel   and  stealthily  like   a   cat. 
Almost  invariably  when  he  stands  his  feet  are  almost  close 
together  and  parallel,  his  head  slightly  bent  forward,  and 
his   hands   in    his    pockets       When    suddenly   roused    he 
invariably  pulls  out  his  watch.     This  is  sheer  habit. 

5.  The    Mechanical    Gait. — Almost    every    mechanical 
occupation    impresses    its    character    upon   the    operative. 
The   sawyer,   smith,   cobbler,   and  all   those   employed   in 
mechanical  operations  of  a  regular,  measured,  motive  nature, 
will   walk  with   a  steady,  measured   step,  and   pendulate 
their  arms   in   the   same   manner ;    so   impressed    has   his 
nature    become   with    the    regularity   of    the    mechanical 
motion  with  which  he  has  been  associated.     This  character 
is  generally  able  to  rise  at  any  hour  he  wishes,  so  accurate 
has  he  "become  in  time,  which  is  only  another  name  for 



motion.  Ask  him  the  hour,  and  at  any  time  he  will  answer 
you  at  once,  and  seldom  make  a  mistake  of  more  than  five 
or  ten  minutes.  The  famous  self-made  engineer,  George 
Stephen  son,  of  Killingworth,  was  always  so  sure  of  the 
time  that  he  would  boldly  assert  that  such  and  such  a 
clock  or  watch  was  wrong  when  it  differed  from  him.  And 
not  infrequently  was  hfc  put  to  the  test  by  his  fellow- 

workmen.  In  after  life,  when 
he  became  a  great  engineer 
i*nd  very  prosperous,  he  was 
asked  by  a  brother  work- 
man, who  had  also  risen  in 
life,  why  he  wore  a  gold  watch, 
and  he  replied,  I  'in  regulating 
it.  Tailors  are  easily  known 
by  their  gait.  The  knee,  in 
their  case,  becomes  braced 
from  their  peculiar  manner  of 
sitting,  and  the  bent  form  of 
the  leg  from  the  knee  to  the 
ankle  gives,  with  the  fixity  or 
stiffness  of  the  knee,  a  short, 
light,  out-toe  step,  so  charac- 
teristic that  it  can  never  be 
mistaken.  Should  any  doubt 
on  this  point  arise,  the  fact 
will  at  once  be  settled  by  look- 
ing at  the  hands.  Every  finger 

The  Mechanical  Gait-  David  Dale,     ]ias    taken    its    Set    expression 

from    the    peculiarity   of    the 

manner  in  which  it  is  constantly  used.  The  left  hand 
should  also  be  observed,  as  its  expression  is  quite  different 
from  that  of  the  right,  especially  in  the  lower,  or  nail  joint 
of  the  thumb,  which  is  bent  in  the  manner  it  is  accustomed 
to  hold  the  seam  while  the  rk'ht  hand  stitches.  It  is 


needless  to  pursue  this  further  than  to  direct  attention  tc 
the  expression  given  to  the  under  lip  by  the  pulling  down 
of  part  of  it  by  the  thread,  while  the  tailor  bites  the  end 
with  his  teeth.  Equally  easy  is  the  selecting  of  the  cobbler 
from  the  crowd.  Observe  his  mode  of  working.  His  knees 
close  together,  with  feet  slightly  apart,  and  resting  on  the 
inner  side — his  head  habitually  bent  downwards — his  arms 
muscular  and  well-developed — the  thumb  of  the  right  hand 
in  the  act  of  holding  the  awl  and  piercing,  so  different  from 
the  left,  which  has  acquired  the  habit  of  keeping  the  thumb 
closely  applied  to  the  forefinger  in  the  act  of  inserting  and 
extracting  the  bristle  at  the  extremity  of  the  "  end."  But 
we  have  double  confirmation  of  these  mechanical  habits,  if 
we  are  allowed  to  witness  both  the  tailor  and  the  cobbler 
in  animated  conversation.  The  tailor  performs  all  his 
gesticulation  with  the  right  arm,  and  that  in  a  most  charac- 
teristic manner,  by  drawing  out  that  limb  at  the  end  of  an 
impassioned  sentence,  just  as  he  would  give  a  long  sharp 
pull  to  his  newly  threaded  needle  when  he  has  forgot  to  put 
a  knot  on  his  new  thread.  But  this  is  not  all:  the  left 
hand  is  all  the  while  performing  its  peculiar  function,  by 
damping  its  forefinger  on  the  tongue  and  under  lip,  and 
quietly  rolling  an  imaginary  thread  between  the  thumb  and 
finger.  In  the  case  of  the  cobbler,  both  arms  come  into 
play  in  a  state  of  animated  speaking ;  but  watch  well  the 
peroration  period,  and  then  you  see  the  gesture  in  perfec- 
tion, when  the  hands  are  stretched  out,  closely  touching 
each  other,  with  the  palms  upward,  and  then  as  the  period 
is  completed,  the  arms  are  swept  backwards  with  energy, 
just  as  in  the  act  of  drawing  the  "  ends"  through  the  seam, 
ending  in  the  backward  sweep  with  the  palms  downward, 
but  with  fists  energetically  clenched.  The  blacksmith,  in 
animated  conversation,  becomes  equally  characteristic.  In 
his  case  the  right  arm  is  sure  to  assume  the  motions  of  the 
sledge-hammer,  while  the  left  is  as  sure  to  take  the 



vibratory    motion    of    turning    the    red-hot    bar    on    the 
imaginary  anvil. 

Close  observation  will  soon  enable  any  one  who  has  the 
taste,  and  possesses  the  talent  to  tell,  almost  at  a  glance,  the 
peculiar  occupation  of  almost  any  one.  This  kind  of  know- 
ledge is  often  very  useful,  and  saves  one  from  the  uneasy 
feeling,  often  experienced,  of  being  compelled  to  say,  "  Well, 
there's  something  odd  about  that  man's  manner,  I  wonder 
what  it  is."  The  best  school  for  this  study  is  'found  in 
attending  tradesmen's  meetings,  and  the  preaching  and 
hortatory  services  conducted  by  local- preach  ing  or  peri- 
patetic tradesmen  orators. 

6.  The  Tradesman  Gait. — This  contains  or  comprehends 
the  peculiarity  of  walk  necessarily  arising  from  the  habits 
of  locomotion  acquired  or  necessarily  resulting  from  every 
kind  of  shopkeeping  or  trading.  There  is  scarcely  any 
mere  peculiarity  of  walk  that  can  be  spoken  of  as  distinc- 
tive marks  of  these  trades.  But  in  the  ever  restlessness  of 
body  and  constant  change  of  position,  even  when  there  is  no 
object  in  such  movements,  we  can  at  once  detect  the  trader 
of  some  kind.  If  allowed,  however,  to  take  into  account 
the  movements  of  the  hands,  we  can  in  numerous  instances 
detect  the  nature  of  the  trade.  For  instance,  those  engaged 
in  retail  occupations,  such  as  employs  them  in  tying  up 
small  parcels,  are  almost  invariably,  in  unguarded  moments, 
working  with  their  fingors  as  in  the  act  of  putting  up  the 
parcel  and  tying  the  cord.  Others  again,  in  the  soft  goods 
or  cloth  trade  acquire  the  habit  of  spreading  out,  and 
measuring,  and  folding  up  goods.  Apothecaries  can  scarcely 
ever  become  animated  in  conversation  without  coming  to 
the  inward  circular  motion  of  the  pestle-in-mortar.  Book- 
sellers invariably  put  down  any  dry  article  just  as  they 
present  a  book  on  their  counter,  placing  it  on  the  open 
edges  with  the  back  up. 

Without  pursuing  this  matter  further,  we  may  just  remark 



that  we  have  not  attempted  to  exhaust  the  subject  of  the 
language  of  pedestrian  and  peripatetic  locomotion;  but 
merely  pointed  out  enough  to  arouse  the  attention  of  the 
reader  to  interest  himself  in  this  most  useful  protective 

JEPTHA  R.  SIMMS,  uncle  of  the  author  of  this  book,  wrote  several 
large  volumes,  but  the  crowning  work  of  his  historical  efforts  was  ' '  The 
Frontiersmen,"  in  two  volumes  of  700  pages  each,  published  in  1883  ;  he 
expired  in  the  ensuing  autumn  in  his  76th  year.  His  widow,  with  whom 
he  lived  upwards  of  50  years,  witnessed  after  his  death,  that  he  nevo* 
gave  her  an  unkind  word. 


No  idiosyncrasy  of  character  is  more  important  than  the 
manner  of  salutation.  As  is  the  salutation,  so  is  the  total 
of  the  character.  In  nothing  do  we  lay  ourselves  so  open 
as  in  our  manner  of  meeting  and  saluting.  In  the  various 
modes  of  salutation,  every  attitude  of  the  body,  as  well 
as  the  wonderful  variety  of  ocular  and  facial  expression 
play  most  important  parts.  Let  us  consider  some  of  the 
numerous  modes  of  salutation  that  have  become  common 
in  various  countries  of  long  standing  and  cultivated 

Of  al\  the  different  modes  of  salutation  in  various  coun- 
tries, there  is  none  more  graceful  than  that  which  prevails 
in  Syria.  Here  the  hand  is  raised  with  a  quick  but 
gentle  motion  to  the  heart,  to  the  lips,  and  to  the  forehead, 
to  intimate  that  the  person  saluting  is  willing  to  serve 
you,  to  think  for  you,  to  speak  for  you,  and  to  act  for  you. 
In  New  Guinea,  the  fashion  is  certainly  picturesque;  for 
they  place  upon  their  hands  the  leaves  of  trees  as  symbols 
of  peace  and  friendship.  An  Ethopian  takes  the  robe  of 
another  and  ties  it  about  his  own  waist,  leaving  his  friend 
partially  naked.  In  a  cold  climate  this  would  not  be  very 
agreeable,  not  to  speak  of  the  loss  of  time  it  implies. 
Sometimes  it  is  usual  for  persons  to  adopt  the  unseemly 
practice  of  presenting  themselves  naked  before  those  whom 
tiiey  salute,  as  a  sign  of  humility.  This  custom  was  put 


in  practice  before  Sir  Joseph  Banks,  when  he  received  the 
visit  of  two  Otaheitan  females.  The  inhabitants  of  the 
Philippine  Islands  take  the  hand  or  foot  of  the  person  they 
salute,  and  gently  rub  their  faces  with  it,  which  is,  at  all 
events,  more  agreeable  than  the  salute  of  the  Laplanders, 
who  have  a  habit  of  rubbing  noses,  applying  their  own 
proboscis  with  some  degree  of  force  to  that  of  the  person 
they  desire  to  salute.  This  custom  had  its  origin,  no  doubt, 
in  the  feeling  of  comfort  that  the  Laplander  feels  in  the 
friction  of  the  nose  as  a  restorative  of  the  warmth  neces- 
sary to  prevent  the  nasal  organ  from  freezing.  In  Arabia, 
and  all  Mohammedan  countries,  inferiors  in  rank  always 
kiss,  or  attempt  to  kiss  the  hand  of  a  superior;  equals 
embrace  each  other  by  putting  cheek  to  cheek,  as  their 
thoroughbred  horses  do.  In  addressing  their  fellow-mus- 
sulmans,  they  use  the  common  Eastern  salutation,  "  Es- 
sald'm"  "  Aleikum,"  which  simply  means,  "  God  save  you," 
or,  "Peace  from  Allah!"  Hence  the  Mohammedans  dislike 
to  use  this  salutation  to  Christians ;  and  the  Christians 
dislike  it,  as  being  a  recognition  of  the  faith  of  Mahomet. 
In  formal  visits  among  them,  a  good  deal  of  etiquette  is 
observed  all  over  the  Islam  countries.  Subjects  are  not 
allowed  to  sit  in  the  presence  of  the  Imam  or  Sultan.  The 
higher  classes  sit  cross-legged,  like  our  tailors,  while 
receiving  company,  and  the  inferiors  sit  upon  their  heels 
during  an  audience.  In  Christian  countries  the  ordinary 
modes  of  salutation  are  bowing,  curtsying,  raising  the 
hat,  kissing  the  hand,  and  shaking  hands.  The  passing 
salute  of  gentlemen  on  the  continent  of  Europe,  is  the 
raising  of  the  hat;  of  gentlemen  meeting  ladies  of  their 
acquaintance,  to  bow  and  then  raise  the  hat;  but  if  inti- 
mate, and  stopping  to  speak  with  the  lady,  the  bow,  the 
raising  of  the  hat,  and  then  the  shaking  hands,  or  defer- 
entially stooping  and  kissing  the  hand  of  the  lady  in  an 
easy,  gentle,  graceful  manner,  scarcely  touching  it  with  the 

390  SALUTATION     • 

lips.  The  graceful  bend  of  the  gentleman's  body  is  the 
chief  thing  to  be  studied.  In  England  and  her  dependen- 
cies, the  hand-kissing  is  not  adopted  except  on  very 
important  ceremonial  occasions,  such  as  presentations  to 
Her  Majesty  on  levee  and  drawing-room  days,  and  giving 
audiences,  or  making  important  crown  appointments  to 
office.  The  universal  salute,  however,  adopted  in  all  the 
most  highly  civilized  Christian  countries,  is  the  shake 
hands.  On  this  universal  mode  of  salutation  and  adieu, 
we  purpose  here  to  make  some  observations,  especially 
respecting  its  almost  unmistakable  test  of  character. 

Almost  every  shade  of  friendly  feeling  is  expressed  by 
the  shaking  of  hands.  Let  it  be  carefully  kept  in  mind, 
however,  that  the  shake-hands,  on  meeting  a  friend  or  an 
acquaintance,  is  the  truer  test  of  permanent  character  than 
the  good-by  shake.  It  is  quite  natural  that  the  adieu- 
grasp  of  the  hand  should  be  affected  by  the  conversation 
or  words  of  greeting,  and  will  vary  in  warmth  and  hearti- 
ness with  the  elevation  or  deoression  of  the  feelings  during 
the  interview. 

This  friendly  custom  must  have  commenced  at  a  very 
early  period  of  our  history,  but  we  have  no  hint  in  Scripture 
that  this  mode  of  salutation  was  practised  in  patriarchal 
or  Christian  times  in  the  east.  The  earliest  notices  of 
such  practice  are  found  about  the  time  of  the  second  Crusade 
(A.D.  1144-).  The  customs  of  salutation  in  patriarchal 
times  were,  bowing  low,  prostration,  and  kissing.  The 
introduction  of  coats-of-mail  armour  rendered  these  primi- 
tive modes  of  salutation  impossible.  Hence  the  martial 
men  adopted  the  plan  of  touching  hands  as  a  token  of 
good  will;  and  thus  the  touching  or  shaking  hands  became 
general;  for  the  manners  of  military  men  have  ever  been 
considered  models.  The  performance  of  this  act  of 
courtesy  and  good- will  ought  to  engage  the  special 
attention  of  every  one  who  wishes  to  please,  as  well 


as  to  comprehend  the  characters   of  those  with  whom  ho 
comes  in  contact. 

It  ought  to  be  always  kept  in  mind  that  while  in  the  act 
of  shaking  hands  one  should  look  into  the  face  of  the 
person  whose  hand  is  grasped,  were  it  but  for  a  moment 
There  is  much  delicacy  of  feeling  expressed  in  the  manner 
of  grasping  the  hand.  The  thumb  should  be  gently  but 
firmly  pressed  upon  the  back  of  the  hand  you  grasp  for  a 
moment  only,  if  the  meeting  is  casual;  but  after  long 
absence,  and  in  proportion  to  the  former  feeling  and  inti- 
macy, the  hand  may  be  held  for  a  proportionate  length  of 
time,  and  relinquished  after  a  second  delicate  and  meaning 

The  varieties  of  shaking  hands,  the  peculiarities  of  clasp 
ing  the  hands;  the  expression  of  the  eyes;  the  motion  or 
toss  of  the  head ;  the  inclination  of  the  body,  all  tell  a  tale 
of  character  on  the  one  hand,  and  respect  for  others  on  the 
other  side  of  the  clasped  hands. 

One  man  gives  you  a  warm,  cordial,  hearty  grasp,  looks 
you  straight  in  the  face,  with  a  pleasant,  open  smile,  and 
shakes  your  hand  up  and  down,  withdrawing  his  after  a 
second  earnest  gentle  pressure.  With  scarcely  an  excep- 
tion you  will  find  such  a  man  an  honest,  earnest,  and  true 
friend.  On  the  contrary,  the  man  who  gives  the  wagging, 
horizontal,  millhopper  shake,  and  lets  slip  your  hand  as  if 
it  were  soapy  or  oily,  will  almost  certainly  be  found  selfish, 
cunning,  and  deceitful,  ready  to  sell  you  the  moment  he 
can  realize  a  dollar  by  the  transaction.  He  will  certainly 
prove  an  idle,  selfish,  and  shiftless  person.  Be  warned  to 
have  no  dealings  or  intercourse  with  persons  of  this  stamp. 
Sooner  or  later  you  will  repent,  should  you  fall  into  the 
snare.  Now  you  encounter  the  speculator,  or  man  of 
various  occupations,  sometimes  requiring  sudden  and  irre- 
gular attention.  His  shake-hands  is  hurried,  indicating 
mergy,  haste,  hurry,  and  the  necessity  for  rapid  decision 


in  pursuit  of  his  selfish  aims.  The  speculator-shake  may 
be  further  characterized  by  the  perpendicular  or  the  wag- 
ging shake,  which  will  of  course  modify  your  estimate  of 
the  trust  to  be  reposed  in  him.  A  quick  shake  or  wag 
and  sudden  letting  go  the  hand  indicate  a  high  temper  and 
cold  heart.  Then,  again,  there  are  those  who  give  the 
unmeaning  touch,  in  a  very  lack-a-daisical  manner,  and 
never  look  you  in  the  face.  This  is  generally  the  charac- 
teristic shake  of  the  fair-weather  acquaintances,  the  casual 
friend — loose  fish,  as  the  Cockney  calls  them.  As  long  as 
you  sport  a  diamond  or  ruby  ring,  gold  watch  and  chain, 
or  have  your  shell  made  by  the  court  tailor,  and  can  shew 
a  good  balance  at  your  banker's  they  will  associate  with 
you  in  a  snobbish,  friendly  manner;  but  let  reverses  come, 
and  then  you  test  the  swells  of  the  unmeaning,  namby- 
pamby  touch  and  horizontal  wag. 

Want  of  self-confidence  is  mostly  the  cause  of  the  timid, 
diffident  hand  salutation  of  the  youthful  maiden.  Let 
your  similar  salute  to  such  be  courteous,  frank,  and  kindly 
impressive,  with  that  degree  of  freedom  that  will  inspire 
trust  and  respect,  but  not  so  off-hand  as  to  excite  fear  or 
mistrust.  Such  persons,  in  the  middle  and  lower  classes  of 
society,  rather  like  -and  admire  an  easy,  jolly,  outspoken 
man,  provided  always,  that  in  all  his  free  and  easy  salute 
and  address  there  is  the  transparent  expression  of  respect 
and  esteem  for  the  diffident  maiden.  Reserve  and  shyness 
is  at  a  discount  before  their  counter.  It  is,  as  they  feel 
already,  the  article  with  which  they  are  overstocked.  A 
prudish  shake  evinces  affectation  in  a  repulsive  degree.  All 
persons  of  honest  intentions  and  noble  good-will  thoroughly 
detest  affectation,  and  never,  by  any  chance,  attempt  it.  It 
is  a  gratuitous  intimation  that  those  who  assume  the 
affected  manner  are  willing  to  be  liable  to  be  taken  for  what 
they  really  are — worthless,  transparent  hypocrites.  When 
thrown 'in to  their  society,  one  should  oast  off  all  restraint. 


and  assume  a  free  and  easy  manner,  and  not  deign  to 
notice  .their  affectation,  but  by  every  means  plainly  shew 
that  you  are  incapable  of  catching  the  infection  from  them. 
Remember  that  affectation  is  the  lowest  recommendation 
you  could  carry  into  good  society.  You  may  just  as  well 
take  plated  dollars  to  the  Treasury.  Both  are  spurious 
coin,  and  alike  suspicious  as  a  circulating  medium.  Neither 
of  them  has  the  ring  of  the  genuine  character.  No  doubt, 
you  have  often  heard  of  the  luckless  servant  girl  who  was 
asked  about  her  character,  and  naively  answered,  that  she 
always  carried  it  in  her  pocket. 

Another  and  vary  common  kind  of  person  you  may 
often  meet,  who,  seeing  you  hold  out  your  hand,  also,  by 
way  of  imitation  holds  out  his,  but  with  no  other  intention 
than  that  you  should,  if  you  choose,  lay  hold  of  the  four 
loose  fingers  and  either  squeeze  or  let  them  drop,  as  you 
please.  Just  as  there  is  no  meaning  or  expression  in  his 
digital  salute,  neither  is  there  character  in  the  man.  If  you 
do,  by  way  of  experiment,  give  his  limb  a  shake  while  you 
hold  on  by  the  four  meaningless  daddies,  you  have  about 
the  same  sympathetic  pleasure  that  may  be  experienced 
in  shaking  a  dish  cloth.  Instinctively  3*011  conclude,  even 
before  the  operation  is  over,  no  matter  how  brief,  that  he  or 
she  has  no  distinctive  character.  By  way  of  refreshing 
contrast,  let  us  think  how  delightfully  inspiriting  it  is  to 
experience  the  warm,  hearty,  cordial  grasp  of  a  true  friend 
whose  whole  soul  is,  for  the  moment,  in  his  hand  and  eye; 
he  is  sure,  in  his  hearty  and  honest  earnestness,  to  retain 
your  hand  for  a  second  squeeze  and  additional  wag.  This 
class  of  shake  is  found  to  accompany  true  friendship  as  fully 
divested  of  selfishness  as  it  is  possible  to  expect.  When 
you  meet  such  natures,  court  their  friendship  and  render 
yourself  worthy  of  their  confidence. 

When  men  grasp  your  hand  and  look  away  from  you, 
their  regard  for  you  is  so  trifling  that  you  had  better  leave 


a  blank  leaf  in  your  diary  than  write  all  you  know  or 
might  learn  of  their  true  character.  Could  you  only  see 
their  hearts  you  might  perceive  that  significant  little  motto 
— self — indelibly  stamped  all  over  that  vital  organ. 

Those  who  keep  the  arm  or  elbow  close  to  the  side  while 
shaking  hands,  may  be  found  to  add  deference  to  the  expres- 
sion of  friendly  regard,  while  reserve  characterizes  every 
feeling,  and  freezes  the  stream  that  otherwise  might  gush 
from  their  timid,  uncertain,  cautious  souls. 

Low  bowing,  while  in  the  act  of  shaking  hands,  or  while 
approaching  to  do  so,  if  done  naturally,  indicates  respect- 
ful deference.  But  observe  that  the  hand  is  not  worth 
grasping,  when  the  tips  of  the  fingers  only  are  offered  in 

In  shaking  hands,  until  recently,  when  thin,  tight,  kid 
gloves  became  the  thing  in  common  wear  by  gentlemen,  as 
well  as  ladies,  it  was  the  fashion  to  pull  off  the  glove,  even 
in  the  street,  before  shaking  hands,  or  to  apologize  for 
retaining  it  on  the  hand.  This  having  become  so  awkward 
on  suddenly  meeting  a  friend,  it  has  become  now  almost 

The  giving  one  finger  in  shaking  hands  is  not  to  be 
tolerated  in  well-bred  society,  unless  the  hand  is  deformed 
or  has  been  wounded,  so  that  pressure  might  prove  injurious. 
Should  such  rudeness  be  offered  you,  the  best  and  quietest 
manner  of  reproving  it  is  to  present  your  own  corresponding 
finger,  but  without  touching  the  proffered  unidigit. 

Finally,  let  the  whole  hand,  cordially  extended,  with  the 
thumb  upwards,  give  a  firm,  whole-souled,  cheering,  and 
friendly,  expressive  token  of  your  inner  feelings  of  love, 
gratitude,  and  sympathy  towards  a  noble  and  generous 
being  who  has  been  formed  in  the  image  of  the  Creator. 
But  avoid  affectation  as  a  greater  enemy  to  the  countenance 
than  small-pox.  This,  with  strained  allusions  and  disgust- 
ing finery,  are  easily  attained  by  those  who  are  mean 


enough  to  wear  them;  they  are  but  too  frequently  the 
badges  of  ignorance  or  of  stupidity,  whenever  it  would 
endeavour  to  please.  Everybody  knows  that  vanity  and 
affectation  are  mother  and  daughter.  Vanity  is  the  sin, 
and  affectation  the  punishment.  Vanity  is  only  fully 
developed  when  it  blows  into  affectation,  and  then  it  is 
complete.  Locke,  the  philosopher,  says:  "Affectation  in 
any  part  of  our  carriage  is  lighting  up  a  candle  to  our 
defects,  and  never  fails  to  be  taken  notice  of,  either  as 
wanting  sense  or  wanting  sincerity." 

"  In  man  or  woman,  bat  far  most  in  man, 
And  most  of  all  in  man  that  ministers 
And  serves  the  altar,  in  my  soul  I  loathe 
All  affectation ;  'tis  my  perfect  scorn ; 
Object  of  my  implacable  disgust." — COWPEH. 

"  All  affectation  is  vain  and  ridiculous ;  it  is  the  attempt  of  poverty  to 
appear  rich. "—  LAVATBK. 

SARAH  J.  LIPPIKCOTT,  or  "  Grace  Greenwood,"  a  truly  able  and  pop- 
nlar  American  writer,  who  has  done  much  to  develop  the  friendly  and 
social  qualities  of  the  young  readers  of  her  works. 


"  Nothing  is  more  significant  of  men's  character  than  what  they  find 
laughable. " — GOETHE. 

LAUGHTER,  like  weeping,  is  a  sign  of  emotion  which  is 
confined  to  the  human  species. 

The  old  proverbs,  "  Laugh  and  mend,"  and  "  Sorrow  and 
die,"  intimate  a  true  physiological  principle,  for  few  things 
are  more  injurious  to  the  body  than  grief,  or  more  healthful 
than  laughter.  Prolonged  and  hearty  laughing  has  a 
tendency  to  promote  the  secretions  and  open  the  pores. 
It  stimulates  the  whole  glandular  system,  starts  the  per- 
spiration, and  increases  the  peristaltic  motion  of  the  bowels, 
so  that  those  who  indulg3  in  frequent  cachinnations  are 
rarely  troubled  either  with  constipation  or  indigestion. 

There  are  people  who,  from  some  mistaken  idea  of 
gentility,  never  condescend  to  laugh,  yet  Count  D'Orsay, 
who  in  matters  of  taste  was  certainly  an  authority,  said 
that  "  to  laugh  well  is  the  sign  of  a  cultivated  gentleman." 
But  even  without  his  testimony,  or  that  of  any  other  man 
of  social  rank,  we  might  rest  assured  that  laughter  cannot 
be  intrinsically  unrefined,  since  it  has  the  mother  mark 
of  nature,  and  has,  moreover,  this  to  its  fortune,  that  it 
contributes  to  good  health.  If  a  gentleman  is  never  to 
laugh  at  all,  because  some  clown  laughs  coarsely  at  coarse 
:oker,  then  he  ought  never  to  eat  at  all,  since  there  are 
alwuvi  vulganans  who  gluttonize.  Who  that  hns  heard 


the  joyous,  liugtng  laughter  of  childhood,  or  the  rich, 
sweet  ?  vwriment  that  ripples  from  the  throat  of  a  culti- 
vated Mroman,  could  wish  this  sign  of  amusement  to  be 
relegated  to  the  kitchen  or  the  bear  garden  ? 

If  people  laugh  coarsely  and  disgustingly,  it  is  because 
they  are  coarse  and  disgusting,  but  as  their  minds  and 
manners  improve,  their  sense  of  humour  will  be  corres- 
pondingly refined,  and  their  laugh,  like  their  voice,  ex- 
pression, and  gesture,  will  assume  a  sweetness  and  nobility 
unknown  before. 

There  are  exceptional  cases  in  which  the  smile  is  so 
ready,  expressive,  and  varied,  that  laughter  could  add 
nothing  to  the  humorous  charm  of  the  manner,  however 
much  it  might  contribute  to  the  bodily  health.  This  was 
the  case  with  Henry  Clay,  who  seldom  laughed,  but  whose 
rich  smile  left  little  or  nothing  to  be  desired.  Persons 
who  neither  smile  nor  laugh  are  usually  fit  for  "treason, 
stratagem,  and  spoils."  Blackhawk,  who  was  never  known 
to  laugh,  was  one  of  the  most  blood-thirsty  villains  that 
ever  led  a  tribe  of  savages  to  deeds  of  violence.  The 
closing  of  the  eyes,  or  squinting  during  laughter,  is  con- 
sidered very  ugly  and  underbred,  but  it  is  a  sure  sign  of  a 
jolly  and  whole-souled  nature. 

For  convenience,  I  will  consider  the  laugh  as  guttural, 
nasal,  love-smitten,  cheering,  and  hypocondriac.  The  former, 
which  for  some  inexplicable  reason  is  often  described  as 
the  horse  laugh,  evidences  strength  of  the  passions  as  well 
as  of  the  constitution.  It  indicates  excellent  lung  power,  and 
coming  as  it  does  forcefully  from  the  chest,  seems  to  be 
peculiarly  beneficial  to  the  physique.  As  a  rule,  the  less 
subtile!}7  intellectual  the  kind  of  wit  or  humour  which  is  the 
occasion  of  a  laugh,  the  more  it  agitates,  and  by  conse- 
quence, stimulates  the  budily  organs.  The  coarse  guttural 
j'augh,  based  as  it  is  upon  coarse  humour,  is  the  ordinary 
laugh  of  the  negroes,  who  usually  onjoy  good  digestion, 


with  strong  assimilating  powers.  Massachusetts  and  Con- 
necticut people  seldom  have  this  laugh,  and  dyspepsia  ia 
as  common  among  them  as  is  fever  and  ague  among  the 

The  nasal  or  te-he  laugh  indicates  feeble  passions  and 
light  intellectual  calibre.  It  is  a  kind  of  cachinnation  so 
weak,  so  drivelling,  and  so  unmeaning,  as  to  be  an  offence 
to  every  cultivated  ear. 

People  who  have  been  disappointed  in  love's  young 
dream,  begin  to  laugh  with  some  degree  of  spirit,  but  break 
off  suddenly  as  though  they  had  just  remembered  the  awful 
nature  of  their  visitation.  Love  disappointments  depress 
the  health  as  well  as  the  heart,  and  whatever  influences  the 
health  must  affect  the  whole  system,  and  with  it  the 
character  of  the  laugh. 

The  ho-ho,  or  cheerful  laugh,  commonly  evinces  hopeful- 
ness and  health,  and  hence  it  usually  characterizes  persons 
of  the  Thoracic  form,  who  have  ruddy  cheeks  and  sparkling 
eyes.  Such  laughers  are  averse  to  a  sedentary  life;  joyous 
and  sunny,  they  see  the  rose-tint  in  every  cloud,  and 
although  they  may  be  crushed  for  a  moment  by  disappoint- 
ment, they  are  readily  consoled  and  re-inspirited. 

All  hypocondriacs  have  a  harsh  and  despondent  laugh, 
which  is  sometimes  more  disheartening  than  a  good  honest 
groan.  They  usually  commence  their  lugubrious- merriment 
on  a  high  key,  and  then  descend,  step  by  step,  until  they 
conclude  with  a  deep,  grave-yard  grunt,  which  it  is  truly 
afflicting  to  hear.  Those  who  have  this  manner  of  laughing, 
always  see  mountains,  or  quicksands,  or  savage  beasts  in 
their  pathway  to  the  city  of  fortune.  They  disparage  every 
enterprise,  and  esteem  no  one  but  themselves  true  sons  of 
the  prophets. 

Unrestrained  and  wholly  meaningless  laughter  'is  on«  o* 
the  most  obvious  and  repulsive  indications  of  imbecility. 

The  English,  who  are  noted  for  their  good  living  and 


stio&g  digestive  powers,  are  also  hearty  and  frequent 
laughers.  When  a  joke  is  thrown  out  before  an  English 
audience,  they  roar  and  roar  again,  until  the  whole  assembly 
is  convulsed  with  mirth ;  but  the  man  who  has  the  hardi- 
hood to  perpetrate  a  jest  for  the  applause  of  the  Scotch  or 
New-Englanders,  will  see  it  sink  like  a  stone  into  the  water 
below  the  Niagara  Suspension  Bridge — it  will  fall  "ker« 
chug,"  and  that  will  be  the  end  of  it. 

TOM  HARRIS,  an  indiscreet  and  imitative  man,  half  Indian  and  half 
Negro.  This  face  presents,  in  its  phenomenally  wide  mouth,  the  very 
best  example  of  large  animal  imitation,  a  quality  of  mind  described  on 
page  126  in  this  book.  Tom  Harris  was  employed  in  a  music  hall  in 
London,  England,  twenty-five  years  to  imitate  musical  instruments  with 
his  mouth. 


AMONG  the  many  evidences  of  character,  whether  physical 
or  mental,  few  are  more  certain  than  those  derived  fiom  the 

This  natural  covering  is  a  modification  of  the  epidermis 
cuticle,  or  scarf-skin,  which  contains  neither  vessels  nor 
nerves,  but  forms  a  horny  layer  over  the  cutis,  or  true  skin. 
It  is  thus  accounted  for  that  hair  may  be  found  more  or  less 
on  every  part  of  the  human  body,  except  the  palms  of  the 
hands  and  the  soles  of  the  feet;  the  horny  matter  on  those 
parts  is  all  employed  in  constituting  the  epidermis,  which  is 
thicker  there  than  on  any  other  part  of  the  body,  because  of 
the  greater  exposure  to  pressure  and  friction. 

Every  ordinary  hair  consists  of  two  principal  parts;  the 
shaft,  which  projects  beyond  the  surface,  and  the  bulb, 
which  is  rooted  in  the  true  skin.  When  examined  under  a 
microscope,  the  bulb  is  found  to  contain  minute  cells,  some 
of  which  are  loaded  with  pigment  or  colouring  matter,  but 
all  of  which  are  abruptly  condensated  into  hard  fibres  on 
rising  into  the  shaft.  This  shaft  is  of  true  cylindrical  form 
in  hair  which  lies  straight,  but  a  trarsverse  section  of  a 
wavy  or  curly  hair  appears  somewhat  oval.  The  colour  of 
the  hair  seems  to  depend  on  a  peculiar  oil,  which  can  be 
seen  coursing  through  the  central  hollow,  and  serving,  as  it 
comes  to  the  surface,  to  lubricate  and  soften  the  outer  por- 
tion of  the  hair  and  skin.  The  wavy,  transverse  lines  that 
appear  on  the  outside  are  due  to  the  single  outermost  layer 

HAIR.  401 

of  cells,  which  overlap  each  other.  The  bulbous  root  of  the 
human  hair,  very  nearly  resembles  that  of  some  plants; 
and  doubtless  the  nourishment  which  affords  material  for 
the  constant  growth  of  the  hair,  is  derived  from  the  body 
much  in  the  same  way  as  plants  are  nourished  by  the  soil. 

The  peculiar  characteristic  in  hair,  that  first  and  chiefly 
{strikes  the  eye,  is  its  colour;  but  we  have  also  tor  consider 
whether  it  is  straight  or  curly,  coarse  or  fine,  long  or  short, 
abundant  or  scanty. 

Certain  races  of  men  have  no  variety  of  hair  colouring; 
it  is,  and  appears  to  have  been  for  ages,  the  same;  and  this 
is  generally  black.  No  other  is  to  be  found  among  the 
American  Indians  or  the  pure  Africans;  and  very  rarely  are 
lighter  hues  to  be  seen  in  those  Asiatic  races  usually  called 
Mongols  and  Malays.  Variety  of  colour  belongs  pre- 
eminently to  the  Caucasian,  or  as  some  call  it,  the  Japetic — 
that  is,  the  white  variety  of  the  human  species.  One 
parent  may  have  black  hair  and  the  other  flaxen;  while 
their  children  have  brown.  Such  variety  is  sure  evidence 
of  civilization,  as  also  is  difference  of  complexion;  it  is  the 
non-progressive  races  that  transmit  the  same  colour  both  of 
skin  and  hair  from  generation  to  generation.  It  is  natural 
to  expect  that  the  colour  of  the  hair  should  correspond  with 
the  complexion  of  the  skin ;  because  its  roots,  being  planted 
in  the  cutis,  derive  their  nourishment  and  colouring  matter 
from  the  same  substance  which  there  contributes  to  form 
the  complexion. 

Also,  the  same  climatic  influences  that  act  upon  the  skin, 
operate  on  the  hair,  causing  it  to  be  light  or  dark.  The 
lighter  shades  are  met  with  chiefly  in  mountainous  regions; 
the  darker  in  warm,  low-tying  countries.  There  are  more 
fair-haired  children  in  the  mountains  of  California  than  in 
any  other  part  of  the  world  that  we  have  visited.  Light 
hair  is  common,  also,  in  the  Highlands  of  Scotland,  and  the 
mountains  of  Sweden.  Even  among  the  Negroes  there  are 


402  HAIR. 

specimens  of  lighter  hair  in  the  more  elevated  districts, 
while  the  low  lands  of  Guinea  present  only  black.  Red  is 
common  in  the  elevated  region  of  the  Alps;  while  black 
is  the  predominant  colour  at  the  foot  of  those  mountains. 
The  intermarriage  of  various  races  in  temperate  climates 
goes  to  produce  varieties  of  colour  in  the  hair.  Black 
absorbs  all  the  rays  of  light  and  heat;  but  white  conveys 
them  without  loss  to  the  interior.  The  hare,  the  ermine, 
and  some  other  animals  turn  white  in  winter;  and  if  this 
is  caused  by  the  cold,  it  is  likewise  a  certain  protection 
against  it,  besides  rendering  these  animals  more  secure  from 
their  enemies,  by  the  assimilation  of  their  fur  to  the  sur- 
rounding snow. 

Among  ourselves,  red  hair  has  usually  been  considered 
an  evidence  of  quick  temper;  and  doubtless  this  holds 
good  as  a  general  rule ;  yet  many  cases  might  be  cited  in 
which  red-haired  persons  have  been  very  amiable,  and 
throughout  a  life-time  have  not  been  known  to  exhibit 
angry  passions.  This  colour,  however,  may  be  taken  as 
sure  evidence  of  an  active  form ;  if  curliness  is  added,  it 
indicates  an  intense  organization,  and  a  disposition  to 
ardent  love.  Very  coarse  red  hair  is  a  sign  of  propensities 
much  too  animal. 

Auburn  is  indicative  of  a  kindly  and  sympathetic  nature, 
with  much  capacity  for  Platonic  love.  Fine  brown  hair 
is  found  only  on  persons  of  excellent  minds,  and  generally 
intellectual  tendencies  ;  so,  beautiful  golden  hair  is  rarely 
observed  in  individuals  of  gross  and  sensual  natures.  Such 
are  fond  of  children;  they  love  the  fine  arts,  and  generally 
have  exqufsite  sensibilities,  so  that  one  need  never  fear  a 
person  with  pleasant  golden  or  auburn  locks,  regularly 
disposed  and  curled;  for  they  bespeak  a  high  standard  of 
intelligence  and  kindliness.  We  know  not  whethei  it  was 
from  an  appreciation  of  these  symptomatic  qualities,  or 
from  mere  taste  or  caprice,  that  golden  hair  came  to  be  all 

HATH  403 

the  rage  in  France  a  short  time  ago ;  so  that  many  ladies 
who  could  not  bring  their  own  hair  to  this  colour,  procured 
artificial  locks  at  any  expense. 

Glossy  black  hair,  inclined  to  be  wavy  or  curly,  evinces 
keen  perceptions,  and  usually  a  cautious,  secretive  nature. 
As  a  general  rule,  straight  hair  accompanies  persons  who  go 
straight  in  walking,  and  whose  bodies  exhibit  straight  lines 
and  angles,  rather  than  curves  and  round  turns.  The 
mental  character  will  be  found  to  correspond;  the  curly- 
headed  people  are  the  more  sinuous  people,  and  hence  the 
expression,  "  a  straight-haired  boy,"  meaning  that  he  is 
honest  and  reliable,  moving  straight  in  his  conduct,  so  that 
you  know  where  to  find  him.  Straight  black  hair  evinces 
more  or  less  stolidity,  with  a  wiry  constitution;  and  the 
same  colour,  if  very  coarse  and  curly,  denotes  much  irrita- 
bility, not  without  stupidity.  Curly  black  hair,  however, 
accompanied  with  blue  eyes  and  fair  skin,  may  be  taken 
as  indicating  an  excellent  mind  and  good  moral  tendencies. 
Such  were  Dr.  Lyman  Beecher's  characteristics.  His  black 
hair  seemed  to  stand  up  bristling  and  curling  on  his  fore- 
head, to  bespeak  his  great  intensity  of  mind  and  clearness 
of  thought;  while  the  blue  eye  and  white  skin  forbade 
one  to  associate  with  him  those  characteristics  that 
are  apt  to  attend  such  hair  with  black  eyes  and  coarse 
dark  skin. 

The  black  hair  of  the  Asiatic  Mongolians,  and  the  various 
tribes  of  Polynesians  and  American  Indians,  is  generally 

Filament  of  WooL  Negro  Hair. 

straight  and  lank;   that  of  the  Negroes,   Hottentots,  and 
other  African  families   is  usually  crisp  and  woolly.     The 

404  HAIR. 

African  head  has  been  considered  as  being  covered  with  a 
species  of  wool  rather  than  true  hair.  But  Dr.  Pritchard 
having  carefully  examined  a  number  of  hairs  from  the  Negro 
as  well  as  other  races,  in  comparison  with  the  wool  of  a 
Southdown  sheep,  reports  that  a  filament  of  wool  has  a 
serrated  or  jagged  surface,  whereas  the  Negro  hair  appears 
only  imbricated.  It  is  for  this  reason  that  though  hair  will 
entangle  to  a  certain  extent,  it  will  not  felt  into  a  compact 
mass  like  good  wool. 

The  black, .  which  is  the  predominating  colour  of  human 
hair,  is  found  by  chemical  analysis  to  depend  on  the  pre- 
sence of  iron;  while  the  lighter  colours  exhibit  more  sulphur. 
It  is  found  that  black-haired  men  can  work  in  iron  with- 
out injurious  consequences,  whereas  the  blood  of  light-haired 
persons  has  so  little  affinity  for  this  metal,  that  handling 
it  too  much  produces  disease,  from  the  infinitesimal  par- 
ticles insinuating  themselves  into  their  systems. 

The  grayness  of  hair  in  old  age,  arising  from  a  deficient 
secretion  of  pigment,  appears  natural  enough,  when  all  the 
corporeal  powers  are  weakened.  But  no  one  has  satisfac- 
torily explained  how  it  is  that  hair  has  turned  gray  or  even 
quite  white  in  a  single  night  under  the  influence  of  fear  or 
distress.  It  has  been  suggested  that  some  fluid,  perhaps 
an  acid,  is  in  such  cases  secreted  at  the  bulb,  and  perco- 
lating the  hair,  has  destroyed  the  colouring  matter.  But 
how  mental  excitement  should  produce  such  fluid,  appears 
still  a  secret. 

We  have  had  occasion  to  allude  to  the  texture  of  hair 
in  connection  with  some  shades  of  colour.  It  may  be 
further  observed  that  coarse  hair  indicates  strength  of 
constitution  and  a  courageous  temper,  while  tine  bespeaks 
weakness  of  physique,  with  sympathetic  susceptibilities, 
unusual  care,  timidity,  and  withal,  vivacity.  The  wild 
boar,  which  has  been  known  to  turn  upon  a  dozen  hunters, 
and  the  lion,  which  will  attack  a  whole  herd  of  elephants 

HAIR.  405 

or  buffaloes,  are  good  examples  of  strong  coarse  hair  in 
connection  with  physical  strength  and  courage.  On  the 
other  hand,  animals  weaving  fine  soft  hair  are  timid  and 
active,  fleeing  at  the  first  appearance  of  danger.  The  deer 
and  the  rabbit  may  be  cited  as  well-known  examples. 

Even  the  finest  hair  is  strong  and  elastic,  hence  it  is  used 
to  make  fishing  tackle,  also  to  stuff  beds,  seats,  &c.  When 
dry,  it  is  easily  rendered  electrical;  but  it  attracts  moisture 
readily  from  the  atmosphere,  and  doubtless  from  the  body 
also.  When  it  was  the  fashion  in  this  country  for  females 
to  curl  their  hair  artificially,  twisting  it  in  paper  over  night 
was  usually  sufficient,  but  a  damp  morning  would  oblige 
them  to  use  hot  irons  before  making  their  appearance  in 
the  eveniu^. 

Among  different  races  there  are  great  differences  as  to 
the  quantity  of  hair  that  grows  on  the  body.  The  northern 
Asiatics,  and  the  American  Indians  are  noted  for  thin  hair 
and  scanty  beards;  while  in  the  Kurilian  race  there  are 
individuals  with  hair  growing  down  the  back,  and  covering 
almost  the  whole  body.  Some  years  ago  a  hairy  lady 
understood  to  be  from  Mexico,  was  exhibited  in  London, 
and  her  body  was  embalmed  after  death  as  a  curiosity. 
The  whole  of  the  face,  except  the  eyes,  was  covered  with 
hair  of  different  lengths.  That  on  the  head  was  straight, 
black,  bristly,  and  very  thick.  The  ears  and  the  back  of 
the  neck  were  hairy,  and  the  hairs  on  the  shoulders  and 
legs  were  a«  abundant  as  they  are  sometimes  seen  on  very 
powerful  men. 

A  heavy  head  of  hair  is  considered  a  great  ornament 
to  a  woman.  Whatever  the  reason,  the  hair  of  Irish 
females,  especially  those  of  humble  class,  seems  to  grow 
much  more  luxuriantly  than  that  of  either  the  English  or 
Scotch.  Besides  its  undeniable  beauty,  abundance  of  hair 
is  a  pretty  sure  sign  of  a  good  constitution,  and  full  or 
large  animal  propensities.  Wendell  Phillips  and  Horace 

406  HAIR. 

Greely  are  more  intellectual  than  animal;  they  have  very 
little  hair. 

At  the  International  Exhibition  of  1862,  there  was  a 
beautiful  specimen  of  hair,  understood  to  be  British,  jet 
black,  and  measuring  seventy-four  inches  in  length.  We 
are  not  informed  of  what  length  that  lady's  hair  was,  of 
whom  a  Persian  poet  of  the  tenth  century  has  sung:— 

"At  dead  of  night, 

The  bridegroom,  with  his  locks  of  light, 
Came  in  the  flush  of  love  and  pride, 
And  scaled  the  terrace  of  his  bride, 
When  as  she  saw  him  rashly  spring, 
And  midway  up  in  danger  cling, 
She  flung  him  down  her  long  black  hair, 
Exclaiming  breathless,  'There,  love,  there!'" 

But  we  are  glad  to  learn  that  he  fixed  his  crook  in  a 
projecting  beam,  instead  of  accepting  her  self-sacrificing 

When  the  hair  grows  low  down  on  the  forehead,  it  is 
evidence  of  a  good  constitution  and  long-lived  ancestry. 
A  peak  coming  down  on  the  centre  of  the  forehead  is  con- 
nected with  honesty  of  purpose,  excellent  observing  powers, 
and,  it  must  be  added,  fractious  tempers.  Andrew  Jackson 
had  this  peak  well  marked.  His  high  regard  for  his  honour 
has  rarely  been  equalled;  and  his  temper  was  as  waspish 
as  that  of  a  fractious  horse,  in  which  the  same  shaped  peak 
of  hair  is  observable. 

Nature  supplies  whatever  is  necessary  for  the  preserva- 
tion of  life  in  the  circumstances  in  which  she  places  either 
races  of  men,  or  species  of  animals.  She  invests  most  cf 
the  quadrupeds  with  a  thicker  coat  of  hair  in  the  autumn 
and  causes  them  to  shed  it  in  spring,  when  it  is  no  longer 
required.  Furs  obtained  in  northern  climates  are,  it  is 
well  known,  much  thicker  than  those  of  the  temperate 
and  torrid  zones.  The  beaver,  removed  to  warm  latitudes, 
exchanges  its  fur,  and  the  sheep  its  wool  for  coarse  hair. 

HAIR.  407 

suitable  to  the  altered  circumstances.  On  the  other  hand, 
the  bear  exhibits  coarse  black  hair  in  moderate  climates, 
but  is  clad  with  the  finest  white  fur  in  the  arctic  regions. 
This  increase  of  hair  is  produced  by  the  effect  of  cold  in 
obstructing  the  perspiration;  for  the  matter  which  would 
otherwise  have  been  emitted  through  the  pores  of  the  skin, 
is  formed  into  hair.  A  warm  climate,  by  relaxing  the 
system  and  opening  the  pores,  allows  this  matter  to  escape 
before  it  can  be  concreted  into  the  substance  of  hair. 
Persons  who  produce  but  scanty  hair  and  whiskers  are 
best  adapted  to  live  in  warm  climates.  They  manufacture 
less  animal  heat  than  those  whose  systems  afford  a  profuse 
growth  of  hairy  matter. 

Certain  specific  diseases  occasion  the  hair  to  fall  off,  and 
no  external  washes  will  reproduce  it  in  such  case ;  nothing 
will  do  but  the  purification  of  the  blood.  Such  disease  has 
been  very  prevalent  in  America  since  the  war;  and  in 
France,  since  the  thirteen  years  of  almost  ceaseless  warfare 
that  preceded  the  banishment  of  the  first  Napoleon  to  the 
island  of  St.  Helena.  Some  families,  or  portions  of  families, 
inherit  a  weakness  of  cutaneous  blood  circulation,  which 
causes  them  to  lose  their  hair  at  a  comparatively  early 
period  of  life.  The  effect  of  typhoid  fever  in  causing  the 
hair  to  fall,  is  familiar  to  every  one;  but  it  is  not  so  gener- 
ally known  that  a  hard  hat  may  operate  in  the  same 
manner,  though  in  a  less  degree,  by  its  pressure  on  the 
veins  which  return  the  blood  from  the  scalp,  thus  causing 
a  feverish  action  in  the  integument  of  the  head.  In  the 
theatres  of  New  York,  London,  Paris,  Berlin,  and  other 
cities,  one  sees  hundreds  of  young  men  who  wear  dress 
silk  hats,  and  are  more  or  less  bald.  Smoking  tobacco  is 
undoubtedly  another  cause  of  baldness,  the  nerves  of  the 
skin  being  paralyzed  by  the  fumes  curling  round  the  head 
day  after  day  continually.  O  tobacco!  where  are  thy 
charms?  Broken  constitutions,  nervous  shadows  of  man- 

408  HA.TR. 

hood,  hypochondriacal  dyspeptics  echo  " Where?"  and  it 
seems  almost  an  impertinence  to  mention  bald  heads  in 
the  same  category  with  the  graver  evils  resulting  from 
this  baneful  practice.  Dear  youth  of  our  land,  be  per- 
suaded never  to  use  it — no,  never!  While  you  read  these 
lines  vow  to  yourself  never  to  begin  its  use;  but  if  you 
have  already  commenced,  resolve  to  be  its  slave  no  longer — 
no,  nor  its  companion.  Say  "  good  bye  tobacco,  thou  and  I 
part  here  for  ever." 

Fifty  or  sixty  years  ago.  Kowland's  Macassar  Oil  was  the 
thing  for  promoting  the  growth  of  the  hair;  scarce  any 
other  was  known;  and  so  firm  was  its  hold  on  the  public, 
that  though  the  article  itself  has  fallen  into  disuse,  the 
coverings  which  are  to  save  our  easy-chairs  from  grease  are 
called  anti-macassars.  Now  the  nostrums  for  saving  the 
hair,  patented  and  unpatented,  may  be  numbered  by  hun- 
dreds, if  not  thousands.  Among  them  all,  however,  there 
is  none  to  be  preferred  to  a  good  stiff  brush,  which, 
diligently  applied,  stimulates  the  scalp  to  healthy  action, 
and  to  pour  out  the  oil  which  nature  itself  has  wisely 

"JENNIE  JUNE,"  a  highly  interesting,  varied,  terse,  and  voluminous 
writer  for  the  popular  press  of  America. 


BEHOLD  that  beautiful  child  with  its  dimpled  chin,  cheeks, 
and  round  nose,  and  what  could  one  imagine  more  lov- 
able. Pure  Platonic  love 
is  there  personified  in 
truth.  Dimpled  chins  are 
ever  found  to  be  concomi- 
tant with  warmth  of  soul 
feelings,  love  of  society, 
and  happy  natures. 

All  things  in  nature 
correspond  and  harmonize, 
and  when  the  chin  is 
dimpled  the  entire  flesh 
of  the  body  and  face  in- 
clines to  partake  of  the 
dimpled  nature.  The  but- 
tock of  a  child  often  will 
have  dimples,  as  well  as 
its  legs,  arms,  breast,  and 
neck,  all  evincing  the 
merry  and  loving  soul.  When  one  dimple  is  seen,  we  at 
once  draw  the  inference  that  the  tendency  of  that  whole 
system  is  to  partake  of  the  same  character. 

Superabundance  of  adipose  tissue,  with  small  bones  and 
weuk  muscles,  will  so  round  out  the  form  as  to  give  it  the 

Love,  Faith,  Intuition,  and  Innocence. 

410  DIMPLES. 

dimply  nature.  These  dimples  will  be  found  to  shew  them- 
selves in  the  places  where  fat  is  least  laid  on,  and  by  the 
filling  up  in  the  more  natural  places  of  deposit  will  leave 
dimples.  Such  persons  as  those  of  a  dimpled  nature  will 
be  naturally  lovable,  good-natured,  fond  of  being  petted, 
and  extremely  musical  in  soul. 

Rarely  do  we  see  dark-complexioned  people  much  dimpled. 
This  agreeable  peculiarity  is  more  apt  to  accompany  blue 
eyes,  florid  or  blond  complexion,  and  well  rounded  forms. 
You  might  as  well  look  for  lightning  in  winter,  in  temperate 
climates,  or  for  grapes  on  the  oak,  as  for  dimples  on  some 
forms.  Those  lank,  tall,  and  spare  people,  who  are  naturally 
so,  and  have  always  been  thin,  and  ever  will  remain  so,  do 
not  afford  evidences  of  dimpled  natures.  Neither  Abraham 
Lincoln  nor  the  Duke  of  Wellington  partook  of  this  char- 
acter. Lincoln  shewed  no  particular  devotion  to  music; 
and  the  Duke  once  remarked  that  no  music  was  so  sweet  as 
a  hundred  cannons  in  full  play  (when  you  were  in  safe 
distance).  They  were  built  more  on  the  angular  shape,  and 
neither  shewed  a  fondness  for  being  petted ;  but  more  freely 
bestowed  than  invited  it  from  others.  Principle,  with  them, 
seemed  to  surmount  all  other  traits  of  character. 

Large-boned  persons  rarely  or  never  have  the  same  warm, 
social  nature  as  those  who  are  more  fleshy,  with  less  frame- 
work. They  are  not  so  readily  thrilled  in  every  fibre  of 
their  beings  with  music,  as  people  who  have  small  bones, 
good  muscles,  and  a  large  supply  of  blood  and  vital  life. 

A  pebble  cast  into  a  lake,  makes  its  further  shore  feel  a 
ripple  for  that  pebble;  while,  if  it  were  thrown  upon  a 
solid  rock,  its  influence  ceases  with  its  fall.  Thus  we  see 
how  persons  who  have  much  liquid  and  less  solid  parts  of 
body  are  more  easily  affected  and  influenced  by  musical 
air-waves  and  social  heart-beatings  than  the  bony  or,  so  to 
speak,  rocky  person.  Such  people  as  have  large  bones  are 
more  able  to  withstand  the  influences  of  peoples  or  com- 

DIMPLES.  4]  I 

umnities  than  those  having  more  of  fibre  and  cellular 
tissue,  and  less  of  the  osseous  structure.  There  is  no  douht 
that  the  small  man  or  woman  who  so  readily  bends,  in 
something  like  the  French  style  of  affability  about  you,  is 
more  controllable  by  the  mind  of  another,  and  is  more  the 
creature  of  circumstances  than  the  tall,  raw-boned  indi- 
vidual who  uses  no  blandishments." 

Washington,  who  stood  six  feet  and  three  inches  high, 
could  handle  two  common  men,  and  possessed  strength  and 
agility  sufficient  to  jump  twenty-two  feet  at  a  single  leap, 
proved  himself  not  the  man  to  be  controlled,  even  by  his 
powerful  British  relations.  Lincoln,  who  was  six  feet  and 
several  inches  high,  and  was  possessed  of  well-strengthened 
muscles  and  bones  by  early  physical  labour,  when  all  the 
North  were  clamouring  for  the  issue  of  the  Emancipation 
Proclamation,  stood  like  a  rock,  uninfluenced,  waiting  the- 
appropriate  time  dictated  by  his  cool  spirit,  and  sanctioned 
by  his  judgment. 

Men  who  stand  pre-eminent  in  the  world's  history  as  great 
and  self-reliant  heroes,  statesmen,  and  noted  personages, 
have  all  had  solid  and  heavy  bones,  where  they  have  not 
been  of  more  than  average  stature.  That  self-willed  and 
ambitious  man,  by  some  known  as  the  Great  Napoleon,  had 
a  rough,  bony  face,  much  unlike  the  popular  prints  we 
often  see  in  shop-windows,  which,  for  the  most  part,  are 
the  flattering  and  insipid  efforts  of  pandering  artists,  result- 
ing in  smooth-faced  oil  burlesques  on  the  wilful  character 
and  face  of  the  erst  would-be  king-maker  and  dictator  of 
Europe.  A  gentleman,  who  was  once  an  English  soldier, 
and  stood  guard  over  Napoleon  on  the  Island  of  St.  Helena, 
has  assured  us,  that  "  all  the  pictures  and  paintings  of 
Napol&m  are  too  smooth-faced,  as  he  had  the  largest  jaw  I 
ever  saw;  large  nose,  massive  head,  with  very  little  hair 
on  it,  and  his  beard  was  so  thick,  that  when  recently  shaven 
it  gave  the  skin  a  blue  cast.  His  eyes  were  light-blue, 



and  when  roused,  they  spoke  of  a  master-spirit.  His 
general  facial  expression  was  very  bony  and  masculine." 
No  dimples  ever  graced  his  person.  His  spirit  loved  war, 
and  powerful  commotion,  and  terrible  struggles,  better  than 
the  social  influence  of  children,  wife  (whom  he  so  cruelly 
divorced  to  gain  power),  music,  or  home.  What  an  indomi- 
table spirit  he  possessed;  and  how  little  influence  friends 
and  the  world  had  upon  him,  history  and  those  who  knew 
him  best  can  attest.  His  pulse  gave  only  about  forty  beats 
per  minute,  shewing  how  little  action  the  soft  parts  of  the 
body  had,  and  his  character  gives  evidence  of  wonderful 
power  and  recuperative  nature  arising  from  short,  thick, 
and  heavy  bones.  Julius  Csesar  and  Alexander  were  each 
bony  and  angular  men,  and  how  little  they  were  influenced 
by,  and  how  much  they  moved  the  world  of  mankind. 
Hannibal  and  Scipio,  whose  legions  and  force  of  character 
moved  the  masses,  were  powerful  in  bone  structure.  Leoni- 
das,  whose  braves  drove  the  hordes,  a  hundred  to  one, 
before  them,  was  inspired  by  the  master-spirit,  who  was 
full  of  muscle  and  well  set  in  bone. 

A  great  law  of  nature  is,  that  things  are  moved  most 
which  have  material  most  easily  acted  upon,  and  as  soft 
tissues  and  blood  material  are  more  easily  acted  upon  than 
bones,  so  it  naturally  follows  that  men,  partaking  of  the 
character  of  their  bodies,  are  more  solid  in  mind,  and  unin- 
fluenced, if  the  bony  structure  predominates  in  their 
systems;  whereas  the  dimply  form  (being  only  signs  of  a 
superabundance  of  fatty  tissues)  gives  evidences  of  char- 
acter easily  influenced  by  all  nature's  forces.  They  are 
pleasant  creatures  of  circumstances,  loved  by  every  positive 
and  bony  person  as  they  naturally  smooth  and  brighten  the 
rough  pathway  of  life.  The  following  verses,  and  especially 
the  last  one,  gives  a  very  good  idea  where  lasting  dimples 
appear: — 

DIMPLES.  413 


•'  Over  the  cradle  a  mother  hung, 

Softly  crooning  a  slumber  song; 
And  these  were  the  simple  words  she  sung 
All  the  evening  long : 

"  Cheek  or  chin,  or  knuckle  or  knee, 
Where  shall  the  baby's  dimple  bet 
Where  shall  the  angel's  n'nger  rest 
When  he  comes  down  to  the  baby's  nest? 
Where  shall  the  angel's  touch  remain 
When  he  awakens  my  babe  again? 

•*  Still  as  she  bent  and  sang  so  low, 

A  murmur  into  her  music  broke 
And  she  paused  to  hear,  for  slie  could  but  kno^ 
The  baby's  angel  spoke : 

"  Cheek  or  chin,  or  knuckle  or  knee, 
Where  shall  the  baby's  dimple  be? 
Where  shall  my  n'nger  fall  and  rest 
When  T  come  down  to  the  baby's  nestV 
Where  shall  my  finger's  touch  remain 
When  I  awaken  your  child  again? 

•*  Silent  the  mother  sat,  and  dwelt 

Long  in  the  sweetest  delay  of  choice ; 
And  then  by  her  baby's  side  she  knelt, 
And  sang  with  pleasant  voice : 

•  Not  on  the  limb.  0  angel  dear ! 
For  the  charm  with  its  youth  will  disappeat  i 
Not  on  the  cheek  shall  the  dimple  be, 
For  the  harbouring  smile  will  fade  and  flee ; 
But  touch  thou  the  chin  with  an  impress  deey 
And  my  baby  the  angel's  seal  shall  keep." 


IN  modern  times  we  use  the  word  miser  and  miserly,  only 
to  stigmatize  the  self-inflicted  poverty  of  the  man  who 
denies  himself  the  good  things  of  this  life  which  he  can 
well  afford  to  purchase,  but  will  not,  because  he  prefers 
keeping  his  wealth  in  store.  But  the  Latin  word  miser 
simply  means  poor  or  afflicted,  and  the  other  derivatives 
from  it — misery,  miserable,  &c.,  we  still  use  in  the  larger 
sense,  as  once  in  our  own  language  a  miser  meant  any  poor 
or  afflicted  person. 

We  are  to  point  out  some  of  the  physical  developments,  or 
rather  non-developments  of  the  man,  who,  as  Bishop  Herne 
describes  him,  "forthe  sake  of  gathering  what  he  will  never 
use,  and  adding  to  his  beloved  heaps,  will  forego  the  comforts, 
the  conveniences,  and  almost  the  necessaries  of  existence, 
and  voluntarily  submit,  all  his  days,  to  the  penances  and 
austerities  of  a  mendicant." 

Commence,  then,  by  observing  the  general  configuration 
of  the  man.  Let  him  stand  up,  and  look  at  him  attentively. 
Examine  the  length  and  general  largeness  of  the  body. 
In  early  and  middle  life,  a  person  of  these  tendencies  may 
be  of  at  least  middle  size,  staight  and  agile.  But  in  declin- 
ing years,  the  limbs,  especially  the  lower  ones,  become  con- 
tracted and  the  figure  dwarfish. 

We  know  not  whether  the  miser's  figure  in  Nicholas 
Nickleby  is  a  portrait,  but  a  gentleman  in  London,  whom 
we  shall  call  Mi.  Berno  Pudici,  might  have  sat  for  it.  or 


rather  stood;  for  it  is  a  full-length  figure,  arid  the  resem- 
blance is  most  striking  in  the  thin,  crooked  legs  and  con- 
tracted knees,  though  also  apparent  in  the  contour  of  the 
head  and  face.  This  Mr.  Berno  Pudici  counted  his  wealth 
by  hundreds  of  thousands ;  there  was  no  appearance  of 
stint  about  his  handsome  dwelling;  he  gave  away  many 
hundreds  of  pounds  every  year,  and  had  the  reputation  of 
being  one  of  the  most  munificent  Christians  in  England. 
Did  one  judge  him  a  man  of  naturally  niggardly  disposition 
only  because,  in  old  age,  he  became  personally  so  like 
Martin  Chuzzlewit?  No;  though  the  most  casual  observer, 
uninstructed  in  Physiognomy,  would  instinctively  have  so 
judged  him  from  his  appearance,  even  if  he  had  but  seen 
him  on  a  platform  announcing  a  subscription  of  five  hundred 
pounds.  But  a  friend  of  ours  happened  to  know  a  few  facts 
about  this  profuse  contributor  to  religious  institutions.  His 
house  betrayed  no  meanness,  because  in  early  life  he  had 
married  an  open-handed  lady,  who  kept  him  up  to  an  expen- 
diture suited  to  his  position.  He  gave  largely,  because  he 
had  in  early  life  made  it  a  rule  to  consecrate  a  certain 
portion  of  his  gains,  probably  the  tenth,  to  religious  and 
charitable  purposes.  But  this  was  as  much  a  calculation 
of  profit  and  loss  as  any  other  of  his  transactions.  He 
believed  most  firmly  that  the  Divine  blessing  had  rested, 
and  would  rest  on  his  affairs  through  his  doing  thus;  and 
as  matter  of  mere  self-interest  he  would  not  have  withheld 
the  stipulated  proportion.  But  he  took  care  to  get  his 
money's  worth  in  public  praise.  All  his  givings  were  in 
the  shape  of  subscriptions  to  societies;  and  rather  large 
sums  to  a  few  extensive  ones,  than  a  scattered  bounty  to 
many.  If  there  was  a  private  case  of  poverty  or  distress, 
it  was  no  use  applying  to  him.  In  matters  which  were  not 
to  appear  prominently  in  print,  he  was  often  heard  to 
grumble  that  he  had  to  pay ;  for,  in  truth,  people  seemed 
to  delight  in  bleeding  him.  More  than  once,  when  it  was 

416  MISERLY   MARKS.    • 

announced  that  Mr.  Pudici  had  promised  to  bear  such  and 
such  expenses,  the  old  gentleman  might  be  seen  fretting  and 
fuming  as  if  he  were  going  to  be  ruined,  and  saying  to 
those  around  him  that  he  had  promised  no  such  thing.  He 
was  a  singular,  well-marked  example  of  a  man,  at  heart 
a  miser,  and  carrying  the  tokens  of  it  on  his  person,  yet  so 
controlled  by  circumstances  that  he  obtained  and  delighted 
in  the  reputation  of  unusual  liberality. 

Nature  always  contracts  herself  when  she  would  avoid  an 
excess  of  liberality.  For  example,  when  it  rains  bountifully, 
all  the  vegetable  world  enlarges  and  increases,  so  that  the 
harvest  is  abundant.  A  dry  summer  is  stingy.  Vegetation 
shrinks  and  contracts  for  lack  of  rain,  and  nature  econo- 
mizes the  scanty  fluids  as  best  she  can  in  bringing  the 
grain  and  fruit  to  maturity.  A  similar  process  is  observed 
in  mankind.  There  are  men  full  of  sap,  their  bodies  well 
supplied  with  the  juices  of  life  in  all  departments :  like  a 
rainy  season,  the  life-giving  waters  largely  preponderate  in 
their  constitutions.  On  the  other  hand,  the  opposite  class 
exhibit  all  the  attributes  of  a  dry  season.  Parched  and 
meagre,  they  look  like  beings  whose  juices  have  dried  up 
within  them.  Thin,  dry  old  maids,  are  always  parsimoni- 
ous and  covetous,  mean  and  stingy.  Beware  of  trusting 
them;  they  live  in  single  unblessedness,  probably  because 
they  have  cheated  some  poor  young  man  of  his  heart,  and 
now  they  will  cheat  you  of  your  money  if  they  can. 

Miss  Margaret  Clephene  seventy-six  years  of  age, 
lives  with  several  cats  up  four  or  five  pair  of  stairs,  in  one 
of  the  old  streets  of  Edinburgh.  She  is  said  to  be  rich, 
but  she  lives  on  charity,  receiving  ten  pounds  a-year  from 
Trinity  Hospital.  The  accompanying  cut  is  from  a  drawing 
we  got  made  while  we  conversed  with  her.  Her  poor  old 
hands  were  dirty,  because  she  could  not  afford  soap  to  wash 
them.  Her  dress  was  miserably  poor,  but  she  has  bettei 
for  Sundays — the  cast-off  garments  of  a  relative.  Margaret 



C.  is  not,  in  one  respect  at  least,  like  the  old  maid  we  have 
described  in  this  article.  Margaret  C.'s  lover  jilted  her  for 
a  girl  with  more  money.  Such  is  often  the  more  imme- 
diate cause  of  covetousness  in  elderly  unmarried  females. 

Miss  Margaret  Clephne. 

It  is  impossible  for  a  man  possessing  plenty  of  nature's 
substance  in  his  body,  to  be  stingy  and  niggardly  in  his 
mental  character.  You  cannot  find  one — it  is  contrary  to 

A   figure   merely   deformed   or   dwarfed,   indicates  self- 



conceit;  but  it  is  the  stiff,  contracted,  drawn-together 
expression  of  limb  that  betokens  the  miser.  However 
observe  the  face  especially.  It  has  a  mean,  pinched-up 
appearance,  the  mouth  generally,  but  not  always,  small, 
and  the  lips  thin.  Still  more  particularly  examine  the 
eyes.  Abdominal  eyes  indicate  a  desire  to  live  high,  or 
rather,  an  anxiety  to  obtain  something  good  to  eat.  The 
man  addicted  to  gluttony  will  have  a  sleepy,  heavy  expres- 
sion, precisely  similar  to  the  eye  of  an  anaconda,  whose 
nature  is  to  stuff  to  repletion,  and  then  sleep  off  the  effects 
for  weeks  at  a  time.  Gormandizing  stultifies  and  stupe- 
fies the  brain  and  nerves;  this  dulls  and  deadens  the 
intellect,  and  the  process  is  betrayed  through  the  medium 
of  the  eyes.  In  the  eye  of  the  miser,  on  the  other  hand, 
there  is  a  dry  appearance  around  it,  and  a  fulness  beneath, 
with  a  peculiar  wrinkle  of  round  form. 

In  complexion  and  colour  the  same  saving  disposition 
may  be  observed.  Niggardly  persons  generally  have  little 
colour  in  their  faces.  They  are  like  pale,  dried  peaches, 
they  either  never  had  any  bloom,  or  it  has  departed,  yet 
they  may  never  have  been  visited  by  sickness.  Illness 
often  extracts  the  colour  from  lips  and  cheeks,  as  leeches 
suck  the  life-blood;  or  as  long  drought  absorbs  the  moisture 
of  the  earth,  causing  the  ground  to  crack  and  grow  parched 
and  pale,  the  bright  herbage  to  lose  its  green  tints  and 
fade  into  the  sere  brown.  So  the  droughty,  stingy,  mer- 
cenary, niggardly  spirit  in  man  or  woman  steals  away  the 
bloom  of  the  cheeks,  pallors  the  countenance,  blanches  the 
lips,  and  dries  the  eye.  Soul  and  body  are  cramped  alike; 
the  geniality  of  social  life  is  stolen  away,  and  all  the  traces 
of  open-hearted  generosity  have  disappeared  from  the 

In  this  cut,  representing  the  celebrated  miser,  John  Elwes, 
M.P.  for  Berkshire,  you  remark  the  features  above 
described.  He  inherited  the  mansion  and  estate  of  Stoke, 


in  Suffolkshire,  from  a  miserly  uncle,  whose  favour  he  won 
by  always  changing  his  ordinary  dress  for  a  meaner  one  be- 
fore reaching  the  house  when  he  went  to 
visit  him.  The  young  man  learned  to 
be  even  a  greater  niggard  than  his  uncle. 
His  public  position  as  a  Member  of  Par- 
liament required  some  appearance  of  re- 
spectability, and  it  seems  he  kept  a  pack 
of  hounds;  but  one  man-servant  daily 
milked  the  cows,  prepared  breakfast, 
saddled  the  horses,  unkennelled  the  John  Elwea. 
hounds,  conducted  them  to  the  chase, 
rubbed  down  the  horses  on  their  return,  laid  the  cloth, 
waited  the  dinner-table,  milked  the  cows  again,  and 
littered  the  horses  for  the  night;  yet  Mr.  Elwes  stigmatized 
this  man  as  an  idle  dog,,  who  wanted  wages  for  doing 
no  work.  To  save  fuel  in  winter,  he  would  walk  in  an  old 
greenhouse,  or  sit  in  the  kitchen;  would  collect  stray  chips 
and  straw,  or  endanger  his  limbs  by  climbing  for  a  crow's 
nest  to  make  a  fire.  When  he  had  to  travel,  he  rode  on 
horseback,  avoiding  all  turnpikes  and  public-houses;  feed- 
ing himself  on  hard  boiled  eggs  and  dry  crusts  which  he 
carried  with  him,  and  allowing  his  horse  only  the  grass 
that  grew  by  the  wayside.  Yet  he  sometimes  advanced 
large  sums  to  assist  his  friends;  sometimes  also  tried  his 
luck  at  gambling,  and  honourably  paid  if  he  lost  There 
was,  as  his  appearance  betokens,  somewhat  of  gentlemanly 
feeling  and  self-respect  about  this  niggard.  He  never 
married;  but  had  two  illegitimate  sons,  to  whom  he  be- 
queathed £500,000. 

Another,  and  a  much  more  degraded  character,  was  Daniel 
Dancer,  Esq.,  who  died  near  London,  in  1794,  five  years  after 
Elwes.  It  is  recorded  that,  during  his  last  illness,  Lady 
Tempest  accidentally  called  upon  him,  and  found  him 
lying  up  to  the  neck  in  an  old  s:i  :k,  without  even  a  shirt 



On  her  remonstrating,  he  said  that,  having  come  into  the 
world  without  a    shirt,  he   was  determined  to    go    out  of 

it  in  the  same  manner. 
When  she  begged  he 
would  have  a  pillow 
to  raise  his  head,  he 
ordered  his  servant  to 
bring  a  truss  of  hay  for 
the  purpose.  He  be- 
queathed his  house, 
with  land  worth  £500 
a-year  to  this  lady; 
and  when  her  brother 
took  possession  of  it  for 
her,he  found,  from  time 
to  time,  large  bowls 
filled  with  guineas  and 
half-guineas,  besides 
parcels  of  bank-notes 

stuffed  under  the  corners  of  old  chairs.  The  house  had  not 
been  repaired  for  half  a  century,  and  was  in  a  wretched 
condition.  Mr.  Dancer  generally  wore  a  girdle  of  hay  to 
keep  his  tattered  garments  together;  and  his  stockings  had 
been  so  darned  and  patched  that  scarcely  any  of  the  original 
could  be  seen;  but  in  cold  weather  they  were  covered  with 
ropes  of  hay,  which  served  for  boots.  Nevertheless,  Mr. 
Dancer  was  rigidly  upright  in  all  his  transactions,  and 
would  give  temporary  assistance  to  those  of  whom  he  had 
a  good  opinion  ;  always,  however,  expecting  interest  as  well 
as  repayment.  His  faithful  and  only  servant  fared  much 
better  than  his  master,  having  whatever  he  chose  to  eat 
and  drink,  and  a  good  bed  to  sleep  on.  Mr.  Dancer  had  a 
sister  of  temper  similar  to  his  own;  and  a  brother,  who 
survived  him,  was  said  to  be,  if  possible,  more  penurious. 
You  may  remark  that  all  over  the  face  the  wrinkles  are 

Daniel  Dancer,  a  miser  and  hermit 


short,  save  a  peculiar  and  well-marked  one  situated  under 
the  eye.  It  has  a  striking  fullness  and  clearness  of  develop- 
ment found  only  in  such  subjects,  forming  a  complete  semi- 
circle, yet  totally  different  from  the  fulness  which  marks 
those  persons  that  have  a  great  flow  of  language.  This 
round  and  very  distinct  furrow  is  not  inappropriately 
designated  the  miser's  wrinkle,  for  it  is  always  well- 
marked  in  such  subjects.  All  niggards  are  not  dishonest, 
as  we  have  seen,  above,  but  men  who  are  mean  in  their 
dealings,  and  prone  to  rascality  in  trade,  are  usually  thus 

The  characters  of  these  two  gentlemen  are  the  more 
remarkable,  because  this  excess  of  covetousness  is  not  so 
often  found  in  country  squires,  as  in  those  engaged  in 
trade  and  commerce.  And  it  is  worth  while  to  take  along 
with  this  remark,  the  fact  that  both  of  them  were  char- 
acterized by  the  integrity  which  in  those  days  was  expected 
from  men  in  their  position ;  also  that  their  only  deviations 
from  the  general  miserly  rule,  as  occasional  gambling  and 
hunting,  were  unlike  what  would  have  been  recorded  of 
men  whose  money  was  made  by  buying  and  selling. 

It  would  be  impossible  to  define  and  describe  all  the 
wrinkles  to  be  found  in  miserly  faces,  for  these  vary  accord- 
ing to  the  form,  or  combination  of  forms  found  in  each 
individual  case.  But  the  grand  distinctive  mark  of  mean, 
miserly  characters,  is  to  be  found  in  the  strong  rounding 
wrinkle  under  the  eye.  This  will  ever  signalize  the  face  of 
a  niggard,  as  the  union  jack  does  the  colours  of  a  British  man- 
of-war.  All  the  other  wrinkles  will  appear  to  be  of  an  un- 
defined character,  not  well  marked,  seeming  to  have  neither 
beginning  nor  ending,  but  dying  out  gradually  at  either 
extremity,  and  thus  continuing  all  over  the  face.  I  can 
liken  them  only  to  those  on  the  skin  of  an  old  potatoe, 
from  which  the  watery  juices  have  been  evaporated.  You 
know  how  the  rind  appears  in  undefined  wrinkles,  by 

422  MISERLY   MARKS.   ' 

which  I  mean  having  no  regularity,  yet  extending  all 
over  the  hull  or  skin.  Just  so  are  the  raisers;  no  regu- 
larity; some  here,  some  there,  some  deeper,  some  shallower; 
yet  marking  and  furrowing  the  entire  face  in  a  very  peculiar 
fashion,  not  to  be  mistaken  when  once  seen,  and  never  to  be 
forgotten.  The  miser,  therefore,  is  a  husky,  dry,  shrivelled, 
and  wrinkled  being,  precisely  like  a  dried  up  plant,  whose 
sap  and  juices  have  been  exhausted  by  a  burning  sun  or 
scorching  wind.  Like  causes  produce  like  effects.  The 
face  may  be  healthy,  but  if  there  are  those  short  irregular 
marks  all  about  it,  you  may  suspect  the  subject  of  being 
capable  of  mean  tricks  as  well  as  a  petty  economy.  Such  a 
man's  character  cannot  be  found  out  by  feeling  his  head, 
for  he  may  have  been  liberal  once,  and  this  state  is  per- 
petuated in  the  contour  of  the  skull,  which  continues  to 
indicate  such  trait  of  character.  But  the  face  changes  with 
the  habits,  and  there  you  may  read  the  marks  intelligently 
and  without  mistake. 

Sometimes,  but  not  often,  the  miserly  signs  appear  in 
early  life;  more  frequently  the  love  of  money  comes  in  to 
fill  the  place  of  some  other  disappointed  love,  or  to  furnish 
a  never-failing  source  of  pleasure  to  the  man  who  has 
exhausted  other  streams.  John  Foster  mentions,  as  a 
remarkable  instance  of  resolute  will,  a  young  man  of 
spendthrift  habits,  who  wasted  a  large  estate  in  dissolute 
pleasures,  and  then  sat  down  to  gaze  on  the  lands  he 
had  lost,  and  determine  to  possess  them  all  again.  Be- 
ginning to  earn  a  few  pence  by  whatever  work  he  could 
find,  regardless  of  its  meanness,  and  to  save  every  possible 
farthing,  he  succeeded  in  re-purchasing  his  estate,  and  died 
an  inveterate  miser.  Like  a  plant,  shrivelled  and  wrinkled 
for  lack  of  moisture,  would  that  once  full  and  open  face 
become  pinched,  and  parched,  and  wrinkled,  as  his  years 
advanced  and  his  stores  increased.  For  nature's  rules  are 
ever  true,  and  may  be  depended  upon.  She  shrinks  and 


shrivels  the  skin  of  the  face,  when  the  mind  and  disposition 
of  the  individual  has  become  close  and  contracted. 

Again,  some  persons  may  be  born  of  a  very  careful  and 
saving,  if  not  mean  and  sordid  disposition,  which  by  early 
care  and  education  may,  to  a  great  extent,  be  overcome. 
But  as  a  general  rule,  this  is  an  inveterate  mental  disease; 
and  especially  when  it  sets  in  towards  life's  decline,  and 
as  the  result  of  disappointment  in  something  else,  it  grows 
and  increases  to  the  end. 

"  Mammon's  close-linked  bonds  have  bound  him 
Self-imposed,  and  seldom  burst; 
Though  heaven's  waters  gushed  around  him, 
He  would  pine  with  earth's  poor  thirst." — MRS.  S.  J.  HALE. 

None  of  the  lower  animals  possess  the  above  distinctive 
marks  of  miserly  propensities,  except  perhaps  some  dogs 
which  have  wrinkled  faces — and  perhaps  this  is  rather 
stretching  the  point.  It  is  true  that  some  creatures  exhibit 
a  hungry  wrinkled  appearance,  but  this  is  owing  to  the 
illiberal  treatment  they  have  received  at  the  hand  of  man. 
Natural  history  makes  us  acquainted  with  the  habits  of 
several  provident  little  creatures,  that  lay  up  stores  for 
future  use,  but  we  do  not  read  of  any  that  deny  themselves 
what  is  needful  for  present  sustenance,  or  that  accumulate 
except  for  a  certainly  approaching  time  of  need. 


ALL  nature  tends  to  harmony,  and  the  absence  of  harmony 
is  simply  produced  by  certain  unequal  conditions  of  nature. 
When  the  atmosphere  is  set  in  terrible  motion  by  heat  or 
cold,  or  the  electric  currents  being  out  of  balance,  there 
is  a  want  of  evenness  or  repose  in  the  effect,  generating 
in  some  degree  or  other  storm,  confusion,  and  discord.  So 
when  the  parents  are  thin-faced,  large-brained,  lank  and 
tall,  their  children  are  generally  fretful,  short-lived,  and 
have  large  heads.  They  are  disjointed  in  mind,  so  to 
speak,  because  their  parents  from  their  very  resemblance 
in  approximate  qualities  did  not,  though  outwardly  alike, 
harmonize  in  reality,  one  with  the  other.  To  illustrate  the 
meaning  of  this  more  forcibly.  All  the  angles  or  prominent 
points  of  disposition  and  character  in  the  one,  stood  out 
constantly  opposed  or  in  contact  with  their  exact  duplicate 
angles  and  prominences  in  the  other,  and  to  use  an  apt, 
though  technical  expression,  never  could  be  got  to  dovetail 
properly  together. 

Suppose  twenty  singers  all  join  in  singing  "  Home,  sweet 
Home,"  or  "  Auld  Langsyne,"  and  one  voice  puts  all  awry 
by  being  a  half  tone  above  or  below  its  part,  there  -is  at 
once  an  absence  of  sweetness,  because  harmony  is  wanting. 

A  beautiful  and  well-balanced  child  is  only  the  effect 
of  loving  parents,  and  the  happy  ante-natal  surroundings 
of  the  mother. 


One  parent  being  of  a  round,  full,  and  vital  build,  and 
the  other  being  of  a  tall,  slim,  and  nervous  make,  their 
offspring  in  all  probability  are,  or  will  be,  well-organized 
and  loving  children,  because  the  combination  of  the  parent- 
age, just  described,  conspires  to  produce  love  between  them- 
selves, and  loving,  healthy,  and  well-organized  children. 

When  fierce,  consuming  lightnings  dart  and  flash  across 
the  weeping  heavens,  at  each  volley  of  the  Omnipotent's 
artillery,  causing  the  dreaded  tones  to  reverberate  from 
mountain  tops  to  vales,  there  is  clearly  indicated  a  want 
of  balance  in  the  electrical  forces  of  the  atmosphere. 

When  the  little  child  totters  along  over  the  carpet,  a 
straw  may  trip  the  little  "  toddler,"  and  he  or  she  may 
be  thrown  out  of  balance.  A  slight  offence  causes  a  whole 
family  to  quarrel,  and  inharmony,  to  use  no  stronger  word, 
is  the  consequence.  Where  the  forces  are  strong,  and  a 
pure  and  soul-deep  affinity  exists  between  man  and  wife, 
powerful  incentives  to  quarrel  may  arise,  but  peace  will 
prevail  and  still  reign  in  the  ascendant;  but  where  two 
of  the  same  hot  temper  and  nervous  build  are  united  in 
wedlock,  there  will  be  disagreement,  and  unbalanced  families 
are  the  ultimate  result.  To  produce  or  retain  balance  or 
harmony  in  families  or  offspring,  only  such  persons  should 
marry  as  can  see  a  difference  in  shape  of  features,  body, 
and  general  physiognomy.  Slight  things  and  conditions 
produce  balance,  and  other  feeble  and  wrong  variations 
produce  inharmony. 

All  faces  long  from  the  top  of  the  forehead  to  the  bottom 
of  the  chin  and  very  narrow,  are  certain  evidences  of 
unbalanced  minds. 

This  face  of  David  Duncan  is  entirely  out  of  harmony, 
and  he  would  find  few  of  mankind  with  whom  he  would 
wish  to  become  familiar,  or  enter  freely  into  sympathy 
with.  Were  his  face  more  full  on  the  sides,  it  would 
enable  him  the  more  completely  to  be  a  "man  of  the 



world,"  by  entering  into  universal  brotherhood  of  feeling 
more  easily  than  a  long  slim  face  is  able  to  do.  The  face 
of  David  Duncan  denoted  him  cold,  unsocial,  distant,  and 
of  feeble  constitution,  whereas  Washington  Irving  was  one 
of  those  approachable  and  social  men  who  loved  and  was 
beloved  by  those  who  knew  him.  History  says  he  never 

David  Duncan,  Hermit  of  Michigan. 

Washington  Irving. 

had  an  enemy.  His  face  is  just  wide  enough  for  its  length, 
so  to  speak,  that  is,  of  "  good  proportions."  When  we  see 
a  house  four  stories  high,  and  twenty-two  or  twenty-four 
feet  wide,  like  the  one  on  Fifth  Avenue  in  New  York, 
opposite  Central  Park,  we  are  forced  to  exclaim,  how 
much  out  of  proportion  seems  the  fearful  structure,  and 
how  dangerous  it  looks.  The  important  feature  of  this 
otherwise  well-finished  and  costly  mansion  is  ihharmoni- 
ousness.  Often  in  observing  men,  we  see  four-story  faces 
which  are  three  times  higher  than  wide,  and  they  serve 
to  jar  on  our  understandings  while  we  view  them.  Their 
predelections  are  to  abstruse  thinking,  and  in  some  things 

HARMONY  OF  THE  HUMAN  PACK.          427 

they  may  be  very  sound  and  vigorous,  while  in  the  majority 
they  are  very  weak. 

To  be  in  harmony  should  be  our  constant  aim,  not  only 
within  ourselves,  but  with  all  the  world.  This  condition 
of  body  and  mind  is  a  great  promoter  of  longevity.  When 
the  head  and  brain  are  well  balanced,  that  is,  the  head 
not  too  large  for  the  bodily  support,  and  the  body  not 
too  strong  in  its  vital  powers  for  the  size  of  brain  it 
supports,  then  there  is  harmony  between  the  brain  or 
mental  power,  and  the  body  or  physical,  and  old  age  is 
more  likely  to  be  attained  by  such  organisms  than  in 
unequal  systems.  A  machine  which  runs  true,  each  wheel 
smoothly  performing  its  part,  will  last  a  long  time  and  be 
productive  of  much  good.  If  one  wheel  jars  or  is  out  of 
proportion  to  the  rest,  the  machine  will  accomplish  very 
little  useful  work  and  soon  wear  out.  So  it  is  with  an 
individual.  If  each  organ  is  in  harmony  and  proportion 
to  the  entire  faculties  of  mind  and  body,  the  result  is 
usefulness  and  long  life.  We  should  be  surprised  to  look 
at  a  very  old  man  and  find  a  want  of  harmony  in  his 
body.  If  such  cases  do  exist,  they  are  exceptional,  and 
only  prove  the  general  law  the  more  true. 

The  great  object  of  life  should  be  to  develop  harmonious 
offspring,  and  this  same  condition  within  all  mankind.  To 
know  how  to  produce  this  pleasant  state  within  ourselves  is 
a  knowledge,  if  well  used,  which  possesses  the  key  to  all 
true  happiness.  When  we  speak  kindly  to  others,  we  not 
merely  please  them,  but  give  ourselves  a  conscious  feeling 
that  we  have  done  right,  which  kindles  the  fire  of  human 
love  in  our  bosoms,  with  which  we  burn  up  the  stubble  of 
our  last  crop  of  hate.  If  we  speak  to  another  harshly, 
irritation  is  produced,  Which  not  only  throws  us  out  of 
peace  with  the  person  spoken  to,  but  with  ourselves  also. 

We  should  never  harm  a  worm  or  bird,  and  should  never 
ueedlessly  hurt  s-ny  ot  the  living  things  of  earth. 


"  The  coward  wretch,  whose  hand  and  heart 

Can  bear  to  torture  aught  below, 
Is  ever  first  to  quail  and  start 
At  slightest  pain  or  equal  foe." 

The  shooting  of  robins,  larks,  sparrows,  and  thrushes,  or 
any  of  the  hundreds  of  harmless  birds,  which  so  sweetly 
trill  their  musical  notes  in  the  air  of  mountain  or  valley, 
and  break  up  earth's  monotony  by  their  lively  presence,  is 
not  only  a  pitiful  sight,  but  is  destroying  the  very  instru- 
ments intended  for  the  promotion  and  encouragement  of 
melody  and  harmony  within  ourselves.  Their  mellifluous 
voices  are  attuned  by  nature  to  be  in  unison  with  the 
soul  of  our  higher  manhood.  Then  why  deal  the  deathblow 
to  that  we  need  to  fraternize  with  our  natural  instincts? 

Should  we  meet  with  loss  of  friends  or  property,  we 
should  not  for  a  moment  permit  our  tranquillity  to  forsake 
us.  All  individuals  who  live  to  an  advanced  age  are  pacific 
in  their  natures.  Nations  are  like  persons.  If  they  are  in 
turmoil  and  contentions,  their  days  are  shortened  thereby. 
Polemics  and  logomachy  should  be  most  studiously  avoided 
to  promote  tranquillity  of  mind  and  amicable  nationalities. 
Let  nothing  ruffle  your  temper.  Cultivate  patience,  as  it 
will  promote  your  highest  happiness  here  as  well  as  here- 

Harmony  in  music  is  succession  of  sounds  pleasing  to  the 
ear,  so  combined  that  one  sound  fully  agrees  with  all  others 
made  at  the  same  time.  Where  the  properties,  relations, 
and  dependencies  combine  in  a  pleasing  manner  to  the  ear, 
it  is  called  harmony.  The  music  of  the  spheres  was  the 
harmony  which  the  ancients  imagined  to  be  produced  by 
the  accordant  movements  of  the  celestial  orbs. 

Melody  in  music  differs  from  harmony  in  this  manner. 
Harmony  is  pleasing  sounds  agreeing  with  each  other  like 
the  several  parts  of  a  tune,  and  melody  denotes  the  pleasing 
alternation  and  variety  of  musical  and  measured  sounds  as 


they  succeed  each  other  in  a  single  verse  or  strain.  Melody 
consists  in  a  succession  of  single  tones,  and  harmony  is  a 
succession  of  chords.  Music  rarely  fails  to  produce  a  sooth- 
ing effect  on  the  mind  of  man — 

"  Lulled  with  sounds  of  sweetest  melody." — SHAKESPEARE. 

Harmony  is  the  just  adaptation  of  parts  to  each  other  in 
any  system  or  combination  of  things,  or  in  things  intended 
to  form  a  connected  whole,  as  the  harmony  of  the  universe. 

A  man,  to  be  a  good  citizen,  should  be  in  harmony  with 
his  family  and  the  whole  list  of  his  acquaintances,  and 
particularly  his  neighbour.  Be  consistent  and  agreeing  in 
your  nature,  and  discord  will  fade  away  like  friends  when 
adversity  drops  her  mantle  upon  you.  Nothing,  in  our 
belief,  can  produce  such  a  fine  feeling  and  so  completely 
harmon.ze  a  family  as  vocal  music. 

"  The  harmony  of  things 
An  well  as  sounds  from  discord  spings."— DENHAM. 

The  harmonious  face  is  a  study  like  a  smooth,  running 
river  or  placid  lake,  pleasing  to  behold,  not  a  ripple  or 
wavelet  to  be  seen.  Discordant  faces  stand  in  relation  to 
harmonious  faces  as  the  braying  of  an  ass  does  to  the  sweet 
tones  of  a  flute.  The  face  which  would  present  to  us  such 
pleasure,  that  we  would  feel  in  the  vicinity  of  happiness 
and  cherish  good- will  towards  others,  must  contain  a  decided 
expression  of  harmony.  The  calm  and  repose  which  accom- 
pany such  is  like  a  quiet  summer  day — genial  and  com- 
placent—  the  atmosphere  fragrant,  full  of  everything 
inviting,  and  impregnated  Tith  contentment. 

The  being  possessing  harmony  is  never  an  envious  person. 
There  is  nothing  on  earth  more  precious  than  harmony.  It 
never  kills,  pilfers,  or  falsifies,  and  is  full  of  hope  and  cheer- 
ful contentment.  It  commands  respect,  gives  one  the 
power  to  perform  the  duties  of  life  well,  and  draws  around 
ine  possessor  sentiments  that  may  cheer  the  heait  of 


millions.     It  sheds  a  halo  of  fondest  recollections  on  tho 
weary  pathway  of  life. 

To  be  attractive  and  beloved  by  the  world  is  one  of  the 
best  proofs  and  testimonials  of  a  well-balanced  condition  of 
mind,  and  nothing  gives  so  much  power  to  a  speaker  as 
harmony.  Good  feeling  is  like  a  summer  day.  Oh  how 
delightful!  It  is  pleasing  to  everyone.  So  it  is  with  the 
man  or  woman  who  bears  a  large  amount  of  harmony. 
"  What  a  nice  speaker:  I  like  him;  he  is  splendid,"  are  the 
expressions  used  in  regard  to  such.  Any  man  who  lives 
much  in  the  mind  of  the  world,  and  who  gives  to  the  world 
pleasant  recollections,  must  be  possessed  of  large  concord 
and  harmony,  and,  to  be  an  attractive  person,  one  requires 

To  be  a  good  musician,  requires  that  the  whole  qualities 
of  your  mind  and  body  be  in  perfect  agreement.  A  good 
speaker  needs  it.  To  succeed  in  the  enjoyment  of  this  life 
it  is  necessary;  and  an  entire  book  could  be  written  on  the 
beauties  of  harmony.  Heaven  is  harmony,  and  hell  is 
discord,  and  the  Devil  is  the  irritator.  There  is  nothing 
like  contentment  to  produce,  and  discontentment  to  decrease 

The  best  construction  of  harmony  is  where  all  the  elements 
of  one's  constitution  are  fully  blended  into  one  grand  whole. 
What  gives  the  ocean  its  billows  and  sound?  The  com- 
motion is  caused  by  the  irritating  effects  of  the  wind. 
What  produces  the  uneven  surface  of  the  earth?  The 
boiling  and  seething  tires  below. 

The  signs  of  harmony  in  the  face  are  that  one  part  is  not 
too  prominent  or  too  much  sunken  for  good  proportion  with 
the  other  parts.  Well-defined  and  even  features  are  marks 
by  which  the  mind's  balance  can  be  determined.  Every- 
thing must  be  well  proportioned  and  well  rounded  to  give 
natural  harmony.  It  is  an  easy  matter  to  read  the 
harmonious  person.  There  is  so  much  in  his  bearing  to  tell 


its  power.     Where  we  find  a  face  all  hollows  and  wrinkles, 
or  too  fat  and  smooth,  it  savour?  of  inharmony. 

Ta  have  full  grain  requires  a  good  season,  pleasant 
weather,  rains,  and  sunshine.  So  it  is  with  man  possessing 
fulness,  for  harmony  implies  an  equal  fulness  in  every  depart- 
ment. Now,  to  produce  good  full  grain,  also  requires  good 
soil  on  which  to  grow  and  good  seed  to  grow  from,  with  plea- 
sant surroundings  to  bring  it  to  maturity.  So  an  harmonious 
person  requires  the  same  conditions.  To  produce  fulness 
requires  healthy  parents,  and  proper  and  pleasant  surround- 
ings to  develop  the  germ,  and  to  maintain  this  condition  it 
requires  peace,  joy,  and  hope;  they  being  the  necessary 
accompaniments.  We  have  thus  very  much  the  means  in 
our  own  hands  to  produce  harmony  or  discord. 

We  would  now  make  a  few  remarks  on  music.  As  music 
is  simply  the  result  of  harmony  of  organization,  so  it  can  be 
consistently  treated  under  this  head.  Harmony  of  all  the 
forces  in  man  is  the  producer  of  melody,  and  music  is 
nothing  but  successive  melodious  sounds  in  harmony 
with  others  made  at  the  same  time.  -Jenny  Lind.  Cannisaa, 
Parepa  Rosa,  and  Lucca  have  harmonious  faces  in  a  high 
degree,  and  they  are  the  greatest  singers  of  the  age.  Having 
harmony  in  themselves,  they  can  give  it  out.  Where  it  is 
entirely  absent,  a  person  can,  in  no  wise,  give  it  forth. 
Those  who  have  no  harmony  in  their  structure  cannot  give 
out  the  article  to  others.  Harmonious  faces  succeed  in 
capturing  the  hearts  of  thousands  by  their  sweetness.  No 
woman  ever  travelled  in  America  who  had  so  many  admirers 
as  Jenny  Lind. 

A  person  possessing  the  constituent  parts  of  the  body  in 
balance,  by  the  proper  adjustment  of  all  the  parts,  is 
capable  of  the  highest  and  most  captivating  music.  Lowell 
Mason,  of  Boston,  is  a  splendid  type  of  this ;  whilst 
Chiokering,  the  inventor  of  the  Chickering  piano,  is  also 
of  musical  make. 


The  Germans  are  noted  for  their  musical  abilities, 
Beethoven,  Mozart,  Handel,  Bach,  and  Hayden.  were  all 
full  and  well  balanced.  Hence  the  origin  of  their  soul- 
fltirring  music. 

There  are  three  kinds  or  parts  of  music, — the  soul,  the 
science,  and  the  performance.  Jenny  Lind  seems  to  have 
had  the  whole  three  parts  in  a  high  degree.  It  is  the  soul 
of  music,  so  to  speak,  which  captures  and  entrances  more 
than  all  the  others.  Ole  Bull  has  a  face  of  perfect  harmony, 
and  he  has  said  that  when  playing  one  of  his  most  heart- 
touching  pieces,  he  has  felt  it  more  than  his  hearers. 
Paganini  had  a  thin  face,  yet  it  was  well  proportioned,  and 
his  perfection  of  nature  drew  itself  out  on  his  skilful  bow. 

What  on  earth  can  so  fully  touch  the  sympathies  of  man 
as  some  plaintive  song,  sung  with  heartfelt  pathos.  Even 
the  beast  has  been  moved  by  its  charming  power.  Our 
churches,  knowing  well  its  talismanic  influence,  use  it  with 
full  effect.  Public  meetings  and  private  family  circles 
alike  claim  its  aid.  Theatres  and  all  places  of  amusement 
pay  high  to  secure  its  effect,  and  every  house  is  lonely 
without  the  power  of  this  grand^equalizer. 

When  the  low,  melifluous,  pliant  notes  waft  across  some 
quiet  river  at  evening's  mellow  hour,  what  mortal  so  poorly 
organized  that  his  heart  beats  not  wilder  in  his  breast  at 
the  sounds,  as  each  air  wavelet  assures  him  over  and  over 
again,  that  his  soul  feeds  on  the  perfection  evolved  by 

At  no  time  has  our  soul  risen  higher  in  ambitious  aims, 
than  when  the  tones  of  sweetest  music  thrilled  each  fibre 
of  our  body.  Often  in  such  moments  have  our  aspirations 
for  great  good  bounded  higher  than  meridian  sun,  and 
carried  judgment  with  them,  and  then!  oh,  then!  we  have 
felt  as  if  melody  had  lifted  our  soul  away  from  earth  to  all 
the  bliss  of  heaven. 

?ope  has  aptly  unfolded  music's  charms  in  the  following 


beautiful  lines,  which,  we  think,  we  cannot  do  better 
close  our  present  subject  with: — 

"  By  nvuic,  minds  an  equal  temper  know, 
Nor  swell  too  high,  nor  ever  sink  too  low; 
If  in  the  breast  tumultuous  joys  arise, 
Music  her  soft  assuasive  voice  applies; 
Or,  when  the  soul  is  pressed  with  cares, 
Exalts  her  in  enlivening  airs. 
Warriors  she  fires  with  animated  sounds, 
Pours  balm  into  the  bleeding  lover's  wound*  • 
Melancholy  lifts  her  head, 
Morpheus  rouses  from  his  bed, 
Sloth  unfolds  her  arms  and  wakes, 
List'ning  envy  drops  her  snakes ; 
Intestine  war  no  more  our  passions  wage, 
And  giddy  factious  bear  away  their  rago  I n 


LUDWIG  VON  BEETHOVEN,  a  distinguished  Prussian  musical  com- 
poser, in  whose  face  is  expressed  the  harmony  of  sound  in  the  superlative 
degree  ;  as  he  was  never  married  his  whole  soul  seemed  devoted  to  the 
development  of  the  science  and  practice  of  mellifluous  concord. 


THERE  is  a  sex  of  the  soul  as  well  as  of  the  body.  Every 
living  creature  is  masculine  or  feminine  in  its  inward 
nature  as  well  as  in  its  outward  form ;  and  not  seldom  is 
it  found  that  a  masculine  spirit  dwells  in  a  woman, — a 
feminine  one  in  a  man,  and  in  every  case  the  configuration, 
especially  of  the  facial  features,  will  surely  indicate  the 
fact  to  the  attentive  mind.  A  large  mouth,  a  beard,  a 
strong  nose,  powerful  chin,  broad  forehead,  and  prominent 
bones  are  characteristic  signs  of  the  masculine.  A  small, 
straight  nose,  well  cut  mouth,  rounded  chin,  moderately 
wide  and  receding  forehead,  smooth  skin,  the  adipose  tissue 
filling  in  over  the  bones,  and  well  rounding  all,  are  forms 
recognized  as  feminine,  and  if  observed  in  a  man,  will  indi- 
cate his  gentle,  soft,  and  yielding  nature.  So  of  other  parts 
of  the  body.  A  man  with  narrow  shoulders  and  large  hips 
has  to  a  certain  extent  the  female  form,  and  his  character 
will  correspond.  The  Deader  will  notice  the  facial  expressions 
of  men  who  resemble  John  Summer-field,  or  Milton  the  poet 
John  Summerfield  was  called  the  beardless  boy  by  a  sexton 
of  Boston,  when  he  first  appeared  as  a  preacher  in  America: 
the  fine  feminine  expression  of  his  loving  face  unmistak- 



ably  indicated  the  soul  within.  But  observe  a  woman 
wtio,  besides  the  features  we  have  described  as  masculine, 
exhibits  very  broad  shoul- 
ders, and  you  will  find  she 
partakes  largely  of  her 
father's  character,'  or  that 
of  her  grandfather  on  her 
father's  side  of  the  house, 
and  consequently  has  mas- 
culine traits  of  character. 
Such  a  woman  often  says 
to  herself — perhaps  she 
dares  to  speak  it  aloud — • 
"  1  wish  I  were  a  man." 
She  feels,  if  she  does  not 
utter  that  great  principle 
within,  which  looks  out 
unmistakably  from 
face,  "  I  feel  my  superior 
strength,  and  wish  that  the 
customs  of  society  would 

permit  me  to  assume  my  natural  sphere  in  life;  to  be  occu- 
pied as  men  are,  in  heavier,  coarser,  and  more  rigorous 
employment;  to  undertake  duties,  cares,  and  responsibilities 
that  would  fully  call  out  and  satisfy  my  pent-up  soul. 
Although  I  am  a  woman,  I  have  the  ardour,  judgment,  and 
reason  of  a  well-sexed  man."  Such  has  been  the  thought  of 
many  a  woman,  whose  strong  features  and  masculine  build 
betray  her  dispositions  whether  she  expresses  them  or  not. 

Can  we  find  any  cause  for  the  contrariety  which  some- 
times occurs  between  the  sex  of  the  body  and  that  of  the 
soul  ?  What  gave  to  one  woman  a  large  nose,  strong 
mouth,  broad  forehead,  masculine  chin,  and  rough-lined 
features ;  while  her  sister,  who  has  been  reared  in  the  same 
family  circle,  with  the  same  surrounding  influences,  has  a 

The  Feminine  Face — 
Kev.  Johu  Summer-field. 



fine  rounded,  feminine-looking  face,  her  head  and  body 
delicately  moulded,  her  skin  smooth,  all  her  features  be- 
speaking in  their  own  soft,  quiet  language,  that  here  are 
womanly  sympathies,  keen  perceptions,  quick  sensitiveness, 
love,  faith,  imagination, — all  the  attributes  of  true  woman- 
hood. The  first  is  her  father's  girl.  She  loves  to  drive 

team,  if  rural  life  be  her 
portion.  Often  she  will 
be  seen  with  the  dog, 
chasing  the  cows  at 
night;  or  she  is  away 
in  the  early  morning 
climbing  the  mountain- 
top  to  halloo  to  a  friend 
on  another  summit ; 
romping  through  fields 
and  forests  at  her  own 
wild  will;  and  impatient 
of  nothing  so  much  as 
of  inactivity.  To  sit 
still  and  sew  is  to  her  a 
dreary '  imprisonment ; 

the  duties  of  housework  are  drudgery;  her  true  great  man- 
hood loves  no  restraint,  dictation,  or  parental  care.  These 
two  girls  have  been  distinguished  by  this  difference,  both 
of  feature  and  character,  from  their  earliest  years.  The 
feminine  attributes  were  not  given  to  the  one,  or  taken 
from  the  other  by  any  process  of  education  or  influence 
since  firs!  they. drew  the  breath  of  life;  and  so  we  are  shut 
up  to  the  conclusion  that  some  controlling  influences  in 
their  mother's  pregnancy  have  set  the  mark  on  their  char- 
acter, and  stamped  their  whole  being,  the  one  for  one  course 
of  life,  the  other  for  the  opposite. 

Doubtless,  while  a  child  is  in  utero,  the  mother  may  exert 
an  all-powerful  influence  over  its  character,  and  thus  muulj 

The  Masculine  Face— Miss  Eos*  Bonheur, 
the  noted  artist  of  France. 


its  Physiognomy.  Many  mothers  in  our  land,  understand- 
ing this  principle,  procure  the  portrait  of  some  noble-minded 
man,  hang  it  in  their  room,  look  at  it  often,  and  call  to 
mind  the  deeds  of  him  whom  it  represents,  thus  marking 
their  child  more  or  less  with  the  like  spirit  and  features. 
Thousands  could  do  the  same,  if  they  recognized  the  prin- 
ciple, and  possessed  the  faith  and  patience  requisite  for 
working  it  out.  Suppose  a  mother,  when  three  months 
pregnant,  or  after  the  sex  of  her  child  was  established, 
should  place  before  her  view  the  likeness  of  a  boy,  and 
fixing  her  mind  steadily  on  the  picture,  with  an  earnest 
and  believing  desire  that  the  child  she  then  carried  should 
be  similar  to  that  boy;  then,  if  it  proved  a  female,  there 
would  probably  be  considerable  resemblance  to  the  other 
sex,  and  as  the  girl  developed  into  womanhood,  her  Physi- 
ognomy would  appear  masculine,  and  her  whole  nature 
possessed  of  much  of  that  vigour  that  belongs  to  manhood. 
This  is  the  manner  in  which  many  children  are  charac- 
terized for  life;  and  mothers  cannot  too  earnestly  consider 
these  principles,  or  too  carefully  apply  them  for  the  benefit 
of  unborn  generations. 

Pleasant  surroundings  for  an  expectant  mother  are  of 
immense  value  to  her  offspring;  whereas,  if  disagreeable 
people  crowd  about  her,  or  any  deformity  is  daily  obtruded 
on  her  notice,  a  misshapen  child  may  be  produced  in  the 
latter  case;  and  in  the  former,  a  sourness  of  temper  that 
no  future  influences  can  counteract 

Some  children  have  something  both  of  the  look  and 
manner  of  old  people,  in  consequence  of  the  mother's  having 
been  much  in  the  society  of  some  aged  person  who  made 
a  strong  impression  on  her.  And  as  the  features  and 
manners,  so  the  tastes  of  the  future  man  or  woman  may 
be  greatly  influenced,  if  not  entirely  formed  by  impressions 
made  on  the  mind  of  the  mother  previous  to  the  birth.  A 


single  impression,  indeed,  will  not  often  avail  much  in  the 
formation  either  of  feature  or  character,  unless  it  be  sudden 
and  vivid,  as  in  the  case  of  fright;  to  prove  powerful  and 
lasting,  they  must  be  frequent  or  continuous  for  montha 
A  happy  home,  an  agreeable  partner,  cheerful  company, 
fine  paintings,  music,  and  well-read  books,  will  conduce  to 
give  the  child  harmony  both  of  mind  and  bodily  feature, — 
it  will  prevent  idiotcy,  and  ennobie  the  nature  of  the 
unborn  homo. 

There  are  people  who  have  features  partly  male  and 
partly  female.  Such  persons  exhibit  phases  of  character 
seemingly  contradictory.  There  are  few  that  they  can  love, 
but  those  few  they  love  devotedly.  They  will  generally  be 
found  sensitive,  ambitious,  and  passionately  fond  of  music. 
But  where  sex  of  soul  as  well  as  body  is  strongly  marked, 
we  perceive  the  attraction  and  repulsion  that  characterizes 
other  forces  of  nature.  Individuals  strongly  marked  as 
masculine  are  repelled  by  masculinity  in  others  of  the 
opposite  sex,  but  are  attracted  to  the  soft  and  gentle  natures. 
A  large,  coarse  woman  will  be  attracted  to  a  man  whose 
features  bespeak  a  feminine  soul;  and  vice  versa.  So  a 
thoroughly  manly  man  seldom  fancies  an  amazon;  but  a 
soft  fellow  adores  a  woman  of  masculine  character.  One 
seems  to  contain  the  positive,  the  other  the  negative;  and 
according  to  the  well-known  law,  two  positives  or  two 
negatives  repel  each  other;  whereas  a  negative  attracts  and 
is  attracted  by  a  positive.  This  attraction  between  the 
positive  and  negative  may  be  observed  any  day  in  large 
families.  Where  there  are  many  to  choose  among,  the  two 
brothers,  tr  two  sisters,  or  brother  and  sister,  that  draw 
together  in  the  closest  love  and  confidential  friendship,  are 
never  characters  of  like  strength  or  similar  temper,  but 
always  contrasts.  The  strong  natures  are  apt  to  quarrel 
with  e&.sh  other,  and  so  are  the  weak  ones;  but  a  rough 


nature  and  a  gentle  one  draw  close  together.  This  law 
of  nature  ought  to  be  well  understood,  and  respectfully 
obe}7ed  by  persons  contracting  marriage.  Considerations 
of  interest  or  convenience  will  prove  a  poor  substitute 
for  the  suitability  that  is  found  in  nature. 

Egl>ert— Kiog  of  tho  West  Sairom,  first  monarch  of  all  England, 


THIS,  of  all  subjects,  is  the  one  which  demands  at  our  hands 
the  closest  and  most  scrutinizing  investigation.  In  order 
to  fathom  its  depths  by  logical  sequence,  we  must  turn  our 
attention  to  natural  phenomena,  First,  the  question  has 
been  asked  immemorially,  "  What  are  the  constituent  signs 
of  phj'sical  strength?"  And  need  we  state  here  that  the 
answers  in  almost  every  instance  have  been  more  obscure 
than  accurate.  In  tracing  this  important  question  on 
scientific  grounds  to  its  base,  we  cull  our  experience  from 
close  observation  and  years  of  unremitting  labour.  Not 
the  labour  of  books  in  its  entirety,  but  that  of  personal 
inspection,  passed  amid  the  mineral,  animal,  and  vegetable 
kingdoms.  Indeed,  if  we  would  study  nature's  laws,  we 
must  drink  from  nature's  cup,  otherwise  our  knowledge  in 
a  great  measure  will  be  merely  superficial,  and  wanting  in 

For  all  that  we  learn  of  character,  science,  or  art  through 


books,  mother  Nature  is  our  only  re-modeller,  in  point  of 
fact  our  true  teacher,  and  to  her  we  must  fly  if  we  would 
attain  that  true  wisdom  which  the  marks  of  time  can 
neither  mar  nor  obliterate. 

Having,    then,  got   thus   far    with    our  introductory,    it 


remains  for  us  now  to  prove  that  our  sequence  is  not  only 
logical,  but  based  firmly  on  that  surest  of  all  foundations — 

Now,  in  order  to  deduce  proofs  of  what  we  have  endea- 
voured to  advance,  we  take  up  the  first  point  of  our 
assertion,  and  one  of  the  most  useful  of  all  mineral 
productions,  viz.,  granite.  This  rock  has  been  apparently 
designed  by  nature  to  enjoy  a  high  and  lasting  reputation 
among  minerals.  In  texture  it  is  harder  than  soap-stone 
or  slate,  and  consequently  more  durable,  if  not  more  flexible 
in  its  construction.  The  physiognomical  differences  of 
granite,  too,  compared  with  shale,  slate,  sand,  chalk,  lime, 
coal,  or  any  ui  the  softer  materials  of  rock,  are  in  nature 
the  most  striking.  It  possesses  an  extremely  rough  surface 
indeed,  and  so  unlike  the  minerals  to  which  we  have  alluded, 
that  the  contrast  is  great  and  wonderful. 

Without  entering  further  into  the  appearances  and  endur- 
ance of  granite,  we  next  take  up  the  diamond,  the  most 
valuable  of  all  mineral  substances,  and  the  hardest  and 
strongest  of  all  rocky  materials.  This  latter,  until  it  is  cut 
into  ornamental  shape,  possesses,  like  its  predecessors,  a 
rough  and  uncouth  exterior.  Also  is  it  thus  with  quartz- 
crystal  and  spar.  These  last  productions  of  the  mineral 
kingdom  bear  a  glass-like  propensity  of  texture,  and  are 
equally  hard,  though  consisting  of  sharp  projections  which, 
with  their  smooth  planes,  give  them  more  of  a  rough  and 
broken  appearance. 

Therefore,  laying  aside  the  constituent  parts  of  the 
mineral  kingdom  for  the  present,  having  first  adduced 
enough  of  facts  therefrom  to  explain  and  work  out  our 
deductions,  we  may  now  enter  upon  the  vegetable  world, 
and  unfold  other  evidences  as  the  truer  signs  of  Physical 
Strength.  The  monarch  of  vegetable  life,  then,  is  well 
understood  to  be  the  oak,  and  a  right  regal  tree  indeed  is 
this  gnarled  and  vigorous  member  of  the  woody  family, 


shooting  high  and  wide  of  its  compeers  in  brake  as  in  wood- 
land. Note  its  rough  and  wonderful  massiveness  compared 
with  the  beech,  or  the  pine,  or  the  ash;  contrast  its  hard- 
ness with  the  smooth  poplar  or  the  graceful  willow,  and 
yuu  are  compelled  at  once  to  acknowledge  that  it  is  by  far 
the  most  useful,  if  not  the  strongest  and  hardest  of  all  vege- 
table productions. 

Thus  step  by  step  we  proceed  with  our  logical  sequences 
until  we  advance  a  trifle  nearer  the  human  family. 

Let  us  now  observe  the  animal  kingdom  as  a  further 
proof  of  the  foregoing  allusions  relative  to  Physical  Strength. 
The  next  link  in  the  chain  of  evidence  is  the  lion,  Anglicised 
from  the  Latin  (Leo  Barbarus).  This  animal  is  considered 
to  be,  and  justly,  too,  we  imagine,  the  strongest  beast  of  its 
size  in  the  world.  Compare  it  then  with  the  ox  (Bovidas 
genus},  selecting,  of  course,  one  of  the  same  size  and  weight, 
and  you  will  perceive  the  rough  hairy  appearance  of  the 
former  in  wonderful  contrast  with  the  comparatively  smooth 
surface  of  the  latter.  The  difference  in  this  respect  is  not 
only  strange,  but  striking  to  the  common  run  of  humanity, 
and  furnishes  the  intelligent  food  for  well  digested  reflection. 
The  subject,  to  the  general  reader,  is  also  comprehensive 
and  important. 

Now,  by  these  fundamental  deductions,  you  will  observe 
that  a  rough  exterior  among  animals,  rocks,  and  vegetation 
is,  at  least,  one  indicative  sign  of  Physical  Strength.  But 
we  proceed  to  prove  a  far  better  analogy  yet.  and,  indeed, 
one  which  will  bear  tracing  through  all  the  various  grades 
of  organic  and  inorganic  life.  In  proof  of  what  we  assert, 
we  will  once  more  dwell  upon  the  mineral  creation  and  add 
another  link  to  the  yet  severed  chain  of  our  connection?. 
For  instance,  take  the  diamond,  the  richest  jewel  of  all  the 
mineral  species.  Compare  it  with  the  slate.  The  one  is  a 
broad  form  of  stone  of  extraordinary  hardness  and  brilliancy, 
while  the  other  is  flaky  and  will  readily  divide  into  long 


tbin  stripes  which  are  as  easily  broken  with  but  slight  pro* 

This  is  the  case  with  almost  everything  of  a  very  weak 
texture,  unless  it  possesses  great  powers  of  elasticity,  or  is 
kept  in  constant  action  by  other  forces,  through  which 
means  it  sometimes  becomes  firmly  imbedded  together. 
Action,  we  assert,  is  the  great  condenser  of  nature's  mineral 
arteries;  therefore  we  perceive  that  granite,  on  the  other 
hand,  unlike  its  far-removed  relation  slate,  is  a  broad  and 
vigorous  stone,  if  we  may  use  the  expression,  and  will  not 
so  readily  yield  to  the  cleaver's  iron  and  maul  as  will  its 
softer  and  less  condensed  kindred.  The  slate  being  more 
sectional  than  solid,  is  hence  liable  to  be  sundered  with  less 
effort.  Diamonds  being  the  hardest,  if  not  densest,  of 
minerals,  are  in  consequence  broad  in  proportion  to  their 
length.  Again,  the  oak  tree  is  broad  and  short  compared  to 
the  pine  or  poplar,  and,  as  our  deductions  go  to  prove,  far 
stronger  than  either  of  the  foregoing.  Also  is  the  manseneta 
of  California  very  low,  broad,  and  extremely  hard.  The 
strength  of  its  fibre  is  known  to  be  remarkable,  and  its 
durability  wonderful.  Again  we  have  the  weird  and 
knotted  elm,  with  many  of  the  qualites  of  the  oak,  being 
like  it  broad  and  low,  and  in  comparison  with  poplar,  pine, 
sequoya,  or  fir,  apparently  ten  times  ae  strong  and  tough  in 
its  texture. 

Having  thus  far  worked  out  our  assertions  relative  to  the 
most  striking  signs  ot  .Physical  Strength  evidenced  in  the 
physiognomical  relations  of  the  mineral  and  vegetable 
kingdoms,  we  once  more  revert  to  the  animal  creation. 

To  retain  the  thread  of  our  reasoning  and  make  our 
analogy  plainer  to  the  general  reader,  we  assert  that  the 
lion's  strength  and  courage  is  based  on  the  plan  upon  which 
he  is  built,  and  that  is  the  low  and  broad  principle.  First, 
his  face  is  wide  and  short,  while  his  foot  is  as  equal  in  ite 
breadth  as  in  its  length.  The  wide,  deep  quality  which 


gives  strength  is  the  peculiarity  which  pervades  his  nose, 
head,  and  entire  frame.  Compare  a  lion  with  the  antlered 
deer,  or  the  timid  rabbit  with  the  ferocious  bear,  or  even 
the  gentle  giraffe  with  the  treacherous  and  merciless  tiger, 
and  you  will  immediately  perceive  that  breadth  of  neck, 
head,  face,  feet,  body,  and  entire  make  produces  strength. 

The  grizzly  bear,  the  fiercest  and  most  destructive  animal 
on  the  American  Continent,  built  also  on  the  broad  and 
massive  principle,  has  been  known  repeatedly  to  cany  off 
an  ox  or  mule,  weighing  several  hundred  weight,  over  rocky 
and  broken  land;  and  indeed  in  numerous  instances  has 
this  animal  been  observed  to  walk  along  a  dangerous  log 
extended  across  a  precipitous  chasm  with  a  full-grown  horse 
in  his  mouth.  But  the  tiger  is  another  example  of^this 
tremendous  muscular  power  and  fierce  energy;  and  when 
compared  to  the  round  and  puny  build  of  a  sheep,  the 
contrast  is  no  less  astonishing  than  striking.  The  tiger,  of 
all  animals,  is  perhaps  the  most  active.  His  strength  is 
proverbial.  Indeed,  he  has  been  often  known  to  prostrate 
and  kill  an  ox,  a  zebra,  or  even  pallah  with  a  single  stroke 
of  his  foot. 

Now  for  the  last,  but  not  least  of  our  proofs,  on  the 
subject  of  Physical  Strength.  The  main  link  of  the  great 
creation  is  man.  The  link  that  binds  our  philosophical, 
but  as  yet  severed  connections  in  this  article,  is  also 
man, — the  most  glorious,  the  most  perfect  work  of  the 
Creator.  Men,  then,  who  are  notedly  strong  among  their 
fellows,  are  constructed  on  the  wide  plan.  An  illustra- 
tion of  this,  which,  by  the  way,  comes  accidentally  across 
our  memory  while  we  write,  is  Dr.  Windship,  of  Boston, 
a  man  of  most  extraordinary  physical  powers,  broad  and 
deep  through  the  chest,  having  hands  and  feet  in  unison 
with  the  make  of  his  body.  In  this  gentleman  the 
broad  and  massive  is  in  every  way  predominant.  In 
the  tfladiutonai  bouts  of  Rome's  most  glorious  days,  when 



her  ooAineib  swayed  half  the  then  known  world,  n?» 
athletes  were  distinguished  by  those  infallible  markfl  of 
strength,  breadth  of  neck,  face,  head,  shoulders,  hands, 
feet,  limbs,  and  entire  structure.  Then  having  so  far 
illustrated  our  subject  and  drawn  upon  facts  which  cannot 
be  controverted,  we  must  hence  infer  in  the  sequence  that 
the  wide  form  of  construction  is  the  true  indicator  of 
Physical  Strength.  Roughness  of  face  is  also  an  index  of 
the  same  in  men  and  animals.  The  laws  of  nature  are 
general  and  uncontrovertible,  and  as  surely  apply  to  the 
universe  of  forms,  whether  we  comprehend  them  or  not. 

ALEXANDEK  III. ,  Emperor  of  Russia,  is  tall  and  powerfully  built,  pos- 
sessing herculean  physical  strength  ;  with  his  fingers  he  can  roll  a  silver 
rouble  like  a  scroll. 


HAVING  long  observed  that  some  races  of  men,  as  well  as 
many  classes  of  people,  are  naturally  and  constitutionally 
averse  to  physical  labour,  I  have  been  led  to  observe 
closely  the  facial  and  bodily  signs  that  indicate  a  love  of 
corporeal  exertion. 

The  anti-industrial  central  point  of  the  world  is  Arabia; 
for,  on  every  side,  branching  out  to  the  east  and  west,  we 
find  industry  making  progress,  while,  in  Arabia,  centuries 
pass  away  without  any  improvement,  save  what  has  been 
introduced,  almost  by  compulsion,  by  foreigners.  The  trade 
carried  on  by  exports  of  coffee,  dates,  figs,  spices,  and  drugs, 
though  still  considerable,  is  said  to  be  only  a  shadow  of  the 
old  commerce  which  existed  before  the  circumnavigation  of 
Africa,  or  when  Aden  was  in  its  prime,  and  the  Red  Sea 
was  the  great  commercial  route.  Arabia  has  few  manu- 
factures, but  carries  on  a  transit  trade  in  foreign  fabrics, 
besides  importing  these,  to  some  extent,  for  its  own 
necessities.  Few  nations  have  approached  so  near  as  the 
Arabs  to  the  condition  of  standing  still  in  a  moral,  social, 
and  industrial  point  of  view.  Considering  how  little  pro- 
gress has  been  made,  it  is  remarkable  that  a  greater 
degeneracy  has  not  taken  place. 

The  southern  slave  owners  of  North  America  were  very 
much  addicted  to  indulge  in  listless  idleness  and  give  wa.y 


to  their  love  of  repose.  They  disliked  toil  to  such  an 
extent  that  they  used  every  available  means  to  avoid  it 
if  possible. 

The  North  American  Indians  are  naturally  averse  to 
drudgery,  and  evince  energy  only  in  their  predaceous 
pursuits.  This  is  indicated  by  their  wide  cheekbones, 
which  are  connected  with  the  respiratory  air  passages,  and 
evince,  by  their  largeness,  that  the  lungs  also  are  large,  and 
give  vigour  for  the  development  of  predaceous  energy. 

In  Scotland  especially,  as  well  as  in  the  north  of  England, 
and  Ulster  in  Ireland,  in  Prussia,  in  the  State  of  Ohio  in 
America,  as  well  as  among  northerners  generally,  we  find 
a  love  of  physical  labour  and  active  performance  of  duty 
energetically.  The  ostensible  signs  of  these  tendencies  and 
qualities  are  manifest  in  the  prominent  bones  and  well 
defined  and  developed  muscles  over  the  entire  corporeal 
frame.  When  we  find  large  hands  without  an  abundance 
of  adipose  tissue,  and  a  bony  face  with  a  muscular  expres- 
sion, we  may  feel  assured  that  labour  is  a  pleasure  to  those 
who  are  so  constituted.  The  slave  owners  of  America  had 
small  hands  and  small  or  narrow  cheek  or  malar  bones 
and  well-rounded  faces,  from  the  bones  being  small  and 
well-rounded  with  fat.  In  their  bodies,  the  muscles  were 
not,  as  a  general  fact,  so  well  developed  and  sinewy  as  those 
of  the  labouring,  energetic,  industrious  men  of  the  north. 
The  climate,  in  connection  with  the  system  of  slavery, 
superinduced  among  the  masters  in  the  south  the  love  of 
ease,  and  predisposed  them  to  repose.  This  indolence  and 
listlessness  became  heightened  by  the  manners  and  customs 
that  gradually  crept  in  among  them,  and  developed  their 
sensual  propensities  to  an  unhealthy  extent,  working  their 
moral  as  well  as  their  physical  deterioration. 

Two  of  the  most  easily  observed  features  of  the  human 
face  that  mark  the  industriously  and  laboriously  inclined, 
*re  a  prominent  protruding  chin  in  connection  with  oro- 


minent  cbeek-bones.  Observe,  also,  that  labour  expands 
the  shoulders  and  widens  the  palms  of  the  hands,  and  thus 
evinces  the  practice  of  physical  effort,  and  this  naturally 
begets  a  propensity  to  take  pleasure  in  laborious  occupa- 
tions. Milnes  essentially  sympathized  with  this  progressive 
nature  when  he  wrote: — 

"  Let  us  go  forth  and  resolutely  dare 
With  sweat  of  brow  to  toil  our  little  day, 
And  if  a  tear  fall  on  the  task  of  care 
In  memory  of  those  spring  hours  passed  away, 
Brush  it  not  by ! 

Our  hearts  to  God !  to  brother  men, 
And  labour,  blessing,  prayer,  and  then  to  these  a  sign!" 

Kingsley's  advice  beautifully  expresses  the  sentiment  of  the 
earnest  worker: — 

"  Do  what  thou  dost  as  if  the  earth  were  heaven, 
And  that  thy  last  day  were  the  judgment  day." 

It  is  a  general  law  in  our  nature  that  when  any  faculty 
has  by  cultivation  enlarged  to  a  strong  degree,  it  invariably 
demands  scope  for  exercise  in  a  similar  manner  to  that  by 
which  the  development  was  produced.  Having  struck  one 
blow,  we  can  more  readily  strike  another;  and  the  more  we 
become  accustomed  to  striking,  the  more  natural  we  feel  it 
to  exercise  our  feracious  powers.  Thus,  in  the  course  of 
time,  it  becomes  a  pleasure  instead  of  a  drudgery.  What 
labouring  people  consider  a  pleasure,  the  idle  and  indolent 
call  slavery. 

Physical  labour  enlarges  and  develops  various  portions 
of  the  body.  Stooping  labour  widens  the  cheek-bones 
(mala  ossia),  lengthens  the  under  jaw,  shortens  and  enlarges 
the  occipital  process,  protrudes  the  lower  part  of  the  fore- 
head, and  widens  the  hands,  feet,  and  shoulders.  Hence, 
in  accordance  with  the  principles  before  mentioned,  these 
enlargements  are  Nature's  recorded  evidences  of  the  ability 


and  inclination  to  physical  exertion.  Examples  by  thou- 
sands may  be  found  among  gymnasts,  athletes,  pugilists, 
oarsmen,  and  every  class  of  physical  labourers.  Those  who 
never  labour,  never  desire  to  do  so;  and  their  narrow  faces, 
thin  hands  and  feet,  and  contracted  shoulders  are  manifesta- 
tions of  their  leisure-loving  natures.  How  the  hands  and 
feet  will  diminish  may  plainly  be  seen  in  all  young  men 
who  are  reared  to  hard  work  on  a  farm,  but  upon  entering 
a  shop,  store,  or  lawyer's  office  to  earn  a  livelihood,  half 
a  score  of  years  will  suffice  to  narrow  their  structure,  and 
not  only  make  them  consider  physical  toil  displeasing,  but 
render  their  framework  as  sure  a  tell-tale  of  the  deterioration 
as  untongued  Nature  can  become  in  revealing  any  of  her 
great  principles. 

Unfortunately  for  the  future  of  the  race,  there  is  a  grow- 
ing aversion  to  physical  labour  among  the  young  of  both 
sexes  in  the  present  age.  This  is  plainly  evinced  by  the 
shoulders  being  much  narrower  and  the  forms  slimmer  than 
were  those  of  the  young  of  the  last  century.  Look  for  a 
moment  at  the  fine  physical  development  of  the  Germans. 
Every  man  of  them  must  learn  one  of  the  industrial  trades, 
no  matter  how  high  his  rank.  It  is  well  known  that  the 
present  Emperor  of  Germany  regularly  learned  the  trade 
of  a  carpenter.  Then  their  physique  is  still  further 
developed  by  the  compulsory  army  drill  that  must  be 
undergone  by  every  young  man  of  sound  constitution.  On 
the  other  hand,  the  girls  engage  in  domestic  and  outdoor 
work  until  their  forms  take  the  national  characteristic 
mould  of  broad  shoulders  and  ample  womanly  chests. 

The  lassitude  and  yawning  listlessness  incident  to  idle- 
ness can  be  dispelled  by  earnest  and  well-directed  exertion 
in  manual  dexterity.  Whenever  you  see  a  young  woman 
faint  in  a  church,  one  of  two  epithets  may  safely  be  app- 
lied to  her — lazy  or  diseased.  Parents  that  are  too 
tender  do  more  to  promote  sickness  and  disease  than  aU 



the  world  besides.  The  fond,  indulgent  mother  may  be 
heard  saying:  "There  now,  daughter,  you  sit  down  and  I 
will  do  the  work."  Thus  the  mother  goes  on,  day  after 
day,  toiling  and  striving  with  the  whole  burden  of  domestic 
cares,  while  the  idle  and  selfish  daughter,  were  she  properly 
trained,  might  relieve  her  of  half  her  labour,  and  besides 
render  her  own  life  much  more  happy  by  the  double  plea- 
sure of  helping  her  parent  and  preparing  herself  for  her  own 
future  domestic  duties.  This  is  not  all;  for  the  daughter 
acting  thus  would  feel  life  a  pleasure,  and  ward  off  the 
inevitable  consequences  of  sloth  and  listlessness,  disease 
and  a  premature  grave,  over  which  the  epitaph  might  be 
written: — "Here  lies  the  victim  of  idleness,  who  died  of 
inanition."  How  wasted  looking  she  became;  how  narrow 
and  slim  her  form  in  every  feature. 

Young  man,  accept  and  lay  to  heart  the  advice  of  experi- 
ence, and  never  let  your  affections  settle  upon  any  one  until 
you  can  find  and  fane}'  a  good,  strong,  broad-bodied,  well- 
developed  maid,  with  a  countenance  full  of  buxom  health 
and  cheerfulness,  who  can  heartily  reciprocate  your  affec- 
tion. This  form  of  person  is  by  nature  and  cultivation 
more  happy  than  a  narrow,  sharp-faced  individual.  The 
very  law  of  industry  leads  us  on  to  contentment,  while  its 
duties  give  the  broad  build  to  the  young;  and  when  that 
form  is  once  attained,  it  becomes  a  real  pleasure  to  exert 
oneself,  because  it  is  in  true  harmony  with  one's  nature. 
Nothing  is  distasteful  that  is  in  true  harmony  with  one's 
interior  being.  How  much  happier  is  the  agriculturist  and 
manufacturer  than  the  man  of  leisure  who  lends  money  and 
is  constantly  fretting  his  hours  away  from  fear  of  loss.  The 
servant  is  more  happy  than  his  master,  since  he  labours 
harder  and  has  less  care  and  anxiety.  The  laws  of  our 
being  inexorably  demand  labour;  and,  when  the  normal 
requirements  of  nature  are  heeded,  she  is  no  niggard  in  her 
•awards  of  happiness;  but  when  they  are  ignored,  pain  and 


misery  attend  us.  The  servant  can  cheerfully  toil  while  his 
master  demurely  and  listlessly  counts  the  tedious  hours  as 
his  life  of  misery  ebbs  away. 

Then,  since  labour  is  a  necessity  to  the  well-being  of 
every  one,  we  easily  see  its  importance,  and  learn  that  its 
signs  are  the  effects  of  effort.  Hence  the  process  is  easy 
of  tracing  up  through  the  effects  to  the  causes,  and  compre- 
hending why  those  signs  portray  the  natural  disposition. 
Whatever  we  have  most  of,  we  enjoy  its  use  best.  This  is 
the  same  principle  that  causes  the  miser,  whose  wealth  is 
extensive,  to  wish  for  more.  La  Rochefoucauld  truthfully 
expresses  the  power  of  labour  to  promote  happiness: — 
"  Bodily  labour  alleviates  the  pains  of  the  inind;  and  hence 
arises  the  happiness  of  the  poor." 

Now  we  glance  at  some  of  the  ancient  peoples  who  rose 
to  power  and  eminence  by  their  physical  training  as  well 
as  by  their  mental  capacity,  which  mainly  resulted  from 
the  former. 

The  education  of  the  ancient  GREEKS  was  more  of  a 
physical  than  of  a  mental  kind.  The  gymnasium  was  that 
of  the  athlete,  not  that  of  the  didas'kaloa  or  preceptor. 
Young  children  were,  until  about  their  sixth  year,  trained 
at  home  under  females,  but  were  then  sent  to  the  schools 
under  the  charge  of  private  tutors  or  pcedagogi.  The  duty 
of  the  pedagogue  was  rather  to  keep  his  wards  from  out- 
ward injury  and  bad  companions,  than  to  teach  them  the 
accomplishments  of  grammar,  music,  and  gymnastics,  the 
favourite  studies  in  those  days.  The  Greeks  bestowed 
more  time  and  attention  on  the  gymnastic  training  of  their 
youth  than  on  all  the  other  departments  put  together. 
There  was  no  such  thing  as  a  Greek  city  of  any  size  or 
importance  which  did  not  boast  at  least  one  gymnasium. 
Athens  had  three  great  public  gymnasia — the  Academia, 
Lyceum,  and  Cynosarges,  besides  numerous  private  ones 
on  a  smaller  scale.  Solon  considered  these  institutions  o/ 


so  much  importance  as  to  draw  up  a  special  code  of  law§ 
for  their  management.  Their  administration  was  entrusted 
to  a  gymnasiarch,  whose  duties  were  to  watch  and  control 
the  youth,  place  them  under  proper  teachers,  conduct  the 
periodical  games  and  festivals,  and  pay  the  athletes  whom  he 
trained  for  them.  In  Athens  the  number  of  gymnasiarchs 
appears  to  have  been  ten.  Besides  these,  there  were  the 
officers  called  Aliptce,  or  anointers,  whose  duty  it  was  to 
prepare  the  youth  for  the  day's  exercise,  by  anointing  them 
with  oil  and  then  sprinkling  them  with  dust.  The  exercises 
taught  were  pretty  much  the  same  over  the  whole  of  Greece, 
though  they  seem  to  have  been  carried  out  with  somewhat 
different  views.  The  Spartans  looked  upon  them  as  a  sort 
of  initiation  into  the  sterner  realities  of  warfare;  while  the 
Athenians  not  only  made  them  subserve  this  end,  but  also 
used  them  as  a  means  for  imparting  grace  to  the  action 
and  movement  to  the  limbs.  The  chief  games  of  the 
gymnasium  were  foot-races,  jumping,  leaping,  quoits,  wrest- 
ling, boxing,  dancing,  &c.,  while  the  younger  pupils  practised 
also  with  balls,  tops,  and  a  variety  of  other  games  similar 
to  those  in  vogue  among  the  youth  of  modern  times. 

It  would  occupy  too  much  space  to  describe  with  any- 
thing like  minuteness  the  Grecian  games,  which  were  among 
them  from  time  immemorial;  but  we  may  just  state  the 
general  facts, — that  they  were  very  numerous,  and  are 
traceable  by  tradition  back  to  the  earliest  periods  of  Grecian 
civilization.  Indeed,  much  of  the  obscurity  that  rests  on 
their  origin  is  in  consequence,  and  a  sign  of  their  high  and 
even  mythic  antiquity.  But  we  may  just  mention,  that 
the  most  celebrated  of  them  were  the  Olympic,  the  Pythian, 
the  Nemean,  and  the  Isthmian  games,  which  were  distin- 
guished by  the  appellation  of  sacred. 

The  gymnastic  exercises  were  prescribed  in  a  well- 
planned  systematic  series,  beginning  with  the  easier,  and 
proceeding  to  the  more  difficult.  Some  of  these  were  spe- 


cially  fitted  to  give  strength,  others  agility ;  some  educated 
the  hands,  others  the  feet.  Among  the  lighter  exercises 
were  reckoned  running,  leaping,  quoiting,  and  hurling  the 
javelin.  When  skill  had  been  attained  in  these,  and  the 
consequent  strength,  then  followed  a  severer  course  of 
discipline.  The  simple  course  was  wrestling  and  boxing; 
the  compound  course  consisted  of — (1,)  The  Pentathlon 
(or  "five  contests"),  made  up  of  the  union  of  running, 
leaping,  quoiting,  wrestling,  and  hurling  the  spear;  and, 
(2,)  the  Pankration  (or  "general  trial  of  strength"),  which 
consisted  of  wrestling  and  boxing. 

These  games,  taken  in  connection  with  the  early  and 
long  training  by  which  they  were  preceded,  and  of  which 
they  were  both  the  natural  result  and  reward,  were  a  grand 
educational  system,  bearing  primarily,  indeed,  in  favour  of 
the  physical  development,  but  also  tending  directly  and 
powerfully  to  advance  the  intellectual  and  moral  culture. 
The  exercises  through  which  the  child,  the  youth,  and  the 
man  were,  stage  by  stage,  conducted,  each  in  succession 
becoming  difficult  and  more  complex,  as  the  bodily  powers 
came  into  play  and  acquired  vigour,  were  admirably  adapted 
to  give  that  union  of  strength  and  beauty  in  which  physical 
perfection  consists,  and  in  which  the  Greeks  probably  sur- 
passed every  other  known  people. 

Solon's  high  estimate  of  the  paramount  importance  of 
these  games  has  been  already  alluded  to;  but  here  we  would 
further  state  that  this  estimate  is  still  more  strongly  per- 
ceived in  the  designation  and  functions  of  two  other  officers 
appointed  under  Solon's  laws,  in  the  conduct  of  the 
gymnasia.  The  first  was  the  Kosmetes,  whose  name  comes 
from  a  word  (KOCA*°C)  signifying  "  order  and  beauty,"  and 
whose  office  consisted  in  the  special  superintendence  of 
everything  fitted  to  further  these  high  qualities;  the  other 
officer  was  termed  Sophronistes,  and  his  business  was  still 
more  intimately  conducive  to  informing  the  mind,  since,  aa 


his  designation  (from  o-w^pwv)  proves,  he  was  required  to  ' 
guide  the  pupils  to  awtypoavvn  (sophrozyne),  a  term  for 
which  there  is  no  English  equivalent,  but  which  may 
approximately  be  rendered  by  "  sound-mindedness."  The 
fullest  and  best  information  on  this  interesting  and  vitally 
important  subject  is  to  be  found  in  Krause's  Die  Gymnastik 
und  Agonistik  der  Hellenen;  and  in  his  Die  Pythien, 
Nemeen,  und  Isthmien:  Leipzig,  1841. 

Among  the  Romans,  the  amusements  of  the  circus  did 
not  materially  differ  from  the  Greek  agones  or  contests 
celebrated  at  Olympia,  Delphi,  and  elsewhere,  and  were 
certainly  of  a  nobler  kind  than  the  frightful  gladiatorial 
fights  of  the  amphitheatres.  The  Romans,  however,  became 
much  more  brutal  in  their  tastes  and  public  amusements 
than  the  Greeks,  and  at  last  became  almost  wholly  addicted 
to  gladiatorial  and  wild-beast  combats. 

Let  it  be  carefully  and  earnestly  pondered,  as  one  of  the 
most  important  facts  educed  from  a  comparative  history  of 
all  nations,  ancient  and  modern,  that  all  those  peoples  who 
have  cultivated  the  active  industrial  arts,  tending  to 
develop  their  physical  forms  and  faculties,  have  risen 
highest  in  the  scale  of  civilization,  and  been  freest  from 
poverty,  disease,  and  insanity.  It  is  only  a  matter  of  yes- 
terday that  Physical  Education  has  been  thought  of  among 
the  English-speaking  nations.  Having  bethought  them- 
selves, they  have  been  pondering  the  wholesome  example 
and  practices  of  some  of  the  celebrated  ancient  nations, 
especially  the  Greeks,  and  in  modern  times  the  Germans. 
We  need  only  point  to  the  immense  superiority  of  these 
nationalities  over  the  rest  of  the  world,  in  social  and  physi- 
cal development,  to  feel  assured  of  carrying  conviction  to 
every  candid  mind  as  to  the  enormous  advantages  accruing 
from  the  training  of  the  human  frame  to  active  and  vigorous 
industrial  habits.  Hitherto,  Physical  Education  has  been 
left  far  too  much  to  nature  and  chance;  and  we  owe  it 


mainly  to  the  improved  condition  of  medical  science  that 
public  attention  has  been  called  to  the  deficiency.  It  in- 
cludes, first  of  all,  the  essential  conditions  of  health,  such 
as  cleanliness,  fresh  air,  exercise,  diet,  alternate  periods  ot 
labour  and  recreation;  secondly,  the  strengthening  and 
proper  development  of  the  bodily  powers  by  means  of 
drilling,  marching,  and  gymnastic  exercises;  thirdly,  the 
formation  of  certain  useful  habits,  which,  after  a  time, 
become  almost  instinctive.  Hand-writing  is  a  fine  example 
of  a  habit  of  this  kind,  which  can  be  impressed  once  and 
forever  on  the  nervous  system ;  the  power  of  rapid  perform- 
ance on  musical  instruments  is  another  faculty  dependent 
on  the  same  kind  of  physical  training.  Easy  and  graceful 
deportment,  again,  is  a  trained  habit;  so  also  is  clear  and 
correct  verbal  articulation.  In  fact,  wherever  physical 
action  is  required  of  such  a  nature  that  it  may  be  trans- 
ferred by  habit  from  a  voluntary  act  to  a  reflex  one,  there 
the  use  of  physical  education  becomes  evident;  for  every 
good  habit  which  is  thus  formed  and  fixed  by  early  train- 
ing, whether  it  be  a  useful  accomplishment,  or  a  graceful 
deportment,  or  a  facility  of  correct  expression,  or  any  kind 
of  musical  dexterity,  is  just  so  much  power  actually  treas- 
ured up  in  the  nervous  system,  which  can  be  brought  forth 
and  applied  at  any  moment,  as  if  it  were  a  kind  of  animated 
machinery,  and  that,  too,  without  any  trouble  or  any  sense 
of  fatigue  to  the  possessor.  Addison's  observation  is  worth 
repeating  here.  He  says: — "  Manufactures,  trade,  and  agri- 
culture, naturally  employ  more  than  nineteen  parts  of  the 
species  in  twenty;  and  as  for  those  who  are  not  obliged  to 
labour,  by  the  condition  in  which  they  are  born,  they  are 
more  miserable  than  the  rest  of  mankind,  unless  they 
indulge  themselves  in  that  voluntary  labour  which  goes  by 
the  name  of  exercise." 


UNASPIRING  and  nebulous  faces  are  often  met  with  in 
society,  and  more  especially  among  the  wealthy.  Their 
expressionless  smoothness  has  never  been  broken  by  torna- 
does of  thought  or  intense  application.  Many  of  the  young 
may  be  seen  who  are  called  beautiful,  and  those  individuals 
present  faces  only  of  the  smooth  and  undefined  form,  which 
is  the  image  of  their  minds.  Inaction  and  idleness  of  the 
physical  and  mental  forces  bring  on  roundness  of  features 
which  are  ever  unmistakable  signs  of  nonentity.  They 
may  be  compared  to  a  bombshell  with  burning  fuse,  round 
and  pretty  to  behold,  but  not  good  company. 

It  requires  long  hours,  yea,  years,  of  patient  and  earnest 
labour,  to  acquire  facial  marks  expressive  of  gigantic  think- 
ing power.  Nearly  all  mankind  are  naturally  fond  of 
leisure  and  enjoyment,  and  as  ease  is  most  generally  found 
amongst  the  wealthy,  so  expressionless  faces  are  most 
commonly  seen  in  that  sphere  of  society.  Labour  chisels 
the  features  into  clearness  and  cheerfulness  of  expression, 
whereas  idleness  will  turn  the  most  expressive  and  beauti- 
ful features  into  listless,  sad  and  undefined,  clam-like 
smoothness.  Many  boys,  when  grown,  carry  faces  with 
expressions  of  emptiness  and  inertia  of  mind.  They  go 


abroad  to  earn  a  living  for  themselves,  and  after  twenty, 
or  even  ten  years,  return  to  their  friends  with  faces  furrowed 
by  the  plough  of  experience.  The  deep  wrinkles  have  been 
cut  across  the  brow — the  nose  has  grown  higher  on  the 
bridge — the  nostrils  have  opened  largely — the  chin  has 
become  more  broad  and  far-reach  ing;  the  lips  having  learned 
to  keep  their  own  secrets,  are  firmly  compressed ;  lines  like 
diverging  rays  of  light  surround  the  eyes;  the  round,  full 
cheek  of  childhood  nestles  no  longer  there,  and  all  is  changed 
from  boy  to  manhood.  His  face  tells  no  falsehood,  as  it  is 

Diogenes,  a  cynic  philosopher,  whose  mental  industry  has  rarely, 
if  ever,  been  equalled. 

God's  truth,  and  he,  overflowing  with  strength  and  nature's 
nobility,  walks  forth  the  highest  type  of  man,  self-made. 
Others  remain  boys  in  mind  until  forty,  or  even  through  a 
life-time,  undeveloped  because  they  shunned  the  means  of 
accomplishing  their  highest  maturing.  Children's  faces  are 
often  seen  on  men  and  women  of  thirty  and  forty  years  of 


age  Their  lives  have  been  as  smooth  as  glass.  The  great 
trials  of  the  world,  which  are  immense  furnaces  to  try  the 
metal  of  men,  have  not  purified  and  turned  them  to  steel. 
The  more  lead  is  melted  and  cooled,  the  more  free  from 
dross  it  becomes;  the  more  men  have  touched  the  antipodes 
of  sorrowing  sympathy,  or  repellant  hatred,  the  less  worth- 
less material  they  contain.  Fleshy,  round,  smooth  faces,  are 
significant  of  ease-loving  and  inactive  minds.  An  old  adage 
among  the  ancients  was,  that  a  lean  and  wrinkled  face 
evinced  great  wisdom. 
It  is  true  to  a  great  ex- 
tent, that  all  original 
men  of  great  mental 
labour  have  carried  faces 
rather  spare  and  well 

To  think  gives  an 
action, — to  storm  with 
thought  requires  great 
action;  the  great  emotion 
swings  the  facial  muscles 
one  against  another,  pro- 
ducing deep  wrinkles; 
and  years  of  wonderful 
application  and  mental  j 
effort  leave  deep  indent- 
ations and  well-defined 
marks  on  the  Physiog- 
nomy of  man;  as  active 
waters  of  former  years 
have  left  their  deep  gullies  on  the  Physiognomy  of  earth. 
Physiognomists  call  these  wrinkles  on  mankind  beautiful, 
as  they  are  recorded  evidences  of  a  life  of  industry  and 

In  looking  over  six  hundred  photographs  of  noted  rogue§ 

Lucius  Annseus  Seneca,  a  celebrated  Ro- 
man philosopher,  with  well-defined  lines* 
indicative  of  years  of  consecutive  mental 

THE   EFFECTS   OF   INDUSTRY    ON    THE    HUMAN   FACE.       459 

in  the  "rogue's  gallery"  in  San  Francisco,  I  observed  that 
they  were  nearly  all  wrinkleless,  and  of  round,  full,  expres- 
sionless faces.  This  peculiarity  of  features  would  scientifi- 
cally testify  to  an  utter,  or  nearly  an  entire  absence  of 
character.  As  it  takes  much  character  to  make  a  man 
thoroughly  honest,  so  they  have  too  little  to  give  lines 
of  honesty. 

People  who  live  industrious  lives  are  usually  most  moral, 
and  out  of  a  knowledge  of  this  fact  sprang  the  truthful 
saying,  that  "  idleness  is  Satan's  workshop." 

When  visiting  the  penitentiaries  of  various  States,  that 
fact  has  been  made  apparent  by  the  records  of  those  several 
places  of  punishment,  that  many  of  those  criminals  were 
formerly  loafers,  without  even  a  trade  by  which  to  earn  an 
honourable  living. 

A  Scotchman,  of  Edinburgh,  a  remarkable  example  of  physical  industry, 
industry  may  be  compared  to  the  running  brook,  which 


is  ever  pure,  or  purifying  itself;  whereas  idleness  is  the 
stagnant  pool  retaining  all  filth,  and  ever  ready  to  receive 

There  are  many  men  and  women  who  are  well-born  and 
amply  educated,  but  who,  not  being  compelled  to  labour, 
settle  down  into  characterless  nothings,  and  become  cess- 
pools to  catch  the  vices  of  those  who  surround  them. 
Earnest,  ardent,  and  interesting  labour  will  develop  char- 
acter, and  that  character  will  produce  wrinkles.  Hence, 
those  who  would  lead  lives  of  honour  and  usefulness,  shun- 
ning vice  and  crime,  let  your  aim  ever  be  to  cast  off  the 
scum  of  idleness  which  only  gathers  on  still  water*,  never 
shading  the  purity  of  the  dashing  stream. 

PATH,  GTTSTAVE  DORE,  a  French  designer  and  engraver,  whose  face 
shows  strength  rather  than  delicacy  ;  a  power  and  wealth  of  imagination 
more  than  impassionable  sentimentality. 


FROM  the  Latin  word  durus,  hard,  we  have  formed  the 
English  terms  durable,  durability,  endure,  endurance,  because 
it  has  been  remarked  with  respect  to  all  substances  in 
nature — animal,  vegetable,  and  mineral — that  the  more  hard 
they  are,  that  is,  the  more  compactly  put  together  their 
particles,  the  more  wear  and  tear  they  are  capable  of 
sustaining.  The  hardest,  and,  therefore,  most  imperishable 
of  all  known  substances  is  the  diamond;  and  scientific  men 
reckon  nine  lesser  degrees  of  hardness  among  minerals 
down  to  talc,  which  is  the  softest.  Any  of  these,  however, 
are  harder  than  vegetable  substances;  among  which  the  oak, 
ash,  elm,  chestnut,  walnut,  beech,  birch,  &c.,  called  hard 
woods,  have  been  proved  to  bear  much  more  wear  and  tear 
than  those  denominated  soft  woods.  Among  animals,  we 
find  those  to  be  the  most  hardy  that  have  the  least  soft 
material,  and  the  most  hard  in  their  composition — fat  being 
the  softest,  the  muscle  much  harder,  and  the  bones  hardest 
of  all.  Fat  (adipose)  is  a  reservoir  of  nourishment  in  case 
of  long  fasting  or  sickness,  And  is  conspicuous  in  the  hump 
of  the  camel ;  but  it  gives  no  power  of  enduring  labour  and 
fatigue.  Horses  are  not  considered  n't  for  the  race-course  if 
they  are  at  all  in  an  adipose  condition ;  and  those  of  Sahara, 
never  much  troubled  with  this  quality,  are  still  further 
reduced  before  joining  an  ostrich  hunt ;  which  is  the 
severest  ordeal  to  which  they  are  subject.  So  it  is  the 


lean  hound,  and  not  the  fat  dog,  that  is  chosen  to  pursue 
the  game,  not  merely  on  the  ground  of  his  swiftness,  but 
his  power  of  continued  exertion.  In  the  human  race,  we  find 
that  very  fat  persons  are  naturally  puffed  and  out  of  breath 
after  the  least  unusual  exertion  ;  also  that  they  never 
attain  to  old  age,  and  are  very  liable  to  apoplexy;  whereas 
those  that  endure  well  the  toils  of  an  industrious  life,  and 
become  examples  of  extreme  longevity,  are  persons  of  what 
is  called  a  moderate  habit  of  body. 

Bones  being  the  hardest  of  all  the  materials  entering  into 
the  constitution  of  the  human  body,  we  naturally  expect, 
and  find  it  so  in  fact,  that  the  larger  these  are,  the  greater 
the  power  of  physical  endurance.  A  man  may  nob  be  tall, 
yet  have  broad,  heavy  bones;  or  he  may  be  tall,  and  have 
large  bones  in  proportion  to  the  size  of  muscle.  Such  a  one 
will  be  capable  of  greater  exertion  and  will  endure  more 
fatigue  than  one  whose  bones  and  muscles  are  mure 
equally  developed;  because  the  bones,  being  harder  than 
the  muscles,  are  the  more  enduring  substance.  People 
thus  constituted  may  not  live  so  long  as  those  of  the 
rounder,  life-giving  form;  but  they  will  more  easily 
sustain  a  hard  day's  march,  fatiguing  labour,  prolonged 
fasting,  or  mental  grief,  than  those  of  any  other  build. 
Such  men  exhibit  well-marked  outlines  in  their  features; 
the  face  somewhat  hard  and  angular;  the  nose  always 
prominent;  the  eye-bones  sharp  and  jutting  out  like  the 
over-hanging  cliff's  of  a  waterfall. 

The  camel  (C.  Bactrianus)  is  capable  of  more  endurance 
than  any  other  of  the  quadrupeds  employed  by  man.  How 
his  bones  stand  out!  how  large  are  his  joints!  What  an 
uncouth  looking  animal  altogether!  He  can  traverse  the 
burning  sands  of  the  desert  day  after  day  without  tasting 
food  or  refreshing  himself  with  drink  ;  and  this  with  a 
burden  of  perhaps  a  thousand  pounds  weight;  performing 
a  journey  of  hundreds  of  miles  at  the  rate  of  two  and  one- 
half  miles  an  hour. 


Less  unsightly  than  the  camel,  but  more  bony  and  homely- 
looking  than  the  horse  (E.  Caballus},  is  the  ass  (E.  Asinw}, 
and  much  more  patient  of  continued  fatigue. 

So  we  find  homely,  bony  faces  in  mankind  to  be  evidences 
of  great  power  of  endurance,  both  as  to  body  and  mind 
Abraham  Lincoln  was  a  remarkable  example  of  this  con- 
figuration. He  is  said  to  have  gone  through  the  severest 
agricultural  labour  in  early  life,  and  to  have  gained  the 
soubriquet  of  the  railsplitter,  by  performing  the  feat  of 
splitting  3000  rails  in  one  day.  In  his  after  career,  he  was 
pre-eminently  distinguished  for  fortitude  in  suffering,  as 
well  as  activity  and  perseverance  in  doing  whatever  fell  to 
his  lot. 

The  persistent  exertion  which  Weston,  the  pedestrian, 
requires  to  use  in  order  to  walk  a  hundred  and  twelve  miles 
in  twenty-four  hours,  is  rarely  if  ever  equalled.  His  walk 
of  four  hundred  miles  in  five  days,  which  he  accomplished, 
as  he  did  the  other  of  a  hundred  and  twelve  in  twenty-tout 
hours,  is  sufficient  proof  of  his  powers  of  endurance.  His 
face  and  figure  is  at  once  skin  and  bony.  The  slightnes? 
affords  him  activity,  the  osteogeny  insures  the  power  of 
continuance.  Andrew  Jackson  was  another  man  formed  te 
endure  hardship,  as  was  evinced  in  the  osteous  structure  of 
his  frame.  When  but  thirteen  years  of  age  he  fought  under 
Sumter,  and  continued  in  the  army  until  the  end  of  the 
war  of  independence.  At  a  later  period,  when  the  Creek 
Indians  broke  out  in  hostilities,  he  raised  a  volunteer  force 
of  two  or  three  thousand  men  to  defeat  them,  and,  when 
provisions  failed,  set  his  men  an  example  of  endurance  by 
feeding  on  hickory  nuts,  whence  the  soubriquet  of  Old 
Hickory.  His  political  life  was  marked  by  a  steady  and 
powerful  resistance  of  all  opposition,  and  his  presidency 
by  singular  firmness  in  carrying  out  whatever  his  judgment 
approved.  Wellington  is  known  to  have  rode  the  little 
horse  Copenhagen  for  seventeen  consecutive  hours  on  the 


field  of  Waterloo,  and  to  have  declared  he  was  as  spirited 
and  fresh  as  the  animal,  which  kicked  up  on  his  dismount- 
ing. This  celebrated  general  was  rather  of  small  stature, 
but  bony,  well-muscled,  and  so  hardy  that  he  received  the 
soubriquet  of  "  the  Iron  Duke." 

He,  therefore,  that  would  live  long,  and  be  capable  of 
doing  much  while  he  lives,  should  avoid  all  that  self- 
indulgence  which  brings  on  the  heavy,  spft,  adipose  con- 
formation. He  may  not  be  able  to  render  his  bones  large 
and  prominent;  but  he  may  generally  avoid  overloading 
himself  with  fat,  and  losing  his  manly  energies  in  habits  of 
luxurious  ease  and  self-indulgence. 

WILLIAM  CULLEN  BKYANT,  one  of  the  most  celebrated  of  American 
poets,  an  exceedingly  close  observer  of  all  the  phenomena  throughout 
nature,  yet  a  vast  current  of  philosophy  ran  through  his  verse  and  prose, 
which  embody  multitudes  of  details  interwoven  with  epigrammatic  felicity 
into  the  purest  and  most  beautiful  English. 


AT  the  forty-third  annual  meeting  of  the  British  Association 
for  the  Advancement  of  Science,  held  in  Edinburgh  during 
the  month  of  August,  1871,  the  subject  of  Longevity 
*as  touched  upon,  though  very  sparingly  discussed.  The 
speakers — according  to  a  not  uncommon  practice  among 
our  modern  so-called  scientific  teachers — confined  them- 
selves chiefly  to  facts  for  the  most  part  such  as  could  be 
culled  from  the  daily  newspapers,  avoiding,  as  if  with 
intent,  the  trouble  of  ascertaining  the  principles  or  reasons 
on  which  the  inducted  facts  were  based.  They  were  loud 
as  to  results,  but  the  "  why"  of  the  results — the  only  thing 
one  would  imagine  with  which  men  of  science,  as  such,  have 
to  do — does  not  seem  to  have  occupied  even  a  moiety  of 
their  attention.  They  made  certain  statements  relative  to 
effects  which  had  come  directly  or  indirectly  under  their 
own  notice,  but  left  the  causes  on  which  the  effects  de- 
pended for  their  existence  nearly  or  completely  untouched. 
It  is  as  if  they  had  gravely  stated  that  a  stone  thrown 
up  into  the  air  was  sure  to  come  down  again,  without 
making  reference  to  that  law  by  which  the  earth  attracts 
to  its  centre  bodies  within  a  certain  radius  which  are  lighter 
than  itself;  or  as  if  they  had  solemnly  averred  that  the 
hardy  lichen  was  the  only  plant  which  could  thrive  at 



the  height  of  18,225  feet  above  the  level   of  the  ocean, 
without  referring  to  those  peculiarities  in  the  lichen  which 
account  for  its   growth   in  a  region   where   other   plants 
^ould   wither  and   die.      It  is   not  enough  for  scientific 
purposes,  or  for  practical  purposes,  to  tell  us  that  certain 
men  lived  to  an  extremely  old  age;  for  such  a  statement, 
unsupported   by  the   results   of  philosophical   research,   is 
only  calculated  to  make  those  whose  friends  do  not  reach 
a    long    term    of   years,   dissatisfied    with    their    circum- 
stances  and  ungrateful   to   nature.     What   kind   of  build 
had    these   long-lived    men?      What    was    the    nature    of 
the    food   they    took    into    their    systems  ?      What   were 
their    general    and    particular    habits?      How    were   they 
treated  when  they  were  young?     And  may  other  men,  by 
using  the  same  food,  and  accustoming  themselves  to  the 
same  habits,  avoid  a  middle  age  or  early  death  and  live 
to   the   same  age?     These,  and  other  questions  lying  on 
the   same    plane    of    things,   we   would    expect    to    have 
answered  when   the  subject  is  broached  by  scientific  pro- 
fessors, and  not  the   bald   statement,   which   must  be  as 
evident   to   any   newspaper- reading    schoolboy  as   to   the 
most    philosophic    among  philosophers,   that   certain   men 
have  reached  an  uncommonly  great  age  before  giving  up 
the  ghost. 

It  was  stated  by  Mr. ,  in  a  paper  which  he  read 

before  the  above  Association,  that  he  had  observed  "  a 
sort  of  silvery  expression,  with  apparently  great  toughness 
of  the  skin,  which  he  deemed  an  essential  peculiarity  in 
persons  over  ninety,"  and  these  marks  were  given  as 
Physiognomical  signs  of  Longevity.  So  far  so  good.  But 
what  is  it  that  produces  this  "silvery  expression,"  and 
wnat  is  the  cause  of  the  "  toughness  of  skin "  observed 
in  people  over  ninety  years  of  age?  These  are  the  pro- 
blems which  Mr. ought  to  have  solved,  but  which 

he    coony    ignored.     It    is    true    he  mentioned    that    the 


old  people  referred  to  did  not  use  tobacco;  but  did  he  attri- 
bute the  Physiognomical  signs  of  which  he  had  spoken  to 
this  fact?  Nay,  he  did  not  so  much  as  think  it  worthy  of 
being  suggested  that  tobacco  was  injurious  to  the  human 
system,  and  must,  as  a  necessary  consequence,  do  much 
in  the  way  of  shortening  life.  Nor  did  he  make  the 
slightest  allusion  to  the  nature  of  the  food  on  which  the 


individuals  to  whom  he  referred  had  subsisted,  neither 
did  he  consider  it  within  his  province  to  refer  to  the 
tough-skinned  people's  general  habits.  Thus  we  see  men 
rlimbing  the  wall  of  science,  or  at  least  pretending  to  do 
so,  while  they  are  living  in  t,he  grossest  ignorance  of  the 
material  of  which  that  wall  is  constructed,  and  the  kind 
of  foundation  on  which  it  is  based. 

To  sustain  life  to  an  old  age  requires  in  man  or  animal 
strong  vital  powers,  in  order  that  the  system  in  all  its 
parts  may  be  furnished  with  a  sufficient  quantity  of  healthy 
blood;  for  without  a  sufficiency  of  healthy  blood  there  can 
be  no  harmonious,  healthy  action  of  the  faculties,  and  where 
this  healthy  action  of  the  faculties  does  not  take  place, 
that  physical  strength  which  is  necessary  for  long  endur- 
ance cannot  possibly  exist.  When  a  lamp  goes  out,  it  is 
because  it  lacks  combustible  substance,  viz,  oil;  and 
so  it  is  with  the  lamp  of  life.  When  a  man  dies  a  natural 
death,  the  proximate  cause  of  his  death  is  a  want  of  healthy 
blood  which  constitutes  the  substratum  of  human  life.  So 
long  as  the  body  is  supplied  with  good  blood,  so  long  does 
"the  lamp  hold  on  to  burn;"  but  once  this  ceases,  life 
dies  out,  "the  lamp"  has  lost  its  combustible  substance, 
and  can  "burn"  no  longer.  Now,  this  being  settled,  the 
question  naturally  comes  up,  "  Where  do  we  get  good 
blood,  and  of  what  is  it  made?"  We  answer,  good  blood 
is  made  of  good  food,  such  as  nature  has  provided  for 
us,  heartily  eaten,  and  properly  digested.  He  who  has  a 
capacious  stomach,  healthy  digestive  organs,  and  a  goo-j 


appetite,  possesses  most  unquestionably  the  fundamental 
essentials  of  a  long  life.     Experiments  have   often  been 
made,  both  on  men  and  animals,  and  in  every  instance 
it   has   been   found   that   long-lived    persons    have    large 
stomachs.     But,  then,  this  organ  can  be  damaged.     Indeed 
there     are    few     diseases    whose     beginnings     cannot    be 
traced  to  a  deranged  stomach.     Tobacco,  strong  tea,  strong 
coffee,  spirituous  liquors,  unwholesome  confectionaries,  and 
luxuries   of  almost   every  description,   invariably  derange 
the   stomach   and   weaken   digestion;   and   whatever  does 
this   must  inevitably   shorten  life.      Roundness    of   body 
and   largeness   of    mouth  are   always  signs   of    a    roomy 
stomach,  and   are   thus,   according   to   the   principles   laid 
down,   physiognomical   signs   of  longevity.      So    is    it  in 
plant  life.     The  small  lichen  which  can  grow  and  vegetate 
on  a  higher  altitude  than  any  other   plant,  is  round   in 
form  and  vigorous,  having  large  absorbing  as  well  as  cir- 
culatory powers.     It  has  strong  life-producing  organs,  and 
on  account  of  its  inherent  vitality,  can  endure  the  cold 
and  sustain   itself   in   places  where  plants   not   so   round 
in  form  would  wither  and  perish  in  a  few  hours.      The 
same  thing  is  true  of  animals.     Elephants  are  of  a  round 
construction,  with   large  mouths,  large  stomachs,  and  are 
noble   eaters;    and  it  is  admitted  by  all  naturalists  who 
know  anything  of  history,  that  these  animals  have  been 
known  to  live  as  long  as  240  years.     The  round  carp,  or 
gold-fish,  according  to   the   testimony  of  Buffon,  lives  to 
an    enormous   age.      He   mentions  two  which   he   himself 
had  seen,  one  of  which  was  150  and  the  other  200  years 
of  age,  and  pike  have  been  known  to  live   even   longer 
than  that;   while  the  tortoise,  remarkable   for  its  round- 
ness, with  excellent  digestive  organs,  sometimes   sustains 
life  during  four  full  centuries.     Birds,  too,  are  very  round 
and   able   to   digest  well — even   pebbles,   nails,  and   glass 
being  no  obstruction;  and  we  are  assured  by  naturalists 


that  there  have  been  instances  of  swans  living  over  300 

Now,  when  we  loot  at  those  animals  which  are  slim 
or  flat  in  form,  we  find  the  very  opposite  to  be  true.  Their 
stomachs  are  not  capacious,  thus  rendering  digestion  less 
enduring,  so  that,  comparatively  speaking,  they  die  at  an 
early  age.  The  common  rabbit  is  long,  thin,  and  flat,  and 
rarely  lives  beyond  ten  years.  The  giraffe  is  peculiarly 
tall  and  slim  of  build,  and  seldom  reaches  the  age  of 
twenty.  The  ox  and  the  horse  rarely  manage  to  live 
thirty  years,  especially  those  which  are  domesticated. 
Their  natural  habits  are  changed,  and  by  a  forced  manner 
of  feeding,  their  digestive  organs  become  extremely  weak, 
so  that  they  are  not  unfrequently  considered  old  at  twenty. 
Prolonged  life  is  dependent  upon  natural  law,  and  where 
natural  law  is  violated,  premature  death  cannot  but  ensue. 
We  have  met  with  several  men  who  were  over  100  years 
of  age;  these  were  in  various  parts  of  the  world,  and 
in  every  instance  they  were  of  medium  height,  had  large 
mouths,  were  round  in  form,  with  good  healthy  digestive 
organs,  attributable  to  plain  living  when  they  were  young. 
The  persons  of  whom  we  speak  were  also  very  temperate 
in  their  habits.  They  neither  smoked  nor  chewed  tobacco; 
they  were  thus  saved  from  throwing  off  their  saliva  and 
weakening  their  stomachs.  Only  one  of  them  used  coffee, 
and  he  only  once  per  day.  They  all  partook  of  tea,  but 
it  was  of  the  weakest  kind.  Confectionaries  they  avoided, 
and  when  they  were  younger  had  lived  much  in  the  open 
air.  They  wore  comfortable,  strong  clothing,  and  in  quan- 
tities sufficient  to  protect  them  from  cold,  while  they  took 
in  enough  of  pure  oxygen.  They  were  not  fleshy,  though 
of  round  build,  and  their  bones  had  been  strengthened  by 
industry,  and  the  character  of  their  food.  In  none  of  them 
was  there  the  slightest  appearance  of  that  species  of  tumor 


containing  pap  or  plaster -like  matter.  They  were  not 
atheromatous:  such  symptoms  being  found  only  where  the 
digestive  organs  are  not  good,  and  in  consequence  the 
blood  is  much  impaired.  Their  hearts  were  free  from 
fat,  their  lungs  strong  and  healthy,  and  their  external 
senses  were  good,  with  the  exception  of  two  persons  who 
were  a  little  deaf,  and  all  these  ever-to-be-envied  bodily 
conditions  were  the  natural  effects  of  a  powerful  nutritious 
system.  One  coloured  man  who  lived  in  Ohio,  and  was 
113  years  of  age,  had  all  the  special  senses  in  perfect 
order,  and  his  well-balanced  judgment  we  have  scarcely 
seen  equalled  among  men  of  forty.  Nor  was  there  one 
of  all  the  centenarians,  which  it  has  been  our  good  fortune 
to  see,  who  manifested  the  slightest  degree  of  dissatisfaction 
relative  either  to  their  age  or  circumstances.  Indeed,  a 
halo  of  commendable  resignation  seemed  to  surround  every 
one  of  them,  and  to  this  resignation,  or  rather  intelligent 
contentment,  they  were  much  indebted  for  their  long  life, 
as  nothing  is  more  conducive  to  healthy  digestion,  regu- 
larity of  bodily  secretions,  and  good  blood,  than  this  very 
rare  mental  quality.  Owing  to  their  temperate  and  in- 
dustrious habits,  the  nervous  system  was  never  deranged; 
and  this  being  the  case,  the  brain  and  nerve  form  was 
preserved  intact — the  importance  of  which  it  is  impossible 
to  over-estimate.  We  may  also  add  that  they  were  all 
married,  or  had  been,  which  contributed  not  a  little  to 
their  "length  of  days;"  for  while  matrimony  improper 
leads  to  ill-health  and  premature  death,  matrimony,  as 
nature  would  have  it,  ever  tends  to  longevity.  Thomas 
Parr,  who  died  at  the  advanced  age  of  152  years,  was 
examined  by  Harvey,  to  whom  the  world  is  indebted 
for  at  least  one  important  Physiological  discovery,  and 
according  to  Harvey's  account,  Parr's  bodily  organs  -were 
in  such  excellent  order  that,  but  for  tho  fact  that  he  was 


taken  to  London  to  visit  Charles  I.  and  his  Court,  and 
was  prevailed  upon  to  indulge  largely  in  cake,  wine,  and 
other  luxuries,  he  might  have  lived  fifty  years  longer. 
These  things,  however,  being  wholly  unsuitable  for  his 
system,  deranged  so  materially  and  rapidly  his  digestive 
organs,  that  he  died  before  he  had  time  to  return  home. 
Of  this  remarkable  man  Taylor  wrote  the  following  brief 
description : — 

"  His  limbs  their  strength  have  left, 
His  teeth  all  gone  (but  one)  his  sight  bereft, 
His  sinews  shrunk,  his  blood  most  chill  and  cold — 
Small  solace ;  imperfections  manifold 
Yet  still  his  sp'rits  possess  his  mortal  trunk; 
Nor  are  his  senses  in  his  ruins  shrunk, 
But  that  his  hearing's  quick,  his  stomach  good, 
He  '11  feed  well,  sleep  well,  well  digest  his  food. 
He  will  speak  heartily,  laugh,  and  be  merry; 
Drink  ale,  and  now  and  then  a  cup  of  cherry, 
Loves  company,  and  understanding  talk, 
And  on  both  sides,  held  up,  will  sometimes  walk; 
And  though  old  age  his  face  with  wrinkles  fill, 
He  hath  been  handsome,  and  is  comely  still; 
Well-faced,  and  though  his  beard  not  oft  corrected, 
Yet  neat  it  grows,  not  like  a  beard  neglected." 

The  portrait  of  Parr  which  is  given  on  page  180,  and 
which  we  feel  assured  our  readers  will  be  interested 
to  see,  is  from  a  likeness  by  Reubens.  It  was  painted 
when  Parr  was  140  years  of  age,  twelve  years  before  he 

The  conclusion  to  which  we  have  come,  then,  not  only 
from  personal  observation,  but  from  the  testimony  of  others 
who  have  made  experiments,  is,  that  roundness  of  form  and 
largeness  of  stomach,  indicated  by  a  corresponding  capacious- 
ness of  mouth,  are  unmistakable  Physiognomical  signs  of 
long  life;  because  where  these  are  we  find  as  a  natural 
consequence  healthy  digestion  and  strong  assimilative 
powers,  all  of  which  keep  the  human  system  in  good  repair, 


and  are  absolutely  necessary  to  longevity.  And  here  we 
may  give  without  comment  a  rule  to  determine  longevity, 
which  has  been  popular  among  German  doctors  for  more 
than  two  hundred  years. 

An  imaginary  or  real  line  can  be  run  from  the  lower 
portion  of  the  superciliary  ridge  to  the  occipital  point  or 
protuberance;  if  this  line  runs  high  above  the  opening 
of  the  ear  the  life  force  is  strong,  if  running  near  or 
over  the  opening  of  the  ear  the  life  force  is  weak  or  very 

It  may  be  objected  by  half-informed  religionists  that  a 
desire  for  long  life  is  in  direct  opposition  to  that  plain 
statement  in  the  sacred  Scriptures,  which  speaks  of  seventy 
years  as  the  term  of  human  life;  but  to  this  we  have  to 
reply  that  we  have  never  been  able  to  accept  that  statement 
as  unconditional.  The  foolishness  of  man  was  no  doubt 
apparent  to  the  author  of  the  statement,  and,  so  far  as  we 
can  judge,  he  merely  meant  to  say  that  the  habits  of  men, 
chiefly  evil,  stood  in  the  way  of  long  life,  and  that  so  long 
as  these  habits  were  unchanged,  generally  speaking,  seventy 
years  would  end  their  sublunary  days ;  but  let  the  habits 
of  men  be  changed ;  let  their  bodies  be  attended  to 
from  childhood  upwards  as  they  ought  to  be  attended  to ; 
let  all  narcotics,  whether  of  a  solid  or  liquid  nature,  be 
strenuously  kept  out  of  the  system;  thus  let  the  digestive 
organs  get,  what  we  call  in  common  parlance,  "fair  play," 
and  what  is  there  in  the  words  of  Israel's  poet  to  hinder 
any  man  from  living  twice  seventy  years  ?  Men  should  fall 
into  the  arms  of  death  as  they  fall  into  the  arms  of  sleep; 
but  the  evil  is  that  men  die  before  they  are  ripe  for  it. 
They  go  down  to  the  grave  before  their  time.  There  are 
two  ways  of  committing  suicide — suddenly  and  gradually — 
and  we  have  no  hesitation  in  saying  that  thousands  of  our 
fellow-men,  unconsciously  and  unintentionally,  of  course, 
practise  the  latter  daily — and  thus,  instead  of  hanging,  so  to 

speak,  on  the  tree  of  life  until  such  time  as  they  are  ripe, 
and  could  drop  off  decently,  like  luscious  pears  from  their 
branches,  they,  by  a  horrible  system  of  unintended  self- 
murder,  gradually  kv  iiuon  themselves  unholy  bands,  and 
die  not  decently,  but*  ;n«  very  rrv?vm. 

HENRY  BERGH,  founder  of  the  "  American  Society  for  the  Prevention 
of  Cruelty  to  Animals,"  whose  long  narrow  face  tells  of  his  philanthropic 
mind  ;  the  well  lined  and  clearly  denned  features  evidence  thorough  edu- 
cation, combined  with  noble  and  lofty  aspirations. 


THE  subject  of  one-sided  people  affords  a  wide  field  for 
thought  and  expression  ;  for  comparison,  conception,  and 
reform  ;  and  we  hardly  know  how  to  preface  a  subject  so 
prolific  with  the  excesses  of  natural  and  forced  deformity. 
But  we  can  conceive  of  no  enterprise  so  grand,  no  means 
so  noble,  no  undertaking  so  philanthropic,  as  that  which 
has  for  its  end  the  elevation  of  common  humanity.  It  is 
too  true  that  the  idiosyncracies  of  our  natures  sometimes 
seem  to  preclude  the  entire  possibility  of.  our  exercising 
the  charity  we  should  toward  the  shortcomings  of  our 
fellow-men.  We  forget  we  too  are  weak  and  dependent 
upon  others  for  our  own  success  and  progress  in  the  arts 
and  sciences,  and  every  scale  of  educational  refinement  ;  and 
in  reasoning  by  the  analogies  we  would  present,  we  find  we 
are  deficient  in  the  ncble  charities  of  thought  and  sentiment 
toward  our  one-sided  neighbours,  consequently  we  may  not 
be  judged  by  our  own  criticisms. 

We  are  much  inclined  to  forget  that  we  too  are  mortal. 
And  as  we  raise  our  standard,  which  would  make  our  fellow- 
men  perfect  men  and  women,  we  too  often  forget,  that  upoir 
our  faces  and  upon  our  physical  and  physiological  develop- 


ments  and  mental  acquirements,  are  stamped  the  characters 
we  represent,  and  we  are  as  a  walking  monument;  the 
whole  man  stands  out  as  an  open  book,  and  he  who  runs 
may  read. 

Could  we  know  ourselves,  and  see  ourselves  as  we  are 
seen,  methinks  that  a  spirit  of  reform  would  be  going  on 
in  every  nature,  and  we  would  strive  to  cast  the  beam  from 
our  own  eye,  that  we  might  the  more  easily  discern  the 
mote  in  our  neighbour's  eye. 

Nature  has  done  much  tc  deform  us,  and  we  are  suffering 

7  O 

from  the  sins  of  our  fathers  from  the  generations  past; 
while  neglect  does  not  make  us  any  better — does  not  apply 
the  healing  art — does  not  come  with  an  imperative  demand 
upon  us  that  we  exercise  all  our  own  moral  agency,  that 
we  might  make  use  of  all  within  our  powers,  and  be  careful 
to  avoid  many  of  the  excesses  of  life,  that  we  might  present 
ourselves  less  faulty  before  our  fellow-men. 

Which  of  us  shall  say,  I  am  without  spot  or  blemish 
devoid  of  all  deformities,  assuming  the  title  of  nobility 
belonging  only  to  the  perfect  man?  While  ignorant  mothers 
And  careless  nurses  dandle  children  in  such  excruciating 
attitudes,  is  it  any  wonder  that  they  are  deformed  in  person 
(scarce  half  made  up),  crooked  in  all  the  traits  of  manhood, 
one-sided  in  actions  and  dealings  with  fellow-men,  and  all 
the  result  of  ignorant  nursery  treatment. 

We  will  notice  some  of  the  imperfections,  their  causes 
and  tendencies.  Not  one  person  in  a  thousand  is  in  perfect 
form,  from  some  cause,  direct  or  indirect,  moulding  us  to 
honour  or  dishonour — stamping  the  signet  upon  our  mental, 
moral,  and  physical  natures.  Our  cruel  nurses  commence 
to  torment  us  by  holding  us  too  long  on  one  arm,  and  keep 
us  lying  too  much  on  one  side;  this  has  a  tendency  to 
deform  us.  Holding  our  heads  too  low,  too  much  blood 
comes  to  the  brain;  the  bones  and  skull  are  soft  at  this 
tender  period,  they  are  easily  put  out  of  shape.  The  brain 


settles  on  one  side  of  the  head,  the  form  is  twisted  to  one 
side,  and  the  features  are  drawn  out  of  shape. 

As  the  result  of  ill-treatment,  we  trace  imperfections  and 
deformities  in  our  fellow-men.  Some  we  see  with  one 
lung  better  developed  than  the  other,  one  shoulder  higher 
than  the  other,  one  corner  of  the  mouth  higher  than  the 
other  and  drawn  aside,  one  eye-brow  arched  higher  than  the 
other;  the  eyes  are  nob  horizontal  and  one  is  partly  closed, 
the  nose  is  not  in  a  straight  line  with  the  face.  We  also 
notice  the  beard  to  grow  heavier  on  one  side  of  the  face 
than  the  other,  as  the  result  of  lying  too  much  on  one  side 
while  sleeping;  it  hinders  the  circulation  of  the  blood,  thus 
diminishing  the  activity  and  energy  of  that  side,  making 
many  subjects  for  paralysis,  heart  disease,  and  very  many 
ailments  to  which  flesh  is  heir.  This  should  not  be  prac- 
tised, everybody  should  change  sides  every  night;  we  used 
to  change  our  old-fashioned  round-toed  shoes  every  morning 
to  make  them  wear  longer ;  so  people  will  wear  longer  who 
change  sides  in  sleeping.  Those  husbands  who  insist  upon 
having  their  wives  sleep  on  the  back  side  of  the  bed,  and 
are  never  willing  to  take  it  themselves  and  let  their  wives 
come  to  the  front,  are  making  both  their  wives  and  them- 
selves one-sided,  when  turn  about  each  night  would  equalize 
the  affair,  and  be  a  sure  correction  of  the  evil  which  too 
often  prevails. 

A  well-balanced  body  and  brain  are  indispensably  neces- 
sary to  a  well-balanced  mind,  and  a  violation  of  any  law 
of  nature  criminates  us;  we  stand  as  culprits  at  the 
great  tribunal  of  our  conscience,  to  answer  for  the  mental, 
moral,  and  physical  sufferings.  It  is  well  known  that  any 
violation  of  the  laws  of  nature  makes  one-sided  people,  and 
one-sidedness  tends  to  insanity,  so  the  majority  of  persons 
with  whom  we  mingle  from  day  to  day  are  partially  insane. 

It  is  related  of  Dr.  Wigham,  who  attended  the  grave  of 
Queen  Charlotte,  that  he  said  he  had  seen  her  buried  before; 


he  never  had,  for  she  was  buried  only  once.  One  side  of  his 
brain  was  larger  than  the  other,  he  took  two  impressions  of 
the  burial,  the  larger  half  of  his  organization  taking  the  im- 
pression first,  and  the  lesser  instantly  after,  which  is  double 
consciousness.  One  form  of  insanity  after  another  comes  up 
before  us,  asking  our  forbearance,  imploring  our  aid. 

These  questions,  like  deep-seated  tumours,  require  the 
delicate  and  artistic  touch  of  a  skilful  surgery,  or  else  their 
life  is  surely  imperilled.  There  is  no  place  for  quackery 
here,  "the  diagnosis",  is  beyond  the  ken  of  pretentious 

We  have  to  deal  with  mind  and  character;  minds  as 
varying  as  the  changing  colours  of  the  chameleon,  and 
characters  which  need  the  polish  of  true  society,  and  all  its 
educational  refinements  which  their  capacity  will  hold;  yet 
in  spite  of  our  endeavours  to  educate  and  refine,  the  cloven 
foot  will  present  itself. 

The  dignity  of  man  and  his  superior  qualities,  his  nobi- 
lity, and  his  sovereignty,  has  been  from  time  immemorial  the 
orator's  theme  and  the  poet's  song,  and  yet  his  overbearing 
nature  and  one-sided  propensities  have  been  touched  upon 
very  lightly.  He  loves  money,  and  grinds  the  faces  and  pulls 
out  the  very  heart-strings  of  the  operative  and  employee. 

Oh!  with  what  conscience  can  such  a  man  enjoy  the 
wealth  wrung  from  the  finger-ends  of  the  seamstress,  as  in 
the  gloomy  attic,  by  the  midnight  candle,  she  wastes  her 
life,  strains  her  eyes  and  heartstrings  to  earn  a  miserable 
pittance  that  just  suffices  to  keep  the  life-pulse  beating;  and 
yet  these  parvenues  claim  respectability. 

With  peacock  pride  they  spread  their  ostentatious  plum- 
mage,  flaunt  their  snobbery,  and  parade  their  ginger-bread 
aristocracy  in  the  faces  of  honest  men.  Ah!  and  "with 
devout  visage  and  pious  act"  pharisaically  take  the  name 
of  the  Sav  iour  upon  their  lips.  And  what  a  miserably  one- 
sided man  is  the  miser! 


"  Proud  fame's  a  stranger  to  his  blinded  eyeo, 
He  ne'er  has  seen  her  gilded  dome  arise ; 
Oh  no !  poor  man,  loth  to  release  his  hold, 
Sees  nothing,  knows  no  God— but  gold. 

"  While  to  his  base  desire  he  serves  as  slave ; 
Ambition's  summit  is  to  him  to  crave 
A  glittering  dust,  and  with  outstretched  hand 
Grasps  in  the  shining  particles  of  sand. 

•*  He  weeps,  he  starts,  he  fancies  footsteps  near, 
And  grasping  with  both  hands  his  treasures  dear; 
He  hears  them  coming,  hears  them  whisper  low  1 
His  fancies  wild  tell  him — '  They'll  rob  me  now.' 

"  One  foot  advanced— one  hand  above  his  head. 
He  invokes  the  pious  blessings  of  the  dead  ; 
Calls  on  his  God    but  surely  knows  not  why- 
He  knows  no  God  but  gold— he  fears  to  die. 

**  Repulsive,  cold,  he'd  friendship's  rights  disclaim. 
And  Charity  he  spurns  from  him,  '  poor  dame; ' 
Refusing  aught,  whoe'er  the  stranger  be, 
Lest  Heaven  should  smile  and  bless  his  charity." 

How  grand  are  the  works  of  creation!  what  a  vast  field 
for  thought  and  speculation  to  the  thinking  mind.  The 
Great  Mind  has  created  all  things  for  us,  and  given  us 
minds  to  appreciate  them,  and  souls  to  love  them;  it  has 
adorned  the  heavens  with  stars,  and  carpeted  the  earth 
with  flowers;  it  has  strewn  all  along  our  pathway  ten 
thousand  blessings  and  evidences  of  our  immortality.  Who 
has  not  felt  the  force  of  the  fable,  that  when  man  asked 
Jove  to  give  him  evidence  of  his  immortality,  Jove  gave 
him  "  Music."  And  who  can  doubt?  Who  that  delights  in 
song,  and  has  stood  with  wonder-stricken  awe,  in  the 
spacious  corridor  of  the  Cathedral  of  St.  Isaac  at  St.  Peters- 
burg, St.  Peter's  at  Rome,  or  St.  Paul's  in  London, — how 
have  we  listened  to  the  organ's  plaintive  strains  rising 
higher  and  higher,  until  music  sweet  filled  each  vaulted 
niche,  then  to  the  ear  again;  then  higher,  still  higher  rise 


the  pealing  tones  of  thunder,  giving  expression  to  the 
symphony,  then  bursting  forth  in  all  tne  strains  of  har- 
mony, loud,  long,  exultingly.  Our  minds  thus  reach  up  to 
Jehovah,  and  we  are  touched  by  the  breath  of  inspiration, 
\Vhoshall  then  deny  our  immortality,  or  limit  our  progres- 
sion in  this  world  or  the  world  to  come? 

If  our  minds  are  not  poisoned  with  "  one-sided  theology" 
we  can  admit  that  the  laws  of  progress  were  not  formed  for 
this  world  alone,  that  the  mind  of  a,  Newton,  and  the  mind 
of  a  child  shall  not  remain  the  same  for  ever,  but  the  end 
shall  be  as  the  beginning  was — God  and  progress. 

Say  not  that  the  soul  perishes  at  the  portal  of  the  tomb, 
but  reason  with  your  one-sided  minds  until  you  say  we 
shall  with  angel  architects  and  artists  arrange  and  re-arrange 
castle  after  castle,  where  science,  skill,  and  mind,  and 
art  are  required  to  draw  the  lines  of  beauty  and  make 
almost  tangible  all  the  fairy  castles  made  in  our  faith  for 
future  occupancy. 

The. last,  and  the  very  meanest  thint*  in  all  the  one-sided 
category,  is  the  "Politician,"  the  aspirant  for  fame;  he  is 
ushered  into  the  political  arena,  they  laud  and  fondle  him 
at  the  nominating  caucus;  he  has  money  (it  does  not  matter 
how  he  got  it),  he  responds  nobly, — (says,  he  can't  make 
much  of  a  speech),  but  here,  "take  these  greenbacks,  and 
do  the  best  you  can  for  me." — Thank  you.  They  are 

"  Eloquent  in  song,  and  to  nature  true." 

He  has  more  of  the  "  dust  which  fools  adore  and  call  a  God" 
than  brains,  so  of  course  he  is  elected  to  the  high  and 
honourable  position  of  legislator  or  senator. 

He  boasts  that  his  seat  cost  him  over  fifty  thousand 
dollars,  and  he  carries  the  votes  of  about  four  members  in 
his  pantaloons  pocket.  If  he  has  talents,  he  can  spread 
himself  like  a  green  bay  tree  for  a  season ;  but  he  is  likely 
to  be  nipped  by  the  first  frotst  of  the  coming  autumn;  h* 


can  boast  if  he  chooses  of  the  Honourable  title  he  bears> 
that  his  aspirations  are  gratified,  his  presumption  more 
than  realized;  but  his  fame  is  not  lasting,  it  is  not  worth 
the  price  he  paid  for  it;  he  was  elected  by  his  "  one-sided" 
constituents,  and  they  still  continue  to  be  one-sided  towards 
him  (on  the  side  he  carries  his  money),  and  he,  to  carry 
on  the  joke  in  retaliation,  having  succeeded  in  attaining 
his  high  position  of  honour,  has  no  more  use  for  his  con- 
stituents, and  of  course  takes  the  other  side  of  the  street, 
and  they  call  him  one-sided  for  trying  to  avoid  the  crowd. 

Men  generally  would  rather  aspire  to  honour,  and  make 
money,  than  cultivate  their  minds.  Mammon  is  the  one- 
sided god  of  this  world,  and  the  world  will  love  its  own. 
The  rich  man  is  to  be  pitied  rather  than  envied,  if  he 
has  nothing  but  his  money.  Homer,  it  is  true,  was  a 
beggar,  and  Milton  sold  his  Paradise  Lost  for  five  'pounds 
sterling,  and  yet  what  Croesus  has  such  immortal  honours 
as  they? 

Let  us  cultivate  our  minds,  try  and  get  the  warp  all 
out  of  them.  Let  us  learn  to  think  for  ourselves,  act  and 
reason  for  ourselves.  Let  us  feed  the  inner  life  with 
heavenly  manna,  and  bask  in  the  sunlight  of  our  wt-Ll- 
cultured  intelligence.  "  Knowledge  is  power,"  and  is  never 
lost;  every  idea  we  gain  here,  every  talent  we  improve, 
will  set  us  ahead  in  the  spiritual  life,  where  angels  will 
be  our  teachers.  It  is  an  indispensable  doctrine  of  the 
Scriptures,  that  the  allotment  of  the  ransomed  shall  be  in 
proportion  to  their  attainments  here. 

We  are  candidates  for  a  prize,  wrestlers  for  a  diadem. 
Life  is  a  compound  of  the  material  and  spiritual,  by  virtue 
of  necessity.  To  most  men  it  is  largely  material,  but  little 
spiritual.  The  spiritual  is  not  sufficiently  cultivated. 
The  life  to  come  will  be  a  spiritual  life,  and  if  we  culti- 
vate the  mind,  the  spiritual  here,  and  in  proportion  as 
we  cultivate  it,  we  shall  be  prepared  for  the  great  here- 


after.     Let  us  avoid  being  one-sided  at  all  times;  let  u« 
learn  to  be  philosophers,  and 

"  Do  good,  let  those  who  will  be  clever 
Do  noble  things,  not  dream  them  all  day  long, 
And  make  life,  death,  and  the  vast  for  ever 
One  grand  sweet  song." 

MGrey friar's  Bobby."    A  remarkable  dog,  that  guarded  his  master'* 
grave  with  unswerving  fidelitj  for  upwards  of  thirteen 
in  Edinburgh,  Scotland. 


ANIMALS  which  produce  young  of  precisely  the  same  form 
and  colour  as  the  parents,  will  be  found  to  continue  or 
the  same  plane  of  life  as  their  progenitors;  while  animal? 
which  produce  young  differing  in  colour  from  the  parents, 
are  capable,  by  the  laws  of  nature,  of  improving  in  body 
and  intelligence.  Those  animals  which  had  their  origin 
in  Circassia  are  progressive,  and  their  varied  colour  in  the 
same  species  is  evidence  that  they  can  change;  and  pro- 
gression requires,  as  it  implies  change. 

The  common  apple  has  ever  been  found  where  the  white 
race  live,  and  each  flourishes  equally  in  temperate  climates, 
having  had  their  origin  in  the  same  atmosphere  where  the 
soil,  and  heat,  and  cold  have  the  same  influence  ;  so,  having 
sprung  from  the  same  causes,  their  effects  cannot  vary. 
Hence  what  effects  one  favourably,  must  of  necessity 
generously  improve  the  other. 

Of  all  fruits  none  is  so  commonly  cultivated  by  the 
white  race  as  the  apple.  It  has  amongst  fruits  the  earliest, 
widest,  and  most  interesting  history.  According  to  all 
accounts,  either  sacred  or  profane,  this  hardy  fruit  appeared 
about  the  same  time  as  the  white  or  varied  race,  and  has 
been  carried  with  them  in  their  migrations  to  the  remotest 
latitudes  of  the  globe.  Theophrastus  classed  it  amongst 
the  more  civilized  fruits  (urbaniores) ;  Tacitus  described 
it  as  the  favourite  fruit  of  the  ancient  Germans.  A 


shrivelled  apple  was  obtained  from  one  of  the  lake 
dwellings  of  Switzerland.  Ulysses  and  Solomon  praise  its 
juices;  Tantalus  grasps  anxiously  for  it  in  Hades;  Iduna 
keeps  in  a  box  apples  which  the  gods,  when  they  feel  old 
age  approaching,  have  only  to  taste  to  become  young  again. 
The  legends  of  all  ages,  since  the  white  race  began,  have 
recorded  evidence  of  the  existing  apple.  The  mythology 
of  the  temperate  climates  often  refer  to  this  fruit.  Thus, 
from  what  can  be  gathered  from  history,  we  may  conclude 
that  this  fruit  has  been  transplanted  to,  and  flourished  in, 
all  the  localities  and  climates  where  the  white  race  has 
made  a  pleasant  home.  This  fruit  rarely  produces  from 
the  seeds  the  same  colour,  taste,  flavour,  and  shape  as 
the  parent  stock.  In  this  principle  the  apple  is  precisely 
like  the  ox,  horse,  dog,  goat,  cat  and  other  domestic  animals, 
all  of  which  originated  in  the  same  climate,  and  about 
the  same  time  where  and  when  man's  origin  is  dated. 

The  dog  has  been  largely  improved  under  the  intelligent 
management  of  man.  The  horse  never  could  shew  more 
fine  points  of  make,  or  trot  a  mile  in  less  time  than  during 
the  past  year.  The  high  rate  of  speed  attained  by  this 
animal  is  attributed  by  horsemen  to  the  improving  effects  of 
breeding.  The  ox  has  risen  to  a  high  state  of  domestic 
usefulness  under  the  influences  of  man's  observation  and 
guidance.  So  we  could  say  of  all  the  animals  living  with 
the  Caucasian  race  in  a  domestic  state.  But  the  signs  of 
improvement  are  what  we  are  seeking.  These  can  be  based 
on  the  great  principle  inherent  in  the  white  race  of  man- 
kind Wherever  the  children  or  offspring  follow  undevia- 
tingly  the  colour  of  their  parentage,  we  may  rest  assured 
that  nature  has  made  only  one  channel  or  groove  in  which 
that  species  is  to  run ;  and  what  nature  designed  to  be,  no 
man  can  long  thwart.  Nature  has  fixed  her  moults  on  all 
her  wonderful  works,  and  they  can  properly  bt  understood 
only  by  the  student  of  nature. 


Where  nature  has  allowed  a  departure,  and  even  provided 
for  a  variety  in  colour,  which  is  only  the  significant  banner 
of  the  inherent  laws  which  govern  and  regulate  animal 
life;  there  man  can,  by  studying  the  governing  principles, 
so  apply  them  that  more  variety  and  an  improved  condition 
cm  be  produced,  which  will  be  vastly  superior  to  the  fore- 
gone generations  of  that  species. 

This  law  applies  with  equal  force  to  apples,  peaches, 
pears,  and  all  fruits  where  the  seedling  varies  in  colour, 
flavour,  and  size  from  the  parent  stock;  for  any  law  in 
nature  is  just  as  true  to  her  banner  or  outward  signs  in  the 
vegetables  in  the  animal  kingdom. 

JOHN  HENRY  B.  IHVING,  an  English  actor  of  great  celebrity,  whose 
face  shows  remarkable  self-control,  critical  interest  in  the  engrossing 
topics  of  the  day,  a  vice-like  memory  which  never  relaxes  its  grip  on 
whatever  it  seizes. 


As  nature  never  made  a  face  for  physiognomical  purposes 
alone,  so  also  she  has  not  formed  a  body  of  special  shape 
to  indicate  simply  its  peculiar  adaptations.  The  primary 
intention  of  nature  would  seem  to  be  necessity.  None 
would  be  so  stupid  as  to  claim  that  it  was  necessary 
an  animal  should  be  of  long,  slim  form,  simply  that  man 
might  be  able  to  tell  what  its  capacities  were.  Necessity  is 
a  higher  law  in  the  designs  of  nature  than  pleasure.  It 
is  true  it  might  afford  to  many  a  pleasure  to  be  able  to 
discern  all  the  peculiarities  of  an  animal  by  its  outward 
form.  But  nature,  in  her  great  beneficence,  is  true  to  her 
own  needs  first,  and  thus  begins  with  charity  at  home. 

If  we  were  to  make  an  engine  roll  over  a  railroad  track 
at  the  speed  of  sixty  miles  per  hour,  we  would  construct  it 
on  the  light,  slim  principle.  The  driving  wheels  should  be 
large  in  circumference,  piston-rods  having  a  long  stroke, 
and  light  and  slim  rather  than  thick.  If  we  wished  an 
engine  to  run  twenty  miles  per  hour,  and  pull  a  long  freight 
train  of  immense  weight,  we  would  form  it  on  an  entirely 
different  plan  from  the  swift-running  but  weaker  engine. 
The  plan  for  strength  is  breadth  and  heft.  The  wheels 
should  be  low.  The  piston-stroke  short,  and  thickness  and 
heft  should  enter  into  its  design  very  largely, 


Now,  nature  acts  with,  more  wisdom  than  man — never 
less ;  therefore,  when  she  wishes  an  animal  for  great  action 
and  less  strength,  she  builds  the  legs  long  and  slim,  the 
body  is  long  and  narrow,  the  tail,  alike  with  the  bead,  is 
long  and  thin  also,  and  when  all  parts  are  thus  formed,  the 
muscles,  having  great  length  of  body  in  which  to  contract, 
give  quick  pulling  upon  the  tendons,  they  acting  quickly 
upon  the  slim,  light  bones,  move  them  rapidly,  and  agility 
is  the  result.  Thus  can  we  discover  that  the  great  law  oi 
proportion  in  animals  is  true  as  in  mechanics;  that  propor- 
tionately as  motion  is  increased  action  is  diminished. 
Hence,  by  no  difficult  process  of  reasoning,  we  arrive  at  the 
conclusion,  that  animals  constructed  on  the  broad  plan,  like 
the  lion,  tiger,  gorilla,  crocodile,  and  elephant  are  strong; 
while  we  as  effectually  learn  that  animals  of  the  long, 
narrow  build,  are  agile.  Man,  being  subject  to  these  same 
natural  laws  as  animals  are,  when  constructed  on  the  same 
plan,  will  possess  the  identical  qualities  and  powers;  there- 
fore WQ  at  once  and  for  all  decide  that  a  man  of  tall,  slim, 
or  short,  slim  build,  is  naturally  brisk  and  sprightly  of 
motion.  We  just  as  soundly  decide  that  a  man  who  is  five 
feet  high,  and  weighs  two  hundred  and  fifty  pounds  will 
generally  move  slowly.  As  an  example,  take  Weston,  the 
rapid  walker  of  America,  who  walked  one  hundred  and 
twelve  miles  in  less  than  twenty-four  consecutive  hours, 
and  four  hundred  miles  in  five  succeeding  days.  He  is 
a  slim,  tall  man. 

General  Washington  was  built  on  the  tall,  slim  plan,  and 
history  records  it  as  a  fact  that  he  was  an  excellent  runner, 
and  could  jump  twenty-two  feet  at  a  single  bound. 

General  Sherman  is  tall  and  slim,  and  no  more  indus- 
trious and  quick-motioned  man  entered  the  American  army 
during  the  late  rebellion. 

The  proofs  of  this  truth  in  Physiognomy  are  in  nearly 
every  household  in  America.  Take  that  lubberly,  round, 


stout,  and  short  boy,  and  see  his  slow  movements,  and  how 
he  loves  his  ease,  while  that  tiny,  light,  slim,  little  girl  is 
all  vivacity  and  sprightliness. 

The  most  active  animal  of  the  domestic  circle  is  the  grey- 
hound, and  how  slim  his  legs,  long  his  tail,  gaunt  his  body, 
outstretched  his  neck,  and  pointed  and  far-reaching  his 

The  best  Physiognomical  sign  of  quickness  is  a  long  and 
pointed  nose.  Animals  and  men  with  long,  thin-pointed 
noses  are  formed  on  the  active,  slim  plan  in  every  depart- 
ment of  their  natures  and  bodily  build. 

There  is  less  action  in  animals  that 'hybernate  than  is 
found  among  most  others.  The  black  bear  is  a  hybernating 
animal,  and  is  characterized  for  strength  and  the  destructive 
qualities  attending  the  broad  build  more  than  for  nimble- 
ness.  The  marmot  (Arctomys  Marmotta}  enters  into  the 
lethargic  hybernating  state  about  the  middle  of  September, 
and  does  not  emerge  from  it  until  sometime  about  the 
beginning  of  April.  The  marmot  is  of  thick  and  clumsy 
form,  very  strong  and  not  very  active. 

The  urson  has  a  short  nose  and  moves  slowly. 

The  kaolo,  or  Australian  bear  (Phascolarctos  cinereus), 
uses  great  deliberation  in  climbing  a  tree.  The  toes  and 
feet  of  the  animal  are  well  adapted  for  the  slow,  but  sure 
mode  in  which  he  progresses  among  the  branches  of  a  tree, 
and  are  less  useful  when  making  his  slow  terrestrial  pro- 
gress. His  nose  is  exceedingly  short. 

The  animal  most  known  among  African  hunters,  as 
possessed  of  marvellous  speed,  is  the  gazelle  (Gazella 
Dorcas')  and  the  Gazella  Ariel.  Their  whole  make-up  is 
remarkably  slim,  thin,  and  in  a  manner  adapted  to  rapid 
change  of  position. 

In  contrast  to  the  last-mentioned  animal,  we  would  call 
attention  to  the  sloth  (Bradypus  tridaetylus),  a  tardigrade 
edentate  mammal  of  the  genus  Bradypus.  The  name 


indicates  the  peculiar  characterizing  trait  of  the  animal, 
as  sluggishness  and  laziness  are  its  natural  birthright,  for 
no  living  animal  is  equally  inert  and  torpid.  The  whole 
form  is  short,  broad,  strong,  and  consequently  of  a  lumpish 
and  exanimate  disposition.  The  existing  species  of  sloth 
is  arboreal;  but  many  of  the  extinct  kinds  were  huge 
terrestrial  animals. 

The  wombat  (Phascolomya  ursinus)  has  a  very  heavy 
body  and  short  legs,  and  in  its  gait  has  a  rolling  waddle 
much  resembling  the  lurching  of  a  sailing  vessel  when  in  a 
storm.  The  muzzle  is  quite  broad  and  thick.  It  is  an 
apathetic  animal.  ' 

The  coati,  or  Coati  Alondi  (Narua  Ruia},  has  a  nose  and 
head  much  resembling  that  of  the  Persian  greyhound,  and 
no  animal  can  ascend  or  descend  a  tree  in  less  than  twice 
the  time  it  requires  to  do  so.  It  being  a  nocturnal  animal, 
its  agility  and  rapidity  of  movement  is  only  seen  as  the 
shades  of  evening  descend  or  at  the  dawn  of  morning. 

The  chaeropus  (Ghaeropus  constanotis)  has  also  a  very 
long  and  pointed  nose,  and  is  remarkably  active. 

The  weasel  (Nustela  vulgaris)  is  rarely  equalled  by  any 
animal  in  nimbleness,  and  the  sparkling  eye  and  slim  form 
bespeak  the  active  faculty. 

The  long,  active  stoat,  or  ermine  (Mustela  erminea),  with 
its  agile  limbs  and  sharp  teeth,  can  kill  a  hare  with  ease, 
and  is  a  terror  to  rats  and  mice;  and  chickens  and  ducks 
suffer  considerably  from  its  inroads.  Its  size  is  not  much 
more  than  that  of  a  common  rat;  but  its  superiority  is  in 
its  pertinacious  skill  in  pursuing  all  its  game,  its  eagerness, 
and  agility. 

We  should  think  those  proofs  from  the  animal  world 
must  be  sufficient  to  satisfy  observing  and  reasoning  minds